Miranda Rights

There has been much talk about Miranda Rights and the preservation in the news media recently.  Attempted terrorists are now being given Miranda Rights as though they were citizen of the United States.  While this practice has created much controversy, each citizen of the United States is to be legally given Miranda Rights in order to protect them from self-incrimination.  The United States Supreme Court made a landmark decision in Miranda vs. Arizona citing that Miranda Rights were a diligent part of law enforcement.
   
Certain legal conditions mandate the use of Miranda Rights.  Miranda Rights give an individual the right to remain silent, have an attorney, and refuse to answer any questions.  These intricate rights also inform the individual that any information provided of them may possibly be used in court at a later date.  Before any member of law enforcement is able to interrogate a suspect, the suspect is to be read the Miranda act.  If a suspect has been placed under arrest, the same holds true.  These rights are used to preserve the innocence of the suspect until proven guilty in a court of law.
   
It has been questioned as to whether or not a confession offered before being read the Miranda act can still be used in court against the individual.  The answer is no.  Any statement made in a confession, influenced confession, or out of duress may not be used against any individual in a court of law.  Other evidence may be used against a defendant in a court of law to secure a conviction without a confession.  Miranda Rights are a minor technicality that carries a lot of weight in court.  If due process is not followed diligently, the court can be forced to uphold the law by dismissing any charges against a suspect.  Most importantly, the Miranda act was enacted to keep individuals from incriminating themselves.

Communication Barriers

Communication is the most effective way of conveying ideas and thoughts from one person to another.  This can be achieved through speech, gestures, and looks.  In todays changing times communication barriers are becoming ever more present.  The United States is growing fast in population which brings with it different cultures and ways of communication.  English is becoming a second language.  For law enforcement officials, this can become quite a hindrance when trying to perform the duties required of their job.
   
Law enforcement may encounter situations that make communicating virtually impossible.  This may be due in part to someone having a disability, hearing loss, speech impediment, or an inability to understand the language by which the officer is speaking.  In order to overcome these barriers, law enforcement officials must be willing to listen and learn.  Officers need to be mindful to show respect and be empathetic when trying to communicate with an individual.  Being patient and speaking slow are also effective reassurances that can be offered to the individual.  Avoid eye contact as to not intimidate the individual.  Slang should not be used.  Communication barriers can be remedied where differences in language are concerned when precincts offer foreign language courses to enhance the officers communication abilities.
   
When an officer is conducting an investigation, communication barriers make an already hectic situation seem worse.  Law enforcement officials can use other means of collecting information besides verbal speech.  Officers can listen to what the word is already on the streets.  Someone may pass a note or leave a voice message for the officer in charge.  A translator may be needed when interviewing someone who simply cannot communicate in English.  Gestures and sign language are other effective forms of communication.  An officer should never condemn an individual for their personal indifferences in communication.

Self-Managed Teams

Self-managed teams are defined to be  relatively autonomous teams whose members share or rotate leadership responsibilites and hold themselves mutually responsible for a set of performance goals assigned by higher management . In this kind of teams, there are several expectations from each of the members, as all of them play a critical role towards the achievement of the groups goals. The elements of the self-managed teams can be used in organizations under the field of Criminal Justice.

First, the team members are expected to share their knowledge, skills, and abilities that results to the expansion of employees KSA and levels of motivation. Through this, the members of the team can play a diverse set of roles as they have an increased level of knowledge and are capable of doing more tasks using the information gained. Second, the members are expected to acquire leadership roles in order for them to effectively handle the team as everyone should be able to lead theirselves and the team. Lastly, team members are expected to adopt the principles of  preparation, communication, and mutual respect,  which gave way to the success of The Orpheus Chamber Orchestra.

In organizations working under the field of Criminal Justice, the concepts related to self-management teams can be applied where relative autonomy can be given to these organizations. For example, police officers can work as a team during entrapment operations wherein everyone is allowed to take on different roles in leading. However, there are occupations with highly specialized requirements and can not be included, such as the appointed officials.

Team Members

Teams and Groups
In organizations, the role of teams and groups form a significant part in the achievement of goals. According to Bolman and Deal (2003), a great part of the work in present-day organizations are carried out by teams and groups. However, there is a distinction made between the two where all teams are considered to be groups but not all groups are teams. Simply put, the teams can refer to themselves as groups but groups lack some of the characteristics of a team, which makes them not appropriate to be called a team.

The concept of the word  team  is defined by  a group of people with a high degree of interdependence geared toward the achievement of a goal or the completion of a task. The teams have something in common, which makes them qualified to become groups, but moves on beyond this quality to include working towards a particular goal as they become interdependent with one another. For example, the marketing team formed for the purpose of introducing a new car to the market share certain characteristics and are working towards the goals provided to them. As for groups, the broadest definition that can be provided is that it is  a number of people who have something in common. In this case, the common characteristics do not qualify them to become teams because of the inherent lack of the movement towards a particular goal. For example, women who have two children can be considered as a group because they have something in common. Also, students who belong to a particular section can also fall under the category of a group because they share the same section.

Thus, the characteristics of the team can include that of the group. However, the elements of the group do not suffice for them to be considered as teams.

Federal Bureau of Prisons

Incarcerating offenders for the purpose of ensuring the safety of the members of mainstream society is not the only function of the Bureau of Prisons. The truth is that the Bureau is engaged in rehabilitating offenders so that they could become productive members of society after serving their time in prison. In this connection, the programs and services being provided in the different federal prisons are not only meant to meet the basic needs of the inmates. Prison officials are also tasked to ensure that inmates are prepared for a successful reintegration into society and that their leisure is being structured in such a way as to contribute to their general transformation. Achieving this threefold objective, according to the bureau, would effectively ease the inmates way back into the folds of society, and prevent them from committing future offenses, thereby reducing the rate of recidivism (Federal Bureau of Prisons, n.d.).
           
The most immediate concern of prison officials once an offender is committed to a prison facility is to attend to his or her physical and mental health needs. Hence, a physical check-up is done and any ailment consequently diagnosed is immediately treated. Afterwards, the inmate is led through a program of orientation. Under this program, the inmate is made aware of everything about the facility such as its policies, the different programs which he or she could avail of, the basic services being provided, and the procedures being followed by every inmate (Federal Bureau of Prisons, n.d.).
              
Guided by findings of various studies on recidivism, the Bureau has adopted programs which are meant to increase the inmates self-respect become more tolerable of other people mold them into more responsible human beings and become productive members of society. For instance, religious programs are available to inmates. These programs are being undertaken with the help of prison chaplains, volunteers from the community, and spiritual leaders of different religious faiths being contracted by prison authorities. Inmates are encouraged to attend religious services and go to bible or scripture study groups aimed at their self-improvement. Other religious services like pastoral care, spiritual guidance, and counseling are likewise available to every inmate (Federal Bureau of Prisons, n.d.).
            
Aside from these religious programs, inmates are being provided with opportunities to acquire the necessary skills which would qualify them for employment after leaving prison. These opportunities come in the form of education, vocational and job training. Federal prison facilities, for example, allow inmates who have not finished high school to obtain an equivalent General Educational Development (GED) certificate by attending the literacy program for at least 240 hours. If an inmate is not a native English speaker, he or she should also take classes in English as a Second Language. Inmates could also attend the training programs which would provide them with the vocational and occupational qualifications needed in the outside world. These programs include opportunities for on-the-job trainings where inmates work in Federal Prison Industries. After completing these programs, inmates are ready to look for employment in the outside world since they are already qualified for vocational and occupational jobs (Federal Bureau of Prisons, n.d.).
            
Acquiring the necessary qualification for employment, however, is usually not enough. After being incarcerated for a number of years, inmates often become disoriented and lost when they go out of prison. The task of looking for job opportunities in their fields of training and then actually applying for vacancies have proven to be very intimidating or overwhelming for most released inmates. To prepare their inmates, prison officials make them undergo a Release Preparation Program 18 months before their actual release from prison. This program teaches inmates how to write their resumes, how and where to look for a job in the community, and when able to land one, how to behave in order to retain it. Usually, they are also taught how to look for additional training opportunities in the community in order to strengthen their qualifications (Federal Bureau of Prisons, n.d.). 
            
Prison life should not be a total waste for an inmate who is determined to reform and leave the prison walls as a productive member of society. While there are numerous opportunities that an inmate could avail of, the three programs outlined above should suffice. First, by attending the available religious programs, he or she gets to be a better person. Then he or she could acquire valuable vocational expertise by attending the training programs designed for this purpose. Finally, through the Release Preparation Program, the inmate is assisted in looking for gainful employment as soon as he or she rejoins society. Therefore, by going through the process of rehabilitation, an offender is able to give a new meaning and direction to his or her life. Hence, there is a very high probability that said inmate never sees the inside of a prison facility again.      

Child Abuse

Child abuse can be described as failure andor doing something that may result in harming or exposing the child to the risk of being harmed. Child abuse can take different forms which include physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Child neglect is also considered as another form of child abuse. By learning and understanding the prevalent forms of child abuse, one can be able to intervene, prevent and aid in breaking the cycle of abuse.

Types of child Abuse
Physical abuse involves infliction of physical injuries to the child whether with intent or not. Such injuries are as a result of child beating, kicking, biting, and any other action that leaves the kid nursing physical injuries that may range from mere bruises to severe fractures. Extreme cases may result in death of the victims. Sexual abuse involves any activities by the childs parents, guardian, or caretaker that may be regarded as sexual assault to the kid. Such actions include rape, sodomy, fondling the childs genitals among other indecent actions. Issues of child pornography and exploitation through prostitution are also regarded as child sexual abuse. Emotional abuse involves a pattern of behavior that is detrimental to the childs psychological and emotional development. Emotional abuse may take the form of constant threats to the child, being too critical to the kind, withholding love, and being generally emotionally unsupportive to the kid. Lastly, child neglect involves failure to provide for the childs basic requirements in life.

Conclusion
The issue of child abuse is deeper than once thought, it takes more than mere bruises and fractured bones. Even though physical abuse is easily recognizable due to scars that it leaves behind, other forms are also prevalent. Emotional and sexual forms of child abuse are equally detrimental to the childs well-being and therefore need to be addressed with much vigilance just like the physical form of abuse. Child abuse is a serious concern and the victim usually suffers emotional and physical damage. It is therefore advisable to address the problem before it goes beyond control and have negative repercussions to the child.

Incarceration

Incarceration is an overused and misused form of discipline within the criminal justice system. Crimes involving murder, rape, child molestation, robbery, and kidnapping should have mandated periods of imprisonment.  Simpler crimes such as passing a bad check, shoplifting, and simple possession charges are causing the penal system to become less effective and overburdened.  Other avenues of retribution should be examined in order to protect the integrity and level of impact that the prison system so badly needs.
   
Each state has put into effect statutes and laws requiring convicted offenders to serve a specific amount of time in jail for certain offenses.  This is legislations way of putting a muzzle on society.  It creates the illusion of the problem having been solved.  Inmates are serving up to five years in prison for passing up to three bad checks, while another inmate could be serving less than two years for an involuntary manslaughter conviction.  The legislative branch has taken upon itself the task of making mountains out of mole hills for public approval, but society is paying for it in full every day.
   
The current prison system in the United States is in need of reconstruction.  States that have discontinued a parole or probation system should be allotted the necessary grant funding in order to rekindle the programs.  These programs should take on new provisions and guidelines.  Alternatives to serving time should be given to each state.  Research grant funding to study the use of work release programs, community based services, reporting centers, and other methods for alternative punishment should be made a top priority.  Prisons are becoming institutions for criminal higher learning.  The effectiveness and lessons that should be learned are being reduced to mere ink on paper.  Offenders are viewing their sentences as laughable due to the overcrowding problems.  These convicted offenders know that their stay in any jail or penitentiary will be short lived at best.