Security 1

Q1. There are a number of advantages and disadvantages which can be achieved by vesting police and intelligence operations under one agency. Police officers are the legal law enforcement agents who have the authority to arrest, detain and prosecute suspects. This has the implication that combing police and intelligence operations will enhance effectiveness and acceptability of service (Chalk 2004, p.43). Such will resolve the problem of conspiracy involved in evidence collection thus making the prosecution process more reliable through enhanced admissibility of evidence in the criminal justice system (Chalk 2004, p.44). Still, combing policing and intelligence improves information dissemination (Chalk 2004, p.44). The sole aim of law enforcement is to ensure effective counterattacks measures even to the least internal security threats. Thus, by unifying the operations of police and intelligence, exchange of information between the two entities will be enhanced for the good of improving responsiveness to security theories (Chalk 2004, p. 46). Also, such eliminates conflict of interest between the two forces thereby promoting accountability on the war against homeland security threats.

Nevertheless, combining policing and intelligence can negatively impact on the process of identifying and destroying terrorist operation cells. A separate intelligence agency devotes its resources in collecting terrorism information through longtime surveillance of suspect activities as opposed to the case- specific approach used by the police (Chalk 2004, p. 48). Still, an independent intelligence unit is more likely to engage local communities for enhancing their information gathering process. This can enhance the participation of the public as they will get informed and appreciate the nature, rationale and purpose of intelligence. Another disadvantage of combining policing and intelligence is that it can compromise the effective approach for identifying and countering terrorism (Chalk 2004, p. 46). Intelligence engages in human-sourced data gathering activities as such help them in enhancing their capabilities and abilities in learning the dynamics involved in the identifying and destroying terrorism operation bases and logistic cells (Chalk 2004, p.46).

Q2. Any actionable intelligence requires adequate knowledge of the target, timing, and the type of attack being planned (Derksen 2005, p. 225). It has been established that almost in all incidences of terrorist attack intelligence at least one of the three elements of intelligence is missing. This is first because an effective counterterrorism process must be prompted by an eminent knowledge of danger (Derksen 2005, p. 225). Just like in any other institution, intelligence practices as a method of finding a lasting solution to insecurity can only be triggered by the evidence of a potential or real problem. It is due to this reason that law enforcements engage in contacting many surveillance activities in the process of trying to identify and qualify terrorism threats. This is quite crucial in the process of identifying the actual target of a terrorist attack as it serves to promote accuracy in the process of planning an effective strategic counterterrorism measures (Derksen 2005, p. 256).

A major problem facing actionable intelligence is qualifying the time of a terrorist attack (Derksen 2005, p. 258). True to the letter, timing of terrorist activities if well known serves to ensure an effective crime prevention plan. It remains illogical for anyone to claim of failed effectiveness by the law enforcement simply because without accurate timing, fluctuation in law enforcement efforts is normal overtime. Clear knowledge of the type of terrorist attack is equally important (Derksen 2005, p. 258). This is because it serves to ensure reliability on the selection of the correct counterattack plans to be used (Derksen 2005, p. 259).  Different types of attacks dictate for different preventive approaches. Therefore, it can be concluded that, without adequate information of the three elements, intelligence remains un-actionable (Derksen 2005, p. 258).  Security beep-ups must require accurate timing while knowledge of specific target and type of attack serves to mitigate undirected approaches in the process of preventing or responding to terrorist threats.

Internal Security

What has been the impact where police and intelligence operations have been vested under the one agency Vesting a single agency with the task of policing and intelligence gathering had brought mix impacts and results, both positive and negative. Integrated agencies of both policing and intelligence gathering are less prone to the lowering of the democratic threshold. The MI5 of the United Kingdom for example is often accused of working independently even without ministerial permission. As stated in the article, this can encourage governments to contemplate unwarranted departures from customary civil judicial practices (Chalk, et al 2004 p. 50). Another strength of an integrated police and intelligence force lies on its ability to relay or pass intelligence to relevant authorities. Contrary to agencies like MI5 and CSIS, these specific intelligence agencies have been accused of inability to pass necessary information to relevant authorities. This brought success to different terrorist incidents that could have been prevented only if the necessary information had been passed to relevant authorities (Chalk, et al. 2004 p. 52).

On the other hand, the weakness of an integrated agency will lie on the distraction brought by a case-oriented investigations of the law enforcement agencies. Separated intelligence agencies will have more time, resources and expertise that can be used in tracking criminal actions both short term and long term (Chalk, et al. 2004 p. 43-44). Another notable weakness of an integrated police and intelligence agencies lies on a limited pool of professionals and personnels that will be interested in working in the law enforcement agencies. Unusual professions like linguists, historians, psychologists etc. that can really bring development in solving and preventing crimes are less likely to join law enforcement professions because of the certain restrictions of domestic policing environments. (Chalk et al. 2004 p. 46)

Can intelligence be actionable when one of the three t elements is missing
Though it was agreed by many agencies, sectors of governments and neutral investigators that it is really difficult to stop an imminent terrorist attack without the presence of all three T elements of an actionable plan (Derksen 2004 p. 265), I would still like to argue that these three elements does not have the same weight in providing a decent course of action. Analyzing the table (p. 262 or Appendix 1) provided by Derksen wherein he outlined the availability of information of the three Ts, the type-information became the most disclosed element in terms of its number of sources. The type of attack element comprises 4 out 6 of all the intelligence sources. The other two elements namely target and timing were only disclosed once by one individual source.

Analyzing the disclosed information of the target and timing of attack, we can argue that it brought more success despite its limitation of the number of sources. Rick Rescorla for example who who was cited in the article is the one who managed to extract the information regarding the target building of the terrorists. With his vigilance due to his knowledge of the target building, he pushed for the relocation of the Morgan Stanley to another building. Though his appeal had failed, it can be still stated that his vigilance had managed to save more than 3000 employees of the said company (Derksen 2004 p. 258). The NSA discovery of the timing on the other hand can still pose a greater importance in the production of a viable plan if only the agency managed to extract the information earlier than it had (i.e. the information of the timing was extracted on September 10, 2001, one day before the event).

From this discussion we would like to argue, that it is still possible to produce a decent actionable plan and course of actions even though we lack a single element which is the type of attack. Though certain situations like a nuclear attack will definitely require the knowledge of the nature of attack, some attacks such as the 911 can be prevented with the knowledge of only two elements namely the location and the timing of the attack.

Doctrine of probable cause (case analysis)

This paper examines an article that appeared in the Seattle Times Newspaper in 2009.This article reported a traffic police stop check that happened in the county of Skagit. According to the article, the court was united in it verdict that the smell of pot does not entail probable cause to guarantee arresting and even searching everybody who was in the car. (Jones 2009).I will evaluate the requirements of warrant in relation to this case and to some extent, the works that cuts across probable and criminal procedure. (Jones 2009)
The probable cause in this case was in relation to the vehicle and the people it was carrying. It is important to note that the ruling in this case has changed future approaches pertaining to similar cases.
The judges said that, although bhang can continue to smell for several days, the police officers should not leave a vehicle alone that smells pot. The court said although the smell of marijuana may have been a good reason to arrest the occupants in the car there was need for the police to gather some more supporting evidence. This was because the smell alone may result in arresting innocent people. The court observed that the smell can remain for several weeks and at some point an innocent person may board the car without this knowledge and get arrested. The police officer had a probable cause to search the car, but not to arrest the driver or even the occupants according to the Supreme Court ruling. (Jones 2009)
But what might change in future is how a search in such a scenario is approached. Many people are not comfortable with a search that does not have a warrant. Nevertheless, if there is a reason that justifies probable cause or if it falls under the plain doctrine, then it is likely that no warrant will be required, and in most cases the judges will uphold it. (Jones 2009)
It is important to understand that probable cause means there is a good reason to believe that somebody has committed a crime. (probable cause 2009).Again, the doctrine of plain view (plain view 2009)can be defined as things that fall in the plain view of police officer who is rightly in a position to have a clear view of them are subject to arrest without any warrant (plain view 2009). This means that a police officer is legally required to arrest somebody without any warrant or evidence of any illegal goods (like marijuana in this case) that are found in the plain view in a lawful operation. (Jones 2009)
As it can be observed from this case, the smell of Marijuana is not enough reason to justify probable Cause. This means that the police officer should find extra legal means so as to have a strong case. The police should have sought a warrant first and then use the smell of marijuana as a just cause. This way the police would have been able to search and arrest all the people in the car. (Jones 2009).Indeed this would have made it easier for the people to be easily convicted. Even the police spokesperson was quick to point out that the police, in the future the police would be required to be careful in their investigations. (Jones 2009)
In summary, it can be said that the two doctrines, probable cause and plain view are valid for the police to use. But what is required is that they be used correctly. In some cases like this one, the two doctrines cannot work independently. Therefore there is need for the police to be careful and sharpen their investigation skills

Head Jails

Jails are institutions used to rehabilitate people with behavior that is not acceptable within the society. They are established by the legal systems of a country as centers of punishment to people who have disobeyed the laws of the country. Jails are used to take away the freedom of the people convicted of illegal activities to enable them change their behavior (Tonry, 2000).

The purpose of jails in society
They serve as correction centers. They are established to keep people convicted of crimes for a long period of time. Jails have the authority to hold detainees as well as lawbreakers who commit crimes. These institutions are used to house inmates as they wait to be transferred to federal or state prisons (Tonry, 2000). Jails serve as centers for counseling and treatment to people to prevent them from committing crimes in the future. They are institutions which are used as correction centers for behavior that is not acceptable by the laws of the country. It is an obligation of the jail to prevent the jailbirds from becoming tomorrows prisoners. Jails operate community-based corrections programs, for example, home confinement and electronic monitoring. Jails are used to keep excess prisoners when the state and federal prisons are saturated (Tonry, 2000). Jails are used to hold people charged with crimes as they await trial. They receive individuals as they wait to be tried, convicted or sentenced. Juveniles are detained in jails before they are transferred to juvenile authorities. The mentally ill persons are held in the jails before they are transferred to health facilities (Tonry, 2000).

Effectiveness of the current jail system
The current system is not effective. The population of the jails is expanding at an alarming rate and most of the inmates are former prisoners. The jails have failed to serve their purpose to correct the behavior of the inmates. Jails are overcrowded and the inmates become worse than before. The management of the jails is unable to handle the increasing number of inmates and few corrective activities are being done.

The jail terms are too short and the prisoners do not benefit from the rehabilitation process. There are few treatment facilities for the rehabilitation process. Some jails lack such facilities and do not rehabilitate their prisoners at all (Tonry, 2000).

Jails are used for rehabilitation for people with behaviors not acceptable by the laws of a country. They are used to hold people awaiting trials, the insane and juveniles as they wait to be taken to their respective authorities. The jail system has failed to be effective in accomplishing its mandate due to the few facilities as well as the increasing population of the jails.

The Prison System

This paper discusses and analyzes the history, purpose, and other aspects of American prison. It is addressing the effects of the great penitentiary rivalry experienced between Pennsylvania and New York prisons in the current prison system in terms of design and how the inmates are housed. It also explores the effect of the rivalry on the peoples thinking on the roles of prisons. The paper also has comparisons between private and publicly funded prisons.

Brief history
The prison system in America was quite different to that found in England. The justice system then preferred corporal punishment to other forms of punishment. William Penn did not like the system and went ahead to adopt the Great law in Pennsylvania in 1682. This code of William condemned the use of torture and mutilations as a way of punishment. The criminals in this code were forced to pay their victims by properties of goods while those who could not pay were locked in prisons which were more or less like a workhouse. However, capital punishment was only passed on intentional murderous. The state of Pennsylvania proved different, but the rate of reform in other states and England moved at a snails pace (Gaines, 2006).

William Penn passed on in 1718 and there after the Great law was repealed to incorporate harsher punishments for the criminals in Pennsylvania just as other states. During the American Revolution, Quakers played a significant role in changing the prison system from serving as a punishment institution to offering rehabilitation. In 1776, a law was passed in Pennsylvania stating that the offenders should be rehabilitated through treatment and discipline instead of beatings and execution. Other states like Massachusetts and New York adopted the style of Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania became the first state to open penitentiary wing in the Walnut Street Jail in 1790. It was assumed that silence and hard labor was the best way to make criminals change their ways. Silence would force the criminals to meditate about their offences and therefore would feel guilty and repent. Idleness on the other hand, was known to be the main cause of involvement in criminal activities therefore by providing hard labor, idleness will be eliminated. Apart from labor and silence, the offenders were kept in solitude and kept busy by menial jobs (Greene, 1997).

The impact of Great penitentiary on the current prison systems
Although the penitentiary at Walnut Street was bogged down by some problems, the concept did not disappear. Most states struggled to correct the problems which were facing the Walnut street prison Penitentiary by building new penitentiary units. Each and every state tried to interpret the roles of silence, labor, and solitary differently. The penitentiary of New York and Pennsylvania acted as the models for running prisons. The penitentiary models in Pennsylvania were based on transforming inmates into honest people while that of New York was based on obedience. In Pennsylvania, the principle of separate confinement was withheld while in New York, congregate system was adopted. The New York model proved popular and most prisons were build in copied their lead (Greene, 1997).

The emergence of different types of prisons today can be attributed to idea of penitentiary. The various examples of prisons include maximum security prisons, medium security prisons, and minimum security prisons. Some of the prison designs are carried from that of Pennsylvania and New York, but also some new designs have emerged. The new designs include radial, the courtyard, telephone pole, and the campus style designs. Radial design is meant for separation and control. Courtyard design takes the shape of a block and inmates are forced to walk across the courtyard to reach the other side of the prison. Telephone pole is aimed at keeping some particular activities at separate area (Gaines, 2006).

According to the penitentiary, the prison was to serve the purpose of reforming the wrongdoer by separating them and giving them work to avoid idleness. These thought have continued to affect peoples thinking on the purpose of the prison system today. People believe that prisoners should be separated to avoid them influencing one another and also be involved in providing labor to serve as a punishment for their offences.

Comparison between publicly funded and privately funded prisons
Publicly funded prisons get their entire funds from the government, which is they are run by tax payers money while privately funded prisons are managed by private individuals or organizations that are contracted by the state. The private prisons at times look more flexible and less effective in terms of rehabilitation of the inmates. Private prisons are involved in economic activities like garbage collection to enable them foot their bills (Greene, 1997).

The issue of privatizing prison has elicited a heated debate. The main reason for privatizing prisons is financial. By privatizing the prisons, the government cuts on the maintenance cost for these facilities. Services like garbage collection and road maintenance are also left to them so that they can get money from such jobs. The outrage on the issue of privatization was caused by the mentality of the citizens that may be the government is trying to exploit the prisoners by making money through them.

Private prisons have been supported on the grounds that they help the government to cut off extra expenses for their maintenance. Private prisons can be run cheaply as compared to public ones because the labor costs they incur are much lower as compared to those of public prisons. This is as a result of law wages paid to their non unionized workers (Gaines, 2006).

The arguments of those opposed to privatization are the possibility of the companies to try by all means to cut costs thereby denying the inmates crucial security assurance. Financial concerns associated with the private correction facilities include the possibility of increasing the days of the inmates for the state to continue paying for space occupied. On philosophical grounds, critics argue that correctional facilities should not be turned into industries like garbage collection and road maintenance. They argue that it is the role of the government to offer punishment but not any other body (Greene, 1997).

Budgeting issues in criminal justice administration (California)

California as a state has been faced with various challenges in the administration of justice. Because of this, the local government together with the state has opted for notable policy improvements that will help in addressing some of the challenges. This paper is going to look into the proposed changes and how they will help them overcome these challenges and deliver good results to the citizens.

Current budgeting issues in administration of criminal justice in California
The state of Californias success in rehabilitation of juvenile offenders and adults who are addicted to drugs has been poor for years despite the huge amount of money that is being used in the exercise. It is approximated that 200,000 is spent in a year to take care of a juvenile offender in a correctional facility. Although it meant to rehabilitate them, almost 50 percent of them are brought back to the state facility 3 years after they have been released. Poor results have also been recorded from the states in-prison substance abuse programs for adults. This is due to poor local government programs and policies that could not be able to properly address the underlying issues (Nafisi  Conner, 2005)

According to Champion (1994), to address the issue, notable policy improvements have been made over the last 20 years through review of state and regional government programs and rearrangement of duties to different levels of government that are able to deliver high-quality result .The Governors budget proposal for 2009-10, intend to shift funding for some programs in the criminal justice department to a local level. It has come up with a policy-driven rearrangement of approximately 1.4 billion US dollars state duties to counties to be put in place. Particularly, the proposal proposes that the young and adult offenders charged with crimes of drug trafficking be moved to the counties. These counties could be charged with the responsibility of taking care of the programs aimed at both juvenile offenders and adult drug addicts (Bouza, 1990)

Its recommended that financing of the programs is to be achieved through increase of vehicle licensing fees (VLF) rate by 1 percent. This could result in an increase in revenue by  1.1 billion and out of the already existing VLF revenues 359 million will also be redirected to the program. The department of motor vehicle is also expected to increase the annual registration fees by  12 which will be redirected to a new criminal justice realignment fund. This proposal will see a shift of responsibilities between the state and local justice. As a result, the government will be able to reduce the annual expenditure by approximately 1.4 billion US dollars. This could lead to delivery of better services for both young and adult offenders and a more reliable repayment stream to local management for mandates could be able to be put in place (Mameli, 2005)

Under this realignment program, counties will be fully responsible for juvenile offender programs and corresponding financial responsibilities. They will also be responsible financially in paying back the division of juvenile facilities (DJF). In adult offender account, punishment and treatment of the adult offenders will also be under the counties. They will use the resources in the account to cater for expenses that arise while these individuals are in jail or being rehabilitated in treatment facilitiescommunity.

Currently, juvenile justice programs are managed partially by counties and the government. County test departments mainly oversee all juvenile offenders brought to the justice system and more often than not control majority of juveniles who are determined to commit crime. They are usually supervised in group homes or in secure facilities such as camps during probation supervision. Responsibility of taking care of most serious offenders is left to the state where by it houses them in facilities that are managed by Division of Juvenile facilities. After these juveniles are released, the division of juvenile facilities parole agents supervises them (Moyer, 2004)

Funding of juvenile justice programs is equally divided between the government and the counties. Counties partly incur the costs used in running probation departments and the rest is taken care of by the   division of juvenile facilities. The state on the other hand pays for most of the division of juvenile facilities costs and supports various grant programs run by county juvenile division. The shifting of key juvenile offender programs to counties together with the general decline of juvenile crime rates has seen a steep decline in the population currently in the Division of juvenile facilities by almost 8,300 (Friedman  Fisher1997)

Under the proposed program where the government will shift full responsibility of young offenders to local government, the juvenile offender programs will change in many ways.

They Include
Identification of effective and ineffective programs will be made easy. This will make sure that necessary measures are taken to ensure that those programs that are not of benefit to the offenders are gotten rid of.

It will facilitate closer supervision of offenders due to the decline in the number of case loads. In addition, the county officers will be able to acquire more knowledge about the neighboring community and the type of treatments available for victims of drug abuse. It will also expand resources that juvenile offenders may be in need of such as education together with job placement resources.

Counties will have full control of their finances something that will give them an opportunity to come up with long term plans aimed at improving their programs and facilities. As a result of financial control being shifted to the county level, it will be able to have a long time plan that could enable them improve on their programs and facilities in general.

Currently, the state and the counties share the responsibility of taking care of adults who are convicted of drug abuse. Majority of the victims that are found guilty are sentenced to jail within the counties, put into probation or given other types of penalties. However, some offenders who are eligible for state programs and sanctions are sent to state prisons (Reamer, 2003)

Under the proposed criminal justice realignment, the responsibility of punishing or treating victims who are convicted of drug abuse will be changed from the state to counties. Also those offenders under civil narcotic addicts and those (DUI) driving under influence will also benefit from the program. Its recommended to the government to change the law to allow above crimes (narcotic addicts, drug possession and driving under influence) can be classified as misdemeanors. It is suggested that individuals guilty of the above crimes should either be put under probation, allocated to residential treatment or be held in county jailsother relevant facilities within the county. This will give counties an opportunity to expand their services to offenders with substance abuse problems and thereby determine their funds are used in imprisonment, alternative sanction and drug alcohol treatment (Baer  Moore, 2003)

According to Nagel (2000), shifting of responsibility from the government to the counties will see an increase in the safety of the general public and reduced substance abuse through combined program accountability together with encouraging innovation. This is likely to lead to reduce offender recidivism, counties will have more finances to provide the much needed services and it will also prioritize prison space by detaining more aggressive and stern offenders.

It has been found that in order, to improve public safety, crimes should be able to be prevented before they occur. Through well run programs that are aimed at rehabilitating drug and young offenders, future crimes can be prevented. Hence it is important for the government to consider Legislature realignment and improve state-county relationship as this could help in bringing the required reforms in the justice system.

Terrorism in the modern world

According to Bennett (2007 pp.1), the word terrorism was derived from the Latin word terrere meaning to tremble. The U.S Department of State in the United States code defines terrorism as a premeditated violence which is politically motivated against non-combats targets carried out by groups intending to influence an audience. Terrorist attacks are in most cases random and indiscriminately and intentionally target noncombatants. It is criminal in nature, motivated politically, and premeditated, with a vast scope of motives including religious, political, ideological or cultural. It assists an organization to further its ideological ideas. In this world of terrorism, targets include physical assets like people, services, information, and property. Terrorist attacks are normally designed to create disturbance and at the same time influence a wide range of audience apart from the victims of the actual terrorism.

The relationship between terrorism and the media is in most cases defined as symbiotic and to an extent of mutual benefit (Hauner, 2009 pp.3). Looking at it in one perspective, the media by increasing the viewing figures and circulation can ultimately make huge profits. Looking at in another perspective, the terrorists will have achieved what they wanted as the media will have already broadcasted the propaganda of the deed will have consequently instilled fear among the target groups. Worse still the terrorist can even at this point mobilize more support from other sympathizers and in the process influence their enemies political decisions. Some theories have emerged and claim that terrorists are what they are today because of the media coverage they enjoy. Despite the amplification effect however, censorship is not desirable nor can it be realized in western societies. This leaves the media with task o weighing the options of what is right and appropriate to air and what is not.
Take for example the terrorist network of Al Qaeda. Communication plays a vital role in order to adhere to net war strategies. Contrary to other hierarchical organizations which apparently are quite easy to run, a network form such as that of Al Qaeda requires dense and constant information. A communication system that is profound is essential as it allows the group which normally decentralized to manage the actions of its scattered cells. In the beginning, all the propaganda of Al Qaeda was meant for internal consumption only. The appeals to declare a global jihad did not in fact go beyond Al Qaeda sympathizers. They were only addressed to those Muslims who were living in nations with Islamic majority and also those who were living in western nations. The cell was by then protected by a network of cloudy information that frustrated the efforts of international penetration.

According to a report by the Centre of Excellence Defence against Terrorism (2007 pp.10), some researchers claim that terrorism would not exist if the media did not deliver the terrorists messages. On the other hand however, the war against terrorism has to be won without losing freedom in short democracy, like in every other war, has to make concessions of both political and civil rights in a bid to preserve freedom.  For a case like Iraq, it is apparent that the information campaign is more difficult than ever before, having its battles fought not only in the western and Arab Medias, but also in the global cyberspace. The insurgents have been able to extensively use the internet to recruit new fighters in their cells, attract support from their sympathizers, to gain technological advantage and to be able to sustain the global Jihad. The deaths of two British presspersons in Iraq is a good illustration of the manner in which media from all over the world has been covering events n Iraq. The media has been seen to have very sophisticated equipment that is able to relay live scenes as they actually happen. Yet with all this sophistication, the media in Iraq is not able go beyond the green zone and hence are not in a position to report on issues and event on the ground as the situation is deemed dangerous. The report also gives an account of how hostage takers make use of the media. In one particular Jihadist manual, it clearly stated that the media coverage is a very important goal in itself. The author states that it is a successful tool as it is able to capture international attention. Terrorists are now able to broadcast videos of their activities to their congregation. It has often been mentioned, that global terrorism would be close to impossible without the involvement of the mass media. Without mass media, terrorism would be just local or merely regional. Terrorism acts are designed to be fascinating news such that any journalist following their journalistic instincts will end up giving mass coverage to terrorist acts.

The use of the media according to Fawaz Gerges is very crucial for Al Qaeda. Many in the cell have said that Osama Bin Laden is addicted to the international media and is already obsessed with the applause and fans that come with it (Gerges 2005 pp.194). Apparently, he happens to be not the only one who values the media this highly. Al-Zawahiri is believed to have said that half of this battle takes place in the media battle field. One Islamic magazine is recorded to have written encouraging jihadists to film everything they think is good advice for mujahideen. He advices them that every shot they take is as good as firing a missile to the enemy and his puppets. According to the author, without the coverage of the media, terrorism would amount to almost being helpless, and would thus limit it to the immediate victims of terrorist attacks rather than reaching the intended wider audience.
Terrorists would resemble the proverbial tree that falls in the forests. Any terrorist incident would be as if it never happened if at all if the media did not cover it in the first place. Terrorists are not in any way interested I the deaths of twenty people, or two hundred people. They let the imagination of the target masses do the math for them. Terrorists could even carry attain their objectives without even having to carry out any attack. The broadcast of declarations and threats through the radio, television, internet, and interviews would produce the desired panic just by using such crude psychological warfare. A terrorist will always try to be in the media and spend as much time as possible there. The objective is simple. To gain attention. They try to influence the media outlets, which in turn spreads the word on the existence of the organization, thereby influencing their audience. Creating fear among the audience is the major reason behind this. It is seen as a very important factor in any terrorist organization as the whole concept of terrorism is based on fear.

Mark Danne adds that the power exhibited by todays media and especially the television facilitates this particular violent road to legitimacy. The terrorists lure the journalists who then air the kidnappings and hijackings to the rest of the world, and by this they manage to make strong political statements. The media though not directly becomes a partner in terrorist productions when they provide the terrorists with a podium in exchange of a photo opportunity and when they replace what the terrorists do with what they say.