White collar crime

As far as the field of criminology is concerned, the term white collar crime can be defined as a crime committed by an individual who is respectable in the society and has a high social status. The person commits a crime while in hisher work place. According to Sutherland (1949), the behaviour of committing a crime is emulated through interacting interpersonally with others. Hence, the term white collar crime extends beyond a corporate crime as embezzlement, forgery and computer theft is more pronounced among white collar employees.

The term white collar crime was first coined by Professor Edwin Sutherland back in the year 1949. He hypothesized that those who commit white collar crimes had different motives and characteristics as compared to common street criminals. Sutherland proposed his theory while addressing the sociological society of America. He was attempting to carry out a study in two fields high society and crime even though they lacked past empirical correlation.

Definitional aspects of white collar crime
According to the type of white collar offence, for example, economic crime, property crime or law violations of health and safety, an appropriate aspect of definition can be arrived at. There are some offences which can only happen because of the offenders identity. A good example is the transnational laundering of money which requires the involvement of senior personnel working in the banks. On the other hand, the Federal Bureau of Investigations has come up with a constricted approach, regarding white collar crimes as those deeds that are illegal which are associated with deceit, trust violation or concealment which does not depend upon the threat or application of physical violence or force (Geis, 1995).

This kind of approach is comparatively persistent within the United States the keeping of records does not effectively gather data on the socioeconomic status of criminals which, as a result, complicates evaluation of research and policy. While the real level and cost of white collar crime remain unknown, it is approximated to cost the United States not less than 300 billion per year as far as Federal Bureau of Investigation is concerned.

The white collar crime can also depend on the type of the offender. For example, it can depend on the social class, or advanced socioeconomic status, the jobs of profession or trust, or qualifications academically, conducting research on motivations of the criminal behaviour, for example greed or fear of economic difficulties. Therefore the only manner in which one crime can differ from the other is through the characteristics as well as backgrounds of the perpetrators. A good number of offenders of white collar crime are differentiated privileges of their lives.

Those crimes that are committed in the course of occupation  to encourage personal interests, for example, by changing records and charging more, or the professionals deceiving the clients, depends on the culture of the organization and not the offender. Another crime that depends on the nature of the organization is the corporate crime which is experienced corporate professionals commits acts of crime for the benefit of their organizations through overcharging, false advertisement or price fixing.

Major debates on white collar crimes
During the old days  which can be referred to as good or bad old days, a very limited number of white collar criminals expected longer prison sentences after being convicted of fraud. Very many famous white collar criminals could not serve more than two years imprisonment.

Contrary to that, almost all the white collar criminals of today can serve some significant time in prison, more so if they get convicted, once a criminal trial has been performed and not necessarily after pleading guilty. Even though financial losses as a result of white collar crimes are very large as compared to common street crime, the conventional judiciary system has laid much emphasis on the latter.

Past studies reveals that citizens have the likelihood of giving support to punitive measure on street crime and not white collar crime. The public awareness on white collar crime has been increased by the recent scandals, but one cannot tell whether the public attitudes have been changed or not. Criminologists provide various explanations about white collar crime, but their approach to these explanations is common with all of them.

They normally commence with a disciplinary school of thought, for example psychology or sociology. This should not be the only starting point which can be considered, but its also important as the white collar crime study has a good number of complicated definitional aspects, and hence a school of thought comprises the initial starting point for many scholars. The level of analysis also poses another problem. The conventional levels of analysis for several scientific explanations are micro, meso and macro.

According to Reiman (1998), there are other interesting words to describe these levels, but the macro explanation level targets to give an explanation of the major causes of something within a society. The meso level attempts to find the middle ground, which is usually the organizational level in the study of white collar crime. The last level which is the micro level explains the personality level. It is responsible for focusing exclusively in the inner functioning of the minds of offenders individually. Most white collar criminology of America has been at the meso level.

There has been a debate for many years on whether a general theory can be proposed that explains both street crimes and white collar crimes. In criminology, the existence of such theories is not there. It might be important to mention a general theory might be able to give an explanation not only to different kinds of crimes, but avail similar reasons why men and women, and majorities and minorities commit crime. This is specifically a tall order and gives an explanation why a good number of criminologists on specialize in one of offender or crime.

On the other hand, there are some who approach the white collar crime study from a victimological or criminalization point of view. Both of these people have the likelihood of perpetuating the incessant definitional arguments within the field, the specialists of criminalization because they brood over why very few white collar offenders get caught, and the specialists of criminalization because they claim that there is no effective grasp of the impact.

Theories of crime
The two theories that the paper is going to talk about are the social learning theory and the strain theory.

Comparison between social learning and strain theories
According to the social learning theory, people learn to involve themselves in a crime, mainly through their interaction with others. They are hardened for a crime, they get to know believes that favour a crime, they get an exposure to models of crimes. Consequently, they come to have that notion that crime is something that is necessary or at least justifiable in certain conditions.
According to the strain theory, people do engage in criminal activities because they are usually under strain or stress. They may involve in crime to minimize or try to evade the stress they are experiencing. For instance, they may involve in violence to stop others from harassing them, they may rob to ease financial problems or escape from homes to run away from cruelty of their parents. They might also participate in criminal activities as revenge to those who wronged them. At the same time, others take illicit drugs for them to feel better.

The fundamental version of theory of social learning in criminology is that proposed by Ronald Akers and the explanation that follows heavily depends on his work. As a result Akerss theory gives a clear explanation of the differential association theory presented by Edwin Sutherland.
There are two types of strain that are addressed by Agnew. The first which can lead to crime is when one is prevented by others from attaining hisher goals. The second one is when things that one values are taken away from himher by others. While strain might be as a result of ones failure of attaining a number of goals, Agnew with others centres on the failure to attain three goals that are related. These are status, money and for the case of adolescents the adults autonomy.

As far as social learning theory is concerned, offenders learn to participate in crime in a similar manner they learn to participate in conforming behaviour. That is through exposure or interaction with others. Intimate or fundamental groups such as peer group and the family have an extensive effect on what we learn. Mostly, interaction with delinquent friends is the best delinquency predictor and not prior delinquency. Nevertheless, one does not need to directly engage with others in order to learn from them. For instance, one may learn to involve in violence from simply observing others do so through the media (Geis, 1995).

A good portion of social learning theory comprises an explanation of the three techniques by which people learn to involve in crime from others. These techniques are beliefs, differential reinforcement and modelling.

Other people may not only advocate for crime, but they may as well teach the beliefs that favour crime. A good number of individuals are of course taught that crime is not good. They usually agree to internalize this kind of belief, and there chances of engaging in criminal activities are reduced as a result. However, a few other individuals learn beliefs that promote criminal activities and there chances of getting involved in crime are thus increased.

One thing is that individuals generally endorse of certain forms of crime that are minor for example certain types of consensual sexual behaviour, use of soft drugs, gambling and alcohol abuse for adolescents and curfew violation. The second thing is that some individuals conditionally endorse or legalises certain forms of criminal activities, some serious crimes included. These people have a mentality that crime is generally not good, but some activities of crime are desirable and justifiable in one way or another. As an example many people will agree that fighting is wrong, but it is desirable if one has been provoked or insulted. There are arguments by several theories that specific groups in our society (more so young, lower class minority male) are likely to view violence as a desirable action towards many insults and provocations.     

Differential reinforcement
People may teach their colleagues to participate in crimes via the punishments provided for misbehaviour. There are high chances of crime when the crime is often punished and when there is a large degree of reinforcement. In a reinforcement that is positive, the behaviour leads to something good. While in reinforcements that are negative the behaviour leads to eradication of something bad. This is a punisher is avoided or removed.

The social learning theory suggests that some people will appreciate climates in which crime is less likely to be punished. For instance parents who have anxious children does not punish them but instead encourage their aggressive behaviour. Or the pals of an adolescent may reinforce the use of drugs.

Imitation of models of crime
Sometimes, ones behaviour also depends on the behaviour of the people surrounding himher. In many cases, people frequently imitate or emulate others behaviour, more so when they respect these others and are sure that emulating their behaviour will lead to reinforcement.
The strain theory version that is most recent that was proposed by Robert Agnew strongly draws on past versions of strain theory. However, Agnew addresses some other forms of strain that were not addressed in the past versions and avails a much comprehensive discussion of the situations under which the chances of strain leading to crime are high.

Factors influencing the impact of strain on crime
Events and conditions which are stressful make individuals feel unwell. These feelings that are unwell mounts pressure for a corrective action. This usually brings about frustration and anger, which encourages the individual for the action, create a revenge desire and make the inhibitions to go down. There are several techniques that can be used to cope with these negative reactions. Theorists of strain try to explain those factors that increase the chances of a delinquent response.

A part from other things, the chances of stain leading to delinquency among people of poor coping techniques are high. Some individuals can easily cope with strain than others. For instance, they have verbal tactics to dialogue with others or financial capability to hire a lawyer. In relation to this, the chances of strain leading to criminal activities among individuals with less traditional social supports are high (Reiman, 1998).

People have to change their perception of white collar crime because it deprives off the country billions of dollars annually. Even though street crime is more evident, the loss it causes to the economy is much less as compared to the loss caused by white collar crime. According to the two theories explained in this paper, individuals engage in criminal activities due to interactions with others (social learning theory) or due to the stresses and strain they experience in their lives (strain theory). These two theories are vividly explained in the paper.

Investigating Terrorism

1.Trash covers represent an excellent technique in the investigation of terrorist organizations. Begin by listing those items that might typically be found in your discarded trash that would provide details regarding you personally your interests, lifestyle, associates, family, business, income, debts etc. Be honest and be thorough in your response. Follow your response by listing items that investigators might be interested in locating in the trash of suspect terrorists and follow with a discussion of how such items could be used to benefit the investigation.

     A suspects trash is very useful to investigators since they serve to create a profile of the suspect as well as  predict  what the suspect might do. They look for such items like receipts of purchases, phone bills, discarded medicine containers, and even discarded ID cards and passports besides looking for obvious pieces of evidence (Dagnan, 2008).

2. Differentiate between the meaning of domestic terrorism and international terrorism. Begin by providing a definition for each and identifying the key distinctions between the two. Follow by providing examples of each in the context of actual events that have occurred within the continental United States.     Domestic terrorism essentially involves individuals who hold extremist political views on certain local or national issues ranging from abortion to racism, and their use of terrorism is an expression of their disagreement with the policies of the government. One infamous example was Timothy MacVeigh who was responsible for the Oklahoma City bombing in retaliation for the governments takedown of the Branch Davidian Cult (Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI, 2009).
    International terrorism, on the other hand, is motivated by global issues such as American imperialism opposed by Islamic groups as Al-Qaeda as proven by the attacks on Sepember 11, 2001 (Laqueur, 2004) .

3. The Christian Identity movement, a quasi-religious movement, is significant in the discussion of right-wing extremism in this country. Define the term Christian Identity, and provide background on the origins of the movement in this country. Describe the philosophy espoused by the movement and how in your opinion it tends to reinforce a hate based extremist ideology. Also provide the names of several extremist groups that have adopted the Identity philosophy.     The Christian Identity movement involves several organizations that subscribe to an extreme form of Christianity that asserts the supremacy of Christianity, where its followers believe that they are the descendants of the ancient Israelites and regard themselves as their heirs. Ironically, they consider the Jews (as well as other minorities) as evil. One such group that subscribes to this movement is the Ku Klux Klan and Aryan Nation in the United States and the Broederbund of South Africa during the Apartheid years (Robinson, 2006).

4. Describe how trials of conventional criminals and terrorists differ. A complete answer should address, at a minimum, motions, plea bargains, security, counsel, sympathetic supporters, propaganda, jury nullification and jury tampering.

    A trial for criminals will have all the usual features common in a trial.  There would be motions filed by both defense and prosecution (counsels), plea bargaining, security provided by bailiffs, and the jury who are ideally the peers of the accused. Terrorists are of different nature because they are considered combatants and could not be brought before a civilian court instead, they are brought before military commissions. One other difference will be the absence of sympathetic supporters for the terrorists. Such trials would have little or no media coverage, and any kind of evidence or testimony regardless of origin can be used as compared to a conventional trial where evidence and testimony is qualified to ensure credibility (DellOrto, 2007).

Ohio Correction Assessment Center Admission Video Test For Correction Officers

The research problem
Though video technology has considerably improved the administration of Situational Judgment Tests (SJT), potential biases and other problematic situation in administration of the tests may affect their efficacy.  A literature review reveals that there are potential benefits associated with the use of SJT.  Identification of any potential biases and bugs in using SJT with special emphasis on the state of Ohio may lead to their increased use and enjoyment of associated benefits.  The main purpose of the study is to determine potential biases and other problematic situations in using the test (Moore 70).

Research design
A quasi-experimental research design is adopted in the study.  Data on past events is assumed to be reflective of the situation as it is.  The use of a quasi-experimental design is also in line with the purpose of the study.  Determination of potential biases can easily be carried out with the aid of a study that allows generation of quantitative data.  The quasi experimental design in this case aids the use of quantitative data and statistical analysis.

Data-gathering strategy
Data used in the study was collected between October 2002 and July 2003 (Moore 72).  The data is derived from applicants who took the admissions screening video test at the Ohio assessment centre.  Various fields for instance gender, race, educational level, prior experience in correction and region that they were applying for are also considered in data collection.  It is noteworthy that the primary data collection duration was over 9 months which is sufficient to collect enough data.  The choice of a relatively long duration is important in ensuring that sufficient number of observations is made which may improve the accuracy and consistency of the data.  Sixty six scenarios are considered in the study this figure is representative of the sample size.

Dependent variables
The dependent variables in the study include the biases in using the SJT and potentially problematic situations in using the test. Biases in SJT are shown to be dependent on the level of experience and legal experience.  Furthermore, problematic situation are shown to be affected considerably by the experience in law enforcement and knowledge in legal issues.

Independent Variables
There are multiple independent variables that have been identified in the study.  At the data collection stage, data is collected on various fields.  The fields which include gender, race, education level, prior ODRC, experience in correction and the region that one is applying for are the independent variables in the study ((Moore 72).  This can be developed by considering the analysis presented in the study.  It is noteworthy that there is a clear variation of these variables for instance race is divided into African Americans and Hispanics and their effect on failure or success in the test noted.  It is evident that the former variable (race) is considered to be influential on the latter variable (performance) which implies that they are the independent variables.  The choice of the variables is largely guided by considerations on past literature which highlights them.

Operationalisation of the key dependent and independent variables
The main variables in the study have natural measures that are used in the study.  Race is for instance divided into five subgroups notably African American, Hispanics, native Americans, Asians and Caucasian.  Problems and biases are operationally defined as any form of anomaly in defining or translating the tests which affects performance.  Performance is measured in percentage score with 45 being the pass mark (Moore 73).  Prior experience is operationalised into the nature of experiences that respondents had in the past.  The educational level is operationally defined as per the level of educational attainment ranging from college degree, college dropouts, high school graduates and less than high school.  It is noteworthy that the operational definitions though in some cases influenced by the researcher for instance the elimination of African subgroups in the race variable, uses natural grouping.  This is a pro for the study since it minimizes complexities in understanding how the data was got.

Use of DNA Analysis

DNA analysis has provided significant breakthrough in many fields. The process is a benefit to the criminal justice system, particularly in forensic investigation of the police force such as in the crimes of rape and killing as well as the handling of paternity cases of family courts. The success of the DNA procedure is attributed to its uses and how it is performed, which is to evaluate ones biological model. DNA analysis, as a method where the DNA taken from a biological sample of a person is evaluated, is aimed at getting a blueprint for every individual that is usually called as a DNA profile. Hence, the use of DNA analysis boils down at determining the unique profile of a personan important factor from which an incident or case is eventually resolved (DNA Analysis Laboratory, 2007).

    There are other applications of DNA analysis. Used and performed in several countries, the DNA analysis confirms the possible owner of a piece of tissue such as blood, bits of flesh, bone, teeth, semen or any other part of the body (DNA Analysis Laboratory, 2007, p. 6). Aside from uncertain parentage arguments, the DNA Analysis Laboratory (2007) states that the use of DNA analysis also extends to the following

In criminal investigations in identification of mass disaster victims in verifying the identity of human cancer cell lines in determining whether a biological material is of human origin, and in studying the genetic ancestry of human populations. (p. 6)

If applied in the job of a detective, DNA analysis becomes a valuable tool. In fact, the process helps in bringing out the best from a detective in performing an important law enforcement task of investigating a specific case. One of the relevant qualifications of an ideal detective is his ability to handle or solve a case especially if provided with a DNA analysis result. Thus, a detective needs to be excellent in applying DNA analysis into a case despite not being a medical practitioner.

Gift of Fear

    Based on an article entitled The Technology of Intuition published in a book, intuition is the cornerstone of safety. The root word of intuition is tuere which meant to guard or to protect (de Becker, 1997). Intuition is a gut feeling that calls for witty and immediate attention. For example, when a person who asked directions felt differently to the answer of a native, then the one giving a direction of where to go next is lying. In other words, the native of the place is not telling the right directions.

    More often than not, intuition is better than logic in protecting us from danger. Intuition is a product of mediation and discernment. It is felt by a person who believes that all of us are always protected by a superior being who is infinite. The technology of intuition then is considered mysterious. In addition, intuition is a product of other founded feelings of protection against impending danger or harm. A person who foresees an impending accident while driving a car feel fear of losing life first before holding on to anything for instant protection.

    De Becker defined fear as fear of men. Real fear is a sign intended to be very instant or short being a mere servant of intuition (de Becker, 1997). Since fear is a servant of intuition, de Becker is correct upon believing that fear is a gift. Without the feelings of fear, there is no signal for a person to seek protection and safety. A persons intuitive mind will not work out then without the presence of fear in his heart and mind. In case of Robert Thompson, he felt that really needed to go away from the convenience store (de Becker, 1997). He just felt that something bad will happen. There are signs of fear, impending danger, and even problems. The next day, he was right. There was a shooting incident that happened in the said convenient store. If not because of his intuition, there is a huge possibility that he will be harmed in going inside the store. It is right for him to listen to what he felt at that exact moment when he still have time to protect himself from harm.

    There are other things that Robert Thompson noticed. The person behind the counter is intently looking of a customer. It is as if the clerk of the convenience store is too afraid on another customer. The said customer was wearing a jacket when in fact it was very hot at that time. That made him thinks that something is wrong. Right there and then, he went out. Thompson was not noticed by the police officer because he went outside the convenience store after feeling intuitive thoughts. His fear is not unfounded that he decided to go out as fast as he could. The next day, Thompson realized that the robber hid his shotgun in the jacket that he is wearing. 

    The shooting incident in the convenient store is reflective of the importance of intuition as a precursor of safety. When Thompson went outside the convenient store, he noticed that the man with a jacket and two other men in a wagon whose engine is roaring signaled that something bad will happen. After a few minutes, a police officer was killed by the man with a jacket. The said man is part of the group who wanted to rob the convenient store. Since the presence of the police officer will prevent them from executing their evil plans, they killed the same. The experience of Thompson exemplifies that fear is a gift. He showed us how he listened to his intuition and be saved by it. Since de Becker wrote that intuition is a cornerstone of safety, we can agree now on his words. The conclusion is that it is not proper to ignore ones intuition. It would result to lifetime regret if a hidden warning within ones self is being ignored. Thus, Thompson became safe from the shooting incident because he listened to his intuition.

    There are myriad survival signals that de Becker mentioned in order for people to get away from harm. First, we need to study the forced teaming. According to de Becker, forced teaming is the best way to develop untimely trust since a were-in-the-same-boat behavior is difficult to rebuff without feeling offensive (de Becker, 1997). Besides, forced teaming is intentional and directed and of course, not circumstantial (de Becker, 1997). For example, an old man arrived at the Western Union that is about to close. The old man needed the money for his sons hospitalization bills. A moment later, another old man arrived at Western Union for the purpose of getting money sent by a daughter from abroad. He would use such money to buy food for dinner. Since both of them feared that their money might not arrive before Western Union closes, they decided to help each other in case anyone of them got the money they waited.

    The second survival signal is the presence of charm and niceness. Being able to charm an attacker and reading its mind is very essential in times of danger. It was de Becker who explained that a person must understand charm as a verb and not as a trait (de Becker, 1997). An example of this situation is when a young lady suspected that a robber is trying to bring her to a dark road wherein no one passes by at night. Since the young lady has still time to get away from the criminal, she decided to read the mind of the robber while walking to a store with so many customers. The robber finds it hard to stop the young lady who is too charming to lead the way to the store. At least, she will be safe in the store and the robber will be forced to run away.  Third, a suspicious person provides too many details. As a survival signal, a person must identify this behavior from an attacker. The alibis are too obvious because it has been stuffed by too many details. The deceitful remarks of an attacker might slip off if the victim does not know the idea of too many details. For example, a young man was seen outside the house walking back and forth one evening. The owner of the house did not mind at first. But the next evening, the same young man is still doing the same habit up to the next night. The owner of the asked the young man why he was there outside the house. The young man provided too many explanations to support his claim. Indeed, there is proof that the young man is having a plan to rob the said house one day.

    Moreover, de Becker also wrote about the victim selection process. In fact, there are also conditions that are essential for offenders in selecting their targets. First, there must be a sequence of explicit conditions being met. The other conditions include the right appearance and perfect type of victim (de Becker, 1997). People cannot control these factors but can control the possibilities of being in danger by not being accessible to criminals.  

    Finally, de Becker provided a hint on how to handle situations like car-jacking and when someone is suspiciously following a person. The author did not provide a list of specific reactions to the given situations. He just reminded the readers to listen to ones intuition since it will help the possible or potential victim free himself from danger or violence. After all, different reactions apply to different situations.

Criminal Justice

As humanity developed, the need to separate persons who had done acts frowned upon by the society from others was introduced.  In America the use of prisons to separate law breakers with law keepers was introduced towards the end of the 18th century with the first correction facility being the Walnut Street jail in Philadelphia.

The Pennsylvania system is designed around total isolation (Bohm  Haley, 2008).  It does not allow for interaction at any time.  Inmates are housed in separate cells, eat separately, exercise separately and work separately.  The creators of this system wanted inmates to use the time in prison to meditate upon their crime, repent and reform.

The Auburn system on its part was designed with prisoner interaction in mind.  It retains the Pennsylvanias model of housing prisoners individually but it allows for interaction during meals, exercise and work.  Unlike the Pennsylvania model which as a result of the total isolation of prisoners the only productive work they usually do is handicraft, the Auburn system by allowing interaction ensured more productive work could be accomplished.  This ensured the prison facilities could generate revenue that is used in running the facilities.

Accordingly, the Pennsylvania system is less effective than the Auburn system to begin with, the Auburn system was designed as an improvement of the Pennsylvania system  both had strong Quaker influence (Bohm,  Haley, 2008).  By offering prisoners the opportunity to interact, they therefore have an opportunity to learn from each other.  Given that that the main goal of a prison is to rehabilitate, it is possible to find people who have been inspired to change by the friends they met while in prison. The income generated as a result of having the prisoners working together in teams goes along way in making the prisoners life comfortable while in prison mainly because it is revenue. 

It may be argued that through prisoner interaction previously soft criminals may be transformed to hardcore criminals in prisoner, but it is clear that in as much as this risk is very much real, the gains from interactions outweigh the inherent risks.   It is evident therefore that that the Pennsylvania system is not only much more effective but also superior in its approach to incarceration of prisoners.

Integration of technology advances at street level to improve police incident response

Local police departments efforts to quickly respond to incidents are always thwarted by lack of proper communication between the police headquarters and patrol officers on the streets. However, recent advances in communication technology can solve this problem if adopted. Developments such as installation of computers in patrol cars, mobile fingerprints examination, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Sniper Positioning System (SNIPOS) are useful solutions. Improvements in radio and computer technology have also aided in improving the safety of both the public and safety officers.

    The police have an obligation to provide security and protection to citizens while in the streets doing patrols. However, most of the vital information is found at the headquarters. This acts as a hindrance to effective provision of services in that police officers are unable to access important information that would enable them to conduct on-spot investigations. The officers in the field have to rely on information relayed to them by their colleagues in the control room at the headquarters. This is mostly done over the radio. This method has a lot of shortcomings in that only limited amount of information can be transmitted, its tedious, its time consuming and most importantly its prone to transmission errors. There is need of technology integration at the street officer level so that patrol officers have access to a wide range of important information in the shortest time possible. This would enable them effectively respond to incidents. Recent advances in communication technology if employed would enable local departments patrol officers better communicate and thus improve their job performance. This includes improvements in the radio and computer technologies.

    New advances in communication technology if employed can greatly enhance communication and job performance of patrol police officers. One such technology is installation of personal computers or laptops in patrol cars. With this, police officers are able to access data in headquarters from their patrol cars at any location thus can check or verify information such as personal or vehicle details on the spot (Cisco Systems, 2010).  This greatly enhances security and protection of the people. Basically, the bulk of police work is performed on the streets and this mobile communication system improves their ability to conduct investigations in the field by providing the needed information without having to go to the headquarters.

It also eliminates use of the radio which is prone to communication errors in addition to being tedious and incapable of transmitting some types of information such as photographs. Out in the field, the mobile communication system uses wireless Local Area Network (LAN) found at the local police base to log in. But this is only if its within the LAN range. Outside, the system uses the most efficient data transmission services from a mobile telephony service provider (Cisco Systems, 2010).

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a communication system that utilizes satellite in tracking a location.  This system can be applied in vehicles and mobile phones to help precisely identify a certain location and in the shortest time possible (Nuth, 2008). This would help police officers to locate suspects, victims and stolen vehicles. Police officers recommend use of personal safety alarms containing GPS technology (Nuth, 2008). These alarms are mostly connected to a central alarm at police headquarters. To enhance police response, the alarm central can be installed in patrol cars to enable them to locate the victim in minimal time.

    Another system that is used to monitor location is called Sniper Positioning System (SNIPOS). This is used to locate gunshots by calculating the distance, elevation and direction of a sniper two seconds after the system has detected a gunshot sound (Nuth, 2008). It can be installed in patrol cars to enable police officers on patrols respond to gunshots and thus save the victims lives and arrest offenders (Nuth, 2008). Mobile fingerprint checks is another advanced technology can be used by officers on patrol to check the identity of an individual at street level thus eliminating the need to take them to the head quarters which can inconvenience both the individual and the officer. This would also be useful in saving time where mass checks are being conducted.

    Emerging communication technologies enhances public safety by increasing coverage and signal (Desourdis  Porter, 2002). This includes the digital radios which have replaced the traditional analogue radios used by the police to communicate. The digital radios offer high quality voice transmission over a wider distance range (Desourdis  Porter, 2002). For improved security of officers and public in case of crime and disasters, coordinated communication is required between various departments such as police, fire fighting, and medical departments (Desourdis  Porter, 2002). This enables to prevent loss of life and property damage.

The development of palm-size computers has contributed to improved transmission of data information. These palm-size computers are easy to carry around and enable the patrol officers to access information from a database in the headquarters through wireless internet connectivity. They have a higher data rate and can be used away from the range of LAN connectivity (Levesque  Pahlovan, 2005).

    Ability of police officers on patrol to easily access information at the police headquarters from any location would greatly enhance their response to situations. Recent communication developments can be used by local police departments to ensure this. Its undisputable that advances in technology helps to fight and lower rate of crime. But is this the long term solution given the fact that advances in anti-crime technology parallels advances in pro-crime technology