Police Investigators

Compare and summarize the difference between segregating investigators within the same police department in teams for specific crimes (e.g., vice or homicide) and having a large investigation section to investigate the entire spectrum of crimes

In US the Police department is segregated into several smaller specialized units. These investigating team when divided between special teams performs better as they are designed to do specialized jobs. these teams or squads specializes in investigation into a particular type of crime which may includes homicide murder , sexual assault robbery, auto theft organized crimes missing persons fraud drugs vice computer crime and domestic violence etc

For example Scotland Yard police of London is a single investigation type police but has mostly been credited with successfully investigating the conspiracy crimes such as murder. So the point is that although a large single investigation team can be built but then these teams tend to become good in only one aspect because of the type of personnel present.

Another example of a specialized unit is of Serious Crimes Unit which is a special unit of International Police. These investigators have played an important role in East Taimoor of investigating homicide these specialized teams are capable of performing investigation because of the specialized skills and special equipment. If there is only one single investigation team instead of different for crime this type of investigation couldnt be done.

Different type of investigation teams depends different kinds of specializations, a team investigation robbery or murder would heavily depend on forensic evidence where as others depend on other type of specialize knowledge a team investigating financial frauds of large corporations and banks will have certified accountants on their team.

An investigation team that is capable of computer crime investigation would include hackers and computer professional and people who know the computer laws. Same cannot be achieved with one unified investigation team

Organized crime investigation team may comprise of several small specialized investigating teams responsible for looking for evidence including extortion, money laundering, fraud, smuggling, drug deals and illegal exports as well as weapon purchase.

Overall it can be easily seen that a police department having one large investigation section will be less effective to deal with the entire spectrum of crimes if compared with the teams for specific crimes.

The Police Structure

From definition, the police force is regarded as a service made up of individuals mandated to maintain law and order and implementenforce the laws of the land by use of reasonablejustifiable amount of force. The police get exposed to very challenging and usually demanding working environment. To effectively cope with such demands, they undergo thorough training in various police academies to prepare them for the challenges in their policing culture. Their training shares some similarity to that of the military (Bayley, 1994).

In the United States, the police force and other law enforcement agencies are paramilitary in nature. This defining characteristic of the police organization is derived from their operation style, hierarchy and command structure which are similar to those of the military. According to Summerfield (2006), the adoption of the paramilitary structure is based on the fact that the police work hand in hand with the military and most policing agencies all over the world evolved from the military. In general, the various roles of the American police and law enforcement agencies include combating and deterring crime, offering emergency response services e.g. first aid and fire fighting, defending the constitutional rights of the citizens, traffic control, conflict resolution, etc.

Summerfield (2006) perceives the present US police and law enforcement agencies structure as tall, quasi-military, and with hierarchical bureaucracies whose operations follow a clearly defined protocol. Most of the powers, for instance, decision making, have been conferred upon high ranking officers within the service. The police service may also be regarded as bureaucratic since they work on optimized procedures aimed at achieving efficiency with little or no human interference in idea generation.

Over the years, several police departments all over the world have received high level criticism from several quarters concerning excessive use of force in combating crime, biasness in decision making, racism, excessive bureaucracy and resistance to change (Kathy, 1998). It is from this perception that many non-governmental organizations and human rights watchdogs all over the world have been advocating for police reorganization and positive reforms (Kathy, 1998). Though the reforms may not be fully achieved to satisfy all the interested parties, they are necessary in order to improve the corporate image of the police.

The primary objective of this essay is to look into the current paramilitary structure of the police organization, suggest some reorganization measures, analyze the issues involved in the restructuring, and conduct a brief needs analysis. In addition, the essay also touches on change management, aspects of resistance to change and suggests some methods of selling change to the police department. For the sake of clarity in the discussion and analysis, an unnamed police department assumed to be in the United States has been arbitrarily selected in the essay.

Reorganization
This department is currently made up of 69 members, of which 62 are sworn police officers. The department is headed by the chief of police and further subdivided into two divisions (i.e. the operations  the administration sections) headed by captains. Presently, the numbers of calls dealt with by the department on annual basis are in the range of 32,000 to 33,000. These rough estimations include between 21,000 to 24,000 incidents and approximately 10,000 officer activities. Based on this statistics, the average number of calls to duty and time spent per call has since escalated.

The emergency response is also hampered by the paramilitary police structure which has led to specific role definition and high bureaucracy within the service. When there is an emergency, say fires, accidents, armed robberies, etc, protocol demands that the teams or units specialized in such fields should be the ones to respond to such calls to duty. This kills the spirit of team and community policing and greatly affects productivity and efficiency. Police reorganization and restructuring therefore have to look into such police aspects in order to improve service delivery.

Issues Involved in the Transformation
There are many issues that can be put into consideration when contemplating or developing strategies for police reorganization. Some of the issues may revolve around the improving the police image, improving on the information-handling ability by the police and also working on increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the police service. In this case, the major factor to be considered when initiating reorganization process is the transformation of the police image, i.e. from a police force unit to a service unit.

In order to effectively achieve reorganization at police departmental level, some of the aspects to be considered include decentralization devolution of power e.g. decision making, adequate use of information communication technology in daily operations, scientific police employment, and consolidation merging of line functions (Sanders, 1998).  

The other issues involved in the reorganization of the department included thorough understanding of policing strategies and operations, conceptualizing the police-police relationships i.e. in terms of senior-junior rapport, bureaucracy, decision making, and modes of communication, etc. Establishing the impact of police training in regard to recruitment criteria, qualifications, duration, and courses covered, physical activities and exercise involved, the military approach to training are also other key issued involved when recommending the nature of departmental reorganization. The police training in the several police academies all over the United States is believed to have great influence on the police culture and individual personality, often overshadowed by conforming to the chain of command and inhibiting team policing.  

Other important issues considered when implementing police reorganization revolve around studying and understanding the society served by the department in regard to its policing needs and growth patterns, evaluation of the current police-community relationships and individual perceptions, determining facility and space needs, staffing projections, anticipated and current service loads among other aspects. 

Needs Assessment
This is defined as a logical exploration of the current way of doing business in regard to how the organization ought to carry out its daily operations (Rouda  Kusy, 1995). Needs assessment in this case will be based on around the organizational performance of the police department. There are four steps followed when carrying out an assessment of this nature. The first step is referred to as the gap analysis whereby the institutions actual performance is checked against the required standards.

The gap or difference between the actual performance and the desired performance is then analyzed in details. The second step involves the identification of priorities and categorizing them in terms of their importance and urgency. The root causes of underperformance and unexplored opportunities are then identified before actual solutions to the existing problems are undertaken or implemented (Rouda  Kusy, 1995).

The need for improving the services offered by the police department to the community is long overdue. Most of the existing facilities within the department and the paramilitary training background of the officers hinder cost-effective service delivery, efficiency of the staff, and also block any room for improvement. It is therefore necessary to conduct a major reorganization of the department in order to ensure that it adapts and grows to satisfy fully the dynamic needs of the society it serves.

Presently, this department serves an approximate population of 30,000. The crime rate within this population is on the increase due to the diverse background and metropolitan nature of the populace. Since the town being served has unique defining characteristics, such distinctiveness influences the departments police service needs. The unique factors are brought about by the fact that the town is home for many tourist attraction sites, it has many colleges and tertiary institutions and is also a border town. The department has therefore been mandated the responsibility of protecting and supporting the unique culture of life within the town. This is however hampered by the unfriendliness and bureaucracy of the paramilitary police.

Resistance to Change
There are many challenges faced by any attempts to reorganize the police force from its traditional semi-military nature to a modern service delivery team. The resistance to change is brought about by the existing paramilitary characteristics such as regular use of orders and commands, strong adherence and implementation of discipline, regulations and rules, blockading of individual innovativeness and creativity, and also the resistance of threats and challenges to the existing system.
Within various police departments in the United States, there exists a high wall that divides the civilian and police employees. This kills the spirit of team policing and sworncivilian collaboration which is expected to be based on mutual understanding and respect. These relations have to be repaired and cemented by the departments administration e.g. through devising several strategies in favor of such interactions. Another possible way of managing change within the police department could be through fostering a strong policing culture that effectively combines various positive elements of the profession, in favor of team policing.

According to Summerfield (2006), the high degree of bureaucracy within the police service has also made it difficult to introduce any positive changes in its structural organization. Common bureaucracy characteristics in the police organizations include defined hierarchyprotocol of authority, division of roles based on functional specialization, a defined code of ethics to be adhered to by staff and a set of guiding principles when dealing with various work related assignments (Summerfield, 2006). Other manifestations of bureaucracy are portrayed by the impersonal interactions between people and in the selection, recruitment and promotion based on competence.

Several surveys point out four major reasons that make people to resist organizational changes (Schlesinger  Kotter, 1979). The reasons include parochial self-interest whereby the opponents are against the changes in order to safe guard their own interests at the expense of institutional success. Misunderstandings resulting from communication breakdowns and inadequate information also make some officers to resist any organizational change within the department.

Schlesinger and Kotter (1979), also argue that resistance to change may be brought about by different assessments andor evaluations of the prevailing situation. Most police officers may fail to reach a consensus on the reasons behind the change and the accompanying advantages and disadvantages to be encountered during the transformation process. Finally, some officers within the department may be naturally against any change or reorganization especially when their job stability and security is threatened by the reorganization (Schlesinger  Kotter, 1979).

Overcoming the Resistance to Change
The methods of overcoming resistance to change within the police and law enforcement agencies are similar to those applied to any other organization or society since they both involve people drawn from several backgrounds. A common strategy, as proposed by Schlesinger and Kotter (1979), to be used in achieving this is communication and education, especially in scenarios characterized by inaccurate or inadequate unanalyzed information. Education, clarifications and proper analysis of the benefits of the change to the department is a major way of fighting resistance to change.
Another strategy that may be used for overcoming this resistance is through involvement and participation. In cases where the officers are involved at any level of the reorganization process, they tend to embrace this change as compared to situations where the change is imposed directly to the officers by the administration.

Support and facilitation may also be used effectively to assist the otherwise resistive officers in the adjustment and adaptation to the new way of conducting business. This support, usually from the departments administration may help the officers in dealing with any fears arising from the transition period. This form of support may be facilitated by the police departments administration through offering counseling services specialized training to fit in the new system and providing incentives aimed at retaining the officers and boost their morale during the transition (Schlesinger  Kotter, 1979).

Another common strategy used in dealing with resistance to change is through use of dialogue, negotiations and agreements where deemed necessary. Agreements may be made on matters concerning early retirements, promotions and increased salaries between the departments administration and the usually powerful individuals against the transition. Such agreements and negotiations are usually aimed at making such resistive officers to accept and adapt to the requirements brought about by the change.

In circumstances where other methods of bringing change to the institution are regarded as costly or may face serious opposition, the optimal manipulation method would be co-opt with the opponents. This technique according to Schlesinger and Kotter (1979) involves the condescending gesticulation in bringing an individual into the change management picture for technical appearances into the reorganization process. Those regarded as leaders against change may be selected to participate in the transition process so that their ideas may be optimized and incorporated into the change.

As a last resort in overcoming resistance to change, implicit and explicit coercion is normally put into use. The police departments chief of police may in this case implicitly or explicitly force the junior officers into accepting the transition and its associated change. This forced change may be achieved by use of threats concerning job securities, transfers and demotions of officers perceived as elements against the change efforts.

Managing and Selling Change to Officers
Despite the many challenges and obstacles encountered, the change from paramilitary approach to team policing can be managed through adoption of optimal strategies. Some of the change management strategies may include devolution of power and resources to various subdivisions within the police department e.g. by allowing individual junior officers to make critical decision when dealing with an emergency.

Another possible strategy could be achieved by making appropriate recommendations to the departmental police training academy to make some changes in their various aspects. Some of the changes may be adopted in the selection and recruitment criteria, so as to attract personnel with high levels of integrity, qualifications and competence in various fields. The paramilitary approach in training may also be minimized in order to make policing an attractive profession that embraces team policing.

In order to embrace team policing, several incentives and approaches may be followed. By way of example, staff appraisals and promotions to team leader positions, etc should be pegged on the group performance of the unit as a team, and not on individual basis. These and other similar strategies have got the overall effect of promoting team policing and in turn improving productivity and efficiency.
Reorganization may also be done with an aim of improving the already tainted police image in the eyes of the general public. By way of example, the police officers within the department may also be made to attend several workshops, symposiums, open forums and training sessions where they may be taught alternative methods of conflict resolution. These alternative methods that use minimum force in implementation could be through the use of dialogue, rehabilitation programs, and probation and community service. This also enhances the spirit of community and team policing which is contrary to the traditional paramilitary approach which involves the use of force in implementing any laws.

At any given instant, change should not be sold to employees or affected officers as a way of speeding up agreements andor implementation. Change has to be clearly understood and effectively managed in a way that can be easily adapted to by the officers in question. Therefore, in order to effectively manage change, feedback should be encouraged and all sensitive features touching the organization should be conducted preferably using a face-to-face approach and not on the periphery.
Electronic modes of communication such as emails and to some extent written notices should be avoided when conveying an aspect related to organizational change. Such forms of communication are rated weak and may be misinterpreted by the parties concerned. Such important information has to be directly channeled by the administration in order to attract immediate response, views and suggestions directly from those who may be affected by the reorganization process. Honesty and openness should be used at all levels of change management in order to minimize building up of passive resistance from the staff or junior officers who may be against certain elements of the transition.

Policing is a challenging profession which in most cases is regarded as a calling, not a profession. The challenges encountered range from several hours of boredom which are regularly interrupted by life threatening rescue operations and crime fighting activities.
Over the years however, the police image has been tainted and reorganization is the only possible way of repairing its image to the public domain. The police culture and mode of operation has been attributed to their nature of training and the military structure of management which in most cases minimizes any activities that may promote team policing andor creative and innovative idea generation. Departmental reorganization is the only possible way of inverting the already fixed mindset about policing and their usually impersonal and unfriendly approach in service delivery.

Asocial offenders vs. non social offenders

Types of Offenders
    There are two typologies of offenders which include the disorganized asocial offenders and the organized nonsocial offenders. The two classifications are crucial in the process of investigation of crime scenes and one can be able to tell which category of the criminal is responsible for the crime committed by the observations made at the scene due to their distinctive nature.

    The disorganized asocial offender refers to the criminal who Holmes describes as disorganized in virtually everything about his or her life. Such offenders exhibit certain characteristics and behaviors which includes returning to the scene of crime andor attending the funeral service of the victim. Such disorganized pattern of behaviors may be extended to the crime scene as elaborated by Holmes in his book entitled Profiling Violent Crimes. In this book, Holmes illustrates that such offenders are spontaneous and their victims usually unknown. They get involved in minimum conversations and therefore lonely most of the times. They usually leave behind a chaotic crime scene with physical evidence such as weapon being left behind. Other personal characteristics include below average IQ, socially incompetent individual with introvert personality. They also lack intellectual skills and most are high school dropouts. Such offenders also exhibit poor hygiene within their environments. They generally lack the organizational, social, and intellectual skills and thus are unable to carefully plan their attacks (Holmes  Holmes, 2002).

    On the contrary, the organized nonsocial offender is completely different from the disorganized asocial offender. This individual looks very organized in his activities. Holmes describes this criminal as very organized, with compulsive thinking processes and behaviors and this is more oftenly reflected in the individuals appearance and lifestyle. The individuals are usually bright and socially competent. They have a high IQ score and may have performed better at high school (some even have college education). They are described as coming from middle class background and seem to be holding respectable jobs in the society. However, such individuals are found to have had a drug or alcohol abuse background especially during the time of crime. Due to their wonderful personality, such individuals are rarely suspected of the crime at first. The organized offenders carefully plan their criminal activities getting rid of any evidence that may link them to the crime. The main targets are strangers and the crime scene is usually controlled. These individuals might be lonely because its their choice. They might return to the crime scene volunteer information to the police (Holmes  Holmes, 2002).

    Having described the two typologies, it is important for the investigation officers to analyze the scene of crime and be able to identify which type of criminal was involved. Generally, one can tell the disorganized offender due to the massive evidence left behind, the body of the victim may not be hidden and the victim is usually an acquaintance. The crimes are committed spontaneously and there might be some aggression or sex after the crime. On the other hand, in the organized crime scene, the body of the victim is normally hidden, leaving little or no evidence at the scene. Aggression usually takes place before death and the crime is a well thought out plan. Holmes give a clear insight of the two typologies and how one can deal with each scenario based on the characteristics of the criminal. Therefore, the two types of criminal behavior are very distinct and the officers investigating crime scenes would be able to differentiate between the two when handling criminal matters.

Psychological and sociological criminal theories

Criminal behaviors have been studied extensively by several researchers as a result, they have come up several theories that are aimed at assisting them in gaining deeper understanding of these behaviors in order to come up with solutions. Psychological and social factors are highly attributed to criminal behaviors. Hence several psychological and sociological theories have been developed. In order to comprehensively study criminal behaviors in these two contexts so as to be in a position of fully addressing this problem that has devastated societies all over the world for ages.

Psychological and sociological factors are used frequently in explaining juvenile delinquency as well as the persistence and emergence of the juvenile gangs. Theories on sociology such as containment, social control, anomie, labeling and differential association all mirror different degrees of utility that is predictive relative to the delinquency conduct. Theories on psychology such as moral developmental stages, developmental theory, psychodynamic and social learning theories are frequently invoked in order to offer some deeper understanding of criminal behaviors and thinking. Both sociological and psychological factors are normally utilized simultaneously in explaining juvenile gangs because the interface that exists between these two theories is intertwined invariably. It is argued that application of strategies that are theoretical from many disciplines at the same time in synthesized theoretical systems creation to account for gangs formation and conducts of delinquency such as biological variables have higher utility of prediction as compared to the application of explanations that are based on single discipline (Wrightsman, Nietzel  Fortune, 1994).

Psychological and sociological criminal theories
According to the psychoanalytic psychological criminal theory, that virtually all human beings possess natural criminal urges and drives that are reserved in the unconscious. They therefore have some criminal propensities. However, through the socialization process, these propensities are held back by inner controls development, which are learned via the childhood experiences. This theory further suggests that faulty identification of children with their parents is the most widespread element, which is attributed to criminal conduct. Children who are not well socialized might develop a persona disturbance which causes them to direct either outward or inward antisocial impulses. For those children that direct these impulses inwards ends up being neurotic while those who direct these impulses outwards are more likely to become criminals (Wilson  Herrnstein, 1985).

The cognitive criminal theory suggests that criminal behaviors emanates from the manner in which an individual organizes his or her thoughts in regard to law and morality. According to this theory, the moral reasoning levels are three in number and each of these levels consists of two stages. The middle childhood is the level at which the children are experiencing their first moral development level. This is the pre conventional level in which the childrens moral reasoning is basically founded on punishment avoidance and obedience. The next level is known as the conventional moral development level, children reach this level in their middle childhood. At this particular level, their moral reasoning is mainly based on their families expectations. Post convectional is the final moral development level and it takes place in the early stages of adulthood. It is at this level where people are in a position of going beyond their social conventions. Even though they value the social system laws, they are usually open and can act as change agents in order to make improvements to the prevailing law and order. Those individuals who fail to progress well via the three levels might become captives of their moral development making them to become criminals (Cole  Cole, 1993).

The theory on sociological positivism proposes that various societal factors like subcultures membership, poverty and low education levels can subject people into criminal behaviors. Therefore, according to this theory, people are likely to become criminals due to the societies and environments they grow in. If the criminals who developed as a result of growing in these societies had the chance of growing up in different societies, then probably they would not have become criminals. This theory links crime to other factors such as education, poverty, alcohol and drugs abuse and gender (Wrightsman, Nietzel  Fortune, 1994).

Jesse James through his gang committed several crimes such as murdering bystanders and bank employees and robbing banks. He also waylaid trains and stagecoaches. However, the criminal behavior of James appears not to have been driven by the objective of making money and thus becoming wealthy, since in most cases he robbed from the rich and distributed the same to the poor. Using the psychoanalytic psychological criminal theory, it can be argued that since every human being has criminal urges and drives, James was no exception. Despite the fact that his criminal tendencies had been repressed for a long time, they eventually emerged during the civil war and exploited them (Wrightsman, Nietzel  Fortune, 1994).

Again looking at the cognitive criminal behavior theory, the criminal behavior of James can be said to have originated from the manner in which he organized his thoughts and deemed it fit to use robbed money to assist the poor. Without this form of thoughts arrangement, the criminal tendency of James could have remained repressed. Finally, looking at the sociological criminal theory of positivism, the criminal behavior of James can be said to have emerged due to the society he grew up in. His criminal behavior in this respect only emerged because of the society he found himself in and there is a high probability that he could not have become a criminal if he had grown up in a different society (Wilson  Herrnstein, 1985). 

Despite the fact that there are disparities in several theories explaining criminal behaviors among individuals, they are all similar in the belief they share. Criminal tendencies in several society aspects require to be dealt with. Via criminal theories, researchers usually seek to develop much deeper understanding on the manner in which they can prevent this type of behavior among the children before they reach their adolescent stage. If researchers manage to break through in their search for a lasting solution to this problem, then societies allover the world will be saved from the menace of criminal activities.

The Sources, function, jurisdictions, adversarial system and criminal offences of American criminal law

Difficulties arise in defining and describing all acts which are supposed to be punished. To minimize these difficulties, principles of law have been implemented. These principles agree with the fact that all acts that are considered as crime are issues that require punishment from courts of justice. The American criminal law is one of these principles. Jesse (2009), states that the aspects of criminal law date back to the Hammurabis code of about 1790 B.C. The old English law and its influence on the foundation of American laws are attributed to the principles used in the process of establishment of American criminal law by a lot of American scholars. The modern criminal laws utilize many ideologies from ancient criminal laws.  Some of these ideas utilized include those in the common law such as the principle of stare decisis relates to the law of precedent (Jesse, 2009). The meaning of this idea is that conclusions or standards should be allowed to stand. The main role of this principle is to direct courts on how to handle cases of similar magnitude and at the same time make sure the rule of justice and fairness is preserved in the process of handling judicial matters. This principle has played a great role in the use of other principles of criminal law in the United States.

    According to Fletcher (2000), the main source of the American criminal law is the supreme law. It comprises of the state constitution and the US constitution. Decrees approved of by state governing body and the congress act as written sources of American criminal laws. The US criminal codes and the rules passed by the city councils also act as sources of American criminal law. Each state develops its own constitution and all other laws existing in that state are lower than them. Jesse (2009), notes that the common law of England act also as a source of American criminal law. The common law is also referred to as law made by judges. In the common law, if a judge makes a ruling regarding a certain case, all the other courts are supposed to follow that ruling in later cases of similar level.  The other source of American criminal law is the common law of the land. Appellate decisions made by the Supreme Court also act as sources of criminal law. This mainly occurs in cases where the rules followed in decision making have not yet been included in the statutes. Organizations and commissions of the US government may develop rules that are not fully judicial and also not fully legislative in nature. These organizations develop rules, investigate crimes and enforce sanctions (Jesse, 2009).

    The criminal law has got a wide range of uses. The first one according to Jesse (2009) is provision of security to the people of the community. It is aimed at ensuring that all citizens live in a community free from any form of harm directed either to their bodies or to their belongings. As a result, people can live in a society where they are safe from assassination, robbery and arson. The criminal law also plays a key role in protecting the environment from pollution. They also ensure that products that can affect consumers health are not sold to them (Fletcher, 2000).

    According to Fletcher (2000), the American criminal law safeguards the principles of individuals and the community at large. The community is freed from the nuisance of illegal dealers of drugs and commercial sex workers.

    Jesse (2009), states that the system of law in the United States highly displays an adversarial system. Legal issues are approached in a certain mode as to allow everybody to proof their innocence before a jury, council, as well as the judge. This helps in reducing chances of convicting innocent people of a crime. Release, Lawyers Group, and King (1973), notes that the criminal law requires that load of proofs that are separate be produced in order for conviction to be made. Proof must be produced beyond reasonable doubt in order to declare a person guilty of a crime. This is unlike the civil system that requires just a little evidence for a conclusion to be made.

According to Jesse (2009), different criminal law cases are affected by the jurisdiction. The rights of individual states are highly respected in the United States. As a result, most of the cases that occur within a certain state can be tried within that state. Some cases of higher magnitude however, though they may be tried on a state level are taken as federal. This results in jurisdiction changing to a federal level. According to Anderson and Jackson (2006), some of the crimes that lead to such changes are like bank robberies, illegal drug dealing, organized unlawful activities and serial crimes. These crimes may be tried outside the state where they were committed as they are regarded as federal. The state and the specific place where the crime occurred are the ones used in setting the jurisdiction (Jesse, 2009).

The principles of liability are the next issues. Variations in the aspects of liability occur between accomplice and criminal liabilities. The Explicit criminal legal responsibility is a victim of regular disapproval (Fletcher, 2000). Constitutionally, it is acceptable as a common issue. A very good example is the case where a gang robs a motor dealing shop. If a security guard or any other personnel of that company is killed, members of the whole squad are held responsible for the murder.
Accomplice legal responsibility occurs in the case where a person overhears a crime being planned and even after that crime has been committed, the person refuses to testify against the perpetrators. Under the American criminal law anybody who is directly implicated is taken as a principle of that crime.

There are inchoate offences in the American criminal law. These offences include attempt, plotting, and solicitation. Conspiracy in addition to enlarging the scope of criminal legal responsibility is prior to attempt and easier to confirm. This is due to the fact that it only requires explicit act and not extensive steps. Inchoate crimes have got a very major variation, in that they are not crimes that are performed against other people directly. All in all, they are regarded as unlawful actions (Jesse, 2009).

Other criminal offences are the nonfatal offences. These are offences committed against the other person. They are also referred to as assaults. Any person who uses force directly or indirectly to cause bodily harm to another person without an excuse that is legally acceptable with or without the consent of the victim is held legally responsible for hisher actions (Brown, 1993). Anybody who assaults another person and causes bodily harm is regarded as guilty of the offence. The use of force is justified in the American criminal law if it was used for the purposes of protecting oneself or other people, prevention of a crime from being committed, or protection of property from destruction. 
The criminal law system has been seen to entail various sectors of interest. It is to our benefit that we understand the differences that exist and how various sectors of criminal law are put into practice.

Basic forms of interviewing in survey research

The American Heritage Dictionary (2ed) defines an interview as a conversion initiated by two parties for the purposes of fact finding, assessment of ones qualifications, etc. Interviewing is one example of qualitative research methods as used in conducting surveys. Interviews are usually intended to effectively capture given situations as experienced by the interviewee and not as pre-determined by the interviewer or detective (Modell, 2007). These techniques generally involve broad application of inductive reasoning, investigative research questions, reference to human subjectivity and social context of the criminals under investigation.

There are several forms of interviews used in criminal justice research. A common example is the use of intensive interviewing to gather relevant information. This nature of interviewing comprises of usually unstructured open-ended questions. The interviewer or criminal detective in this case seeks detailed information related to the suspects experiences, feelings, or perceptions. This method does not require orderly surveillance andor scrutiny of the interviewees in their naturalordinary setting. In general, this nature of interviewing usually goes on for an unspecified time period, bringing on board new respondents andor suspects, and new interviewers until a point is reached where no more additional information can be gathered.

During the evaluation process, interviews are conducted for many different reasons including initial introduction, familiarization, fact gathering, verification and confirmation of information either gathered from the respondent or from a different source, and for clarification purposes (Modell, 2007).

The advantages of using interviewing as a data gathering strategy
This method of data gathering has several strengths when compared to other research methods. To start with, interviews are relatively cheap, especially those administered individually by the officers and suspects already under police custody. There are no logistical costs incurred when arranging such face-to-face interviews.

Interviews may also be used in gathering data from several locations. This is based on the fact that they may be administered from distant geographical locations for instance through arranged telephone interviews, use of online questionnaires and mails among other methods. These factors make them more applicable in data collection. In addition, a large population may be accurately described using this mode of research survey making it easier to draw general conclusions (Modell, 2007).

The accuracy levels and reliability index of using interviews is high. For face-to-face interviews, specific information without distortions or manipulation is obtained directly from the horses mouth. This makes it possible for the interviewer(s) to fully exhaust and explore the topics in details.  The interviewers may ask as many questions as possible during the investigation and thus giving substantial flexibility to the cross-examination and analysis.

Standardized interview questions enables the interviewers (detectives) to collect data from different parties involved in the case and comparatively interpret the information gathered from the group different accomplices of the same crime. Standardization also eases decision making by enforcing regular designations upon those concerned. They also give room for the interviewer to clarifyexplain questions thus increasing the chances of valuable responses.

The disadvantages of using interviewing as a data gathering strategy
Just like any other qualitative method of data collection, interviewing relies on the nature, simplicity and type of questions developed by the researcher, interviewee or detective in question. This encounters some difficulties in that some of the questions designed may be minimally appropriate or suitable for all interviewees, probably due to the fact that they may miss some aspects regarded as most suitable for most targeted respondents. Clarifications from the interviewers may result in discrepancies and thus influence the response.

In situations requiring face-to-face interviews, some of the respondents may experience some difficulties in recalling the fine details related to the interview subject. Some of them may also find it practically impossible to tell the bitter truths concerning a controversialcontentious question. Due to this, those concerned, usually suspected criminals end up faking cover up stories in order to secure their freedom. Such actions raise many questions regarding the information gathered from interviews. This gives its reliability and accuracy a benefit of doubt.

Interviewing aids that further enhance the technique
Some of the aids applied include use of interview forms questionnaires with leading questions on specific information needed, use of behavioral observation interview questions and also the application of medically approved methods that may be used to improve ones memory during the interview. Another potential aid that may further enhance the technique is the use of analogies by the interviewer (Modell, 2007). The investigator may relate similar cases, familiar to the respondent when trying to bring a proper image of the ongoing investigation.

The basic process for conducting an interview in survey research
The basic interview process comprises of three steps namely establishing rapport, gathering information and closing down the interview. Each step in the interview has its own requirements and individual protocol. For the interviewing process to be successful, maximum cooperation is needed between the interviewer and the respondent. The first step is the building of rapport. At this stage, some information may be gathered based on the first impression derived from the initial responses. When gathering information, the interviewer in this case asks questions and matches the responses of the interviewee against hisher organizations critical determining factors. The nature of questions asked at this stage is usually probing, intended to dig deeper into the respondents background and may even extend beyond the interviews veneer. Information gathered during the probing usually ends up answering the inner doubts of the interviewer and has a great influence in the overall decision making.

The final stage of the interviewing process is the close up step which ends the session. From this step, future strategies can be formulated based on the success or failures on the part of the detective to draw the much needed information for a specific case. From here, another interview may be scheduled with the same suspect, this time involving a different detective or a panel of detectives in order to ensure fairness and accuracy in the final decision or judgment.

The impact that wording on interview responses
In most cases, the wording and sentence structures followed by the interviewer may have many positive and negative impacts on the responses. In situations where the interviewer uses leading questions, the response is likely to be inclined towards the question. In addition, use of short questions that my either require a YesNo answer limits the response of the interviewee to the choices available. Use of open ended questions requiring detailed opinions and explanations gives the respondent the freedom to predetermine the nature of the response.
The Administration and Operation of the Criminal Justice System
The sentencing process in the United States

This is the courts official declaration of judgment upon the defendant at the instant where the penalty or punishment is set forth. In most US states and at the federal level, only the judge has the power to determine and impose sentences. In many other states, the defendant has the option of either electing a jury or a judge to sentence him after conviction. For capital cases, the sentencing process for many states requires that death penaltyexecution of such offenders should only be determined and imposed by a panel of not less than 12 jurors. The decisions made by the jury may however undergo a review by the same panel in order to exhaust all evidences produced during judgment and also scrutinize the suspects past criminal record. This review ensures fairness in the nature of sentence imposed.
After the sentence has been formally imposed, a grace period determined by the court is usually set aside before the actual dispensation of the recommended punishment. This grace period gives room for any post-trial motions such as appeals filed by the defense lawyers, and also enables the probation officers to carry out a pre-sentence investigation before making a conclusive recommendation to the judge.

The general factors that influence a judges sentencing decisions
The decision by judges to some extent is influenced by guidelines provided by the US Congress. These provisions allow the judges to depart from the traditional judgment requirements in situations where they come across mitigating or aggravating scenarios not properly addressed by the commission on sentencing. 

The recommendations filed by the probation officers may to some extent have an influence on the judges decision before issuing a sentence. This is based on the fact that these professionals with a background in social work, psychology, criminology after completing their investigations are in position to determine how individual convicts may respond to particular penalties. Their recommendation therefore settles on the appropriate punishment.

Mandatory, indeterminate and structured sentencing
Some of the goals of criminal sentencing include incapacitation, retribution, rehabilitation, restoration and deterrence. In the United States, the just deserts model is a high-ranking sentencing philosophy (Schmalleger, 1995). It puts more emphasis on the revenge and retribution elements of punishment. The nature of sentence issued by the judge or the jury is expected to portray justice, proportional to the crime committed. Structured sentencing as incorporated in the federal sentencing procedures is derived from the just deserts philosophy. This model is characterized by a reduction in inequitable and biased sentencing practices clearly portrayed in other sentencing models (Schmalleger, 1995).
Inequitable practices and discrepancies in indeterminate sentencing model are not as widespread as previously postulated by its critics. Instead of making the sentence lenient as expected, the structured sentencing model does not reduce the sentencing discretion. It instead shifts this discretion from the judges and gives room for plea bargaining. Since it criticizes parole, this model tends to weaken the desire of prisoners to undergo positive rehabilitation and thus result in an increased prison population (Schmalleger, 1995)

The development of federal sentencing guidelines
In an attempt to eliminate gross inconsistencies in sentencing, the US federal government together with many other individual states has tried to develop an optimum set of guidelines aimed at ensuring uniformity among judges. This attempt was boosted by the endorsement of the 1987 Sentencing Reform Act, which put in place strategies to reorganize the sentencing process. Despite the great impact that judges may have over the nature of sentence, their powers are surpassed by the parole laws of the states and the federal government and to some cases the state governors andor the president who may either commute sentences or grant pardon.

The significance of federal guidelines at the state level
At this level, there are several programs put in place to minimize the vast discrepancies in sentences pronounced by judges. By the mid 1990s, twenty two states had established commissions to institute sentencing guidelines to be adopted by their judges. Presently, nearly all the US states have put in place standardized sentencing laws that clearly define the nature of sentence or punishment to be imposed on an individual convicted of particular crimes, e.g. armed robberies, murder, sexual crimes etc.

Ethics and Moral Behavior in the Criminal Justice System
Ethical course of action pursued within the context of Kants categorical imperative
The ethical course pursued is to release the lady, confiscate the drugs and make follow up measures to ensure shes enrolled in a rehabilitation centre. According to Immanuel Kants categorical imperative, humans are expected to act by maxims that would guarantee harmony. Such maxims always tend to create coherent state of affairs by completely minimizing the chances of greatly undesirable and unstable scenarios such as losing on the charities, losing police sponsorship among other possible benefits.

Deontology and the Call to duty
This action or decision may be regarded as an individual or personal step. However, it may also be a conglomeration of all the possible states on condition that they are morally binding. According to Kants deontology, such actions do not attract condemnation but ironically attract praise since the actions extend beyond the normal call to duty. If follow up steps are not taken into completion, then Kant argues or regards such a decision as an imperfect call to duty.

Counterterrorism

    Terrorism which is perpetrated to further political, economic and social ideologies refers to the unlawful application of force to influence or coerce a group of people or a government. The 2001 terror attack in the US changed the worlds attitude and perception towards terrorism due to the magnitude as well as the unpreparedness of the worlds superpower to counter the attack. The attack which is commonly known as the 911 or September 2001 attack resulted in the massive destruction of property, loss of lives and left others physically and psychologically unwell. (Crank, J.  Gregor, P, 2005). The Al Qaeda terror gang is associated with the heinous attack and the finding of their training manual in the United Kingdom would play a significant role in as far as counter terrorism is concerned. (The Al Qaeda Manual). This emanates from the fact that understanding the enemy in terms of how they operate, their mission, values, sources of funds, their organization would help in the development of strategies or policies to fight against them.

The Al Qaeda training manual explained how serious the terror gang was thus calling for the need to adopt harsh or serious measures to fight it. The gang was very categorical about their hatred for western ideologies ruling out the chances for dialogue and leaving military approaches as the only option. The group was very organized and as a counterterrorist specialist, the need to distort the leadership as a way of destabilizing the group would be imperative.  (The Al Qaeda Manual). Effective dissemination of information about the propagandas and false accusations spread by the al Qaeda at a global scale would also be critical as it would reduce the number of sympathizers and supporters who fall for their lies and offer them support in terms of funds as well as providing hideouts. The al Qaeda terror group abused the Islamic religion to further their heinous acts. Steering democracy would also be vital in a bid to offer peaceful means to air their views or dialogue rather than resulting into violence. Understanding their means or mode of entry into a target country is also important as it would see to it that tight security measures are enacted across the borders as well as on the airports. The mere understanding that terrorists use fake documents such as passports, identity cards as well as record books would make the relevant authorities more cautious to deter them. (The Al Qaeda Manual). Understanding their sources of funds and disrupting them thus jeopardizing their operations. The need for collaborative measures would therefore be a necessity rather than a requirement in ensuring that the monies transfers were well monitored across the globe. (The Al Qaeda Manual).