Merton used functional analysis as a strategy for his researches to study the socioeconomic conditions facing the current society. He expanded on Durkheims views to explain the reasons that lead individuals to commit crime in society. Durkheim claimed that crime mostly happens in societies that are experiencing changes in their structure and organizations as a result of the lack moral norms (Merton, 1957, VBS). Merton expanded this to cover the adaptations that individuals practice in their attempts to link the imbalances between their culturally believed ways of attaining economic success and the structural possibilities of achieving them in the society.
 (100 words).

Overview of research on Crime
Definition of robbery
Robbery refers to the crime of taking or attempting to acquire anything of value that is not lawfully yours through force or using threats. It usually entails depriving the victim of the property completely. It is characterized by lack of consent from the victim and the offender always has the intentions of stealing. It can occur anywhere and anytime because there is neither deliberation nor predetermination. The use of force or intimidation is required to execute a robbery offence. The amount of force applied during the act differentiates it from simple theft. Robbery occurs in different types armed robbery characterized by the use of weapons, home invasion robbery which happens at residential places, piracy which is war-like and is mostly committed on sea-vessels, carjacking, highway robbery and extortion whereby victims are threatened with consequences that they will face if they fail to compromise with the demands of their offenders(Allen 2005).

Statistics on crime and the participatants
According to the statistics of FBI Uniform Crime Reports of 2006, the 447,403 crimes cases were reported to the police. This shows that high population density is directly related to higher crime cases. The US Department of Justice estimated losses from robberies to be nearly 539 million. Anybody can engage in robbery so long heshe is able to execute the required amount of force. Statistics have shown that most robbers are male aged between fifteen and thirty years (Mcgoey et al, Crime Doctor).

Reasons why individuals engage in crime
Individuals have different reasons for committing robbery acts. The motives are in one way or another related to fulfilling what they lack or is aimed at getting what they have failed to achieve by following the structures required by society. It might also be poverty related or caused by family structures. Inequality in society such as the unequal distribution of resources leads to creation of social statuses. As a result of this unequalness, individuals are faced with the desire to achieve more and more wealth so that they can achieve status recognition.

In their attempts to conform to the societal set standards, individuals follow the rules in their pursuit of achieving their goals. They go through the education system and if they are lucky to be employed, they conform to the work ethics. Others will create new mechanisms to attain their goals using alternative means as opposed to those related to the structures of the society (Messner et al).

Competition increases and individuals are forced to new adaptations. The reasons may include the need for money and property that will put them in a defined standard, the influence from their peers, lack of a regular source of income, the availability of opportunities to fulfill their dreams and in such cases they view the rewards from the crime as exceeding the risk involved. Family structure can also influence individuals into committing robbery acts. Individuals raised in families faced by poverty are more likely to device faster ways (such as robbery) of achieving resources to get them out of poverty. Most criminals usually come from families which are not united, and are usually categorized into the lower class. Drug use might also force individuals into engaging in criminal acts. The drugs usually affect their mental systems leading them to rejecting the structures that exist in society and they choose to live in solidarity.

Application of theory to the research
The reasons that lead individuals into committing robbery acts are related to Mertons adaptations (Merton, 1996). Societal structures usually force individuals to conform to the set standards and procedures of achieving their goals. This can be related to conformity that was used by Merton. Inability to achieve goals might lead individuals to resort to robbery as an alternative means. There is also a group of individuals who are bored and dissatisfied with the end result of acquiring more wealth but will still follow the standards set by the society. In an attempt to fulfill their satisfaction, robbery will be their best alternative. Merton also described a category of retreatists and rebels who see no value in the means required to achieve goals and also the achievement in it. Retreatists are categorized by those individuals who have discriminated themselves from the society and do not engage in any activity related to the society.  Majority are drug addicts. The rebellious individuals are those who try to change society using they own rules. They believe that they cant achieve their goals using the means described by the society as being legitimate. Good examples are organized gangs which commit planned robberies.

It can clearly be seen that Mertons strain theory is relevant in explaining why individuals commit robbery in the current society. The adaptations argued by Merton fit the different categories of ways in which individuals in society use to achieve their goals. By categorizing individuals into five groups depending on conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion. The answer to the meaning of robbery, how to identify the participants are realized. In addition and explanation to the likely reasons that encourage people to engage in robbery is sought. Finally the paper gives the answer to the main motivation behind the formation of organized gangs. (103 words).

The Effectiveness of Training in Controlling Precursor Behaviours Leading to Excessive Use of Police Force

The investigation evaluates the effectiveness of training for police officers in controlling behaviours that lead to the excessive use of force in the conduct of their work. The evaluation study will respond to the questions on whether training specific to excessive use of force helps decrease precursor behaviours to excessive use of force and on whether the behavioural effects of training are sustainable. The research will employ quasi-experiment with two groups of 30 patrol officers each, from two police departments in similar communities selected through stratified sampling, comprising the experimental and control group. The quasi-experiment involves a pre-test, training, and post-test using a self-report questionnaire. Data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and t-test to determine effectiveness based on the results for the two groups and the results for the experimental group in the post-test administered 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks from the training.   
Keywords excessive use of force, precursor behaviours, training

The use of excessive force by police officers is a serious issue. Complaints on the use of excessive force and resolutions of these complaints reflect on the professionalism and accountability of law enforcement. The issue touches civil and political rights to bear down at the core of democracy. The issue of use of excessive force intensified with complaints being lodged against police officers in different parts of Australia (Kleim, 2006 Australian Associated Press, 2009) and court decisions finding excessive use of force (Australian Indigenous Law Reporter, 2001 Barry, 2010). These complaints and decided cases support the use of excessive force by police officers as an issue. 
The United Nations (2009) produced a paper on the state of the civil and political rights in Australia based on the reports of the state and the observations reported by the Human Rights Committee. One of the conclusions is the need to address the use of excessive force of police officers especially towards minors and individuals belonging to ethnic or indigenous groups. The recommended solutions were to establish an investigation team and to provide training to police officers. 

Training is the intervention considered for evaluation in the current study. Training involves the component of learning (Scrivner, 1994). Police officers learn about excessive use of force so they can exercise good judgment in not using excessive force given different situations. The training also involves the component of practice (Scrivner, 1994). Training modules available include physical exercises through role-playing or simulation on police work without using excessive force. Training also include the stress relief and management component (Scrivner, 1994) to help police officers handle stress well and prevent stress as a precursor to excessive use of force in doing police work. Evaluating the effectiveness of training informs on how well training can control the behaviours that lead to the excessive use of force to prevent incidents of police officers exercising excessive force in doing their duties. Benefits of training can be optimized and limitations can be addressed through improvements in the training program or augmenting training with other interventions.

Evaluation Study
The investigation evaluates the effectiveness of training for police officers in controlling behaviours that lead to the excessive use of force in the conduct of their work. The succeeding sections review the literature to define the topic of investigation, establish the importance of the study, and determine the research questions and hypothesis. A discussion of the methodological framework of the evaluative study also follows. The last section summarises the plan for the investigation.

Literature Review
Excessive Use of Force
The underlying assumption of excessive use of force by police officers is the existence of the power to use force (Alpert  Smith, 1994). Police officers have the authority to exercise force in fulfilling their duties to ensure peace and order in the community (Wolf, 2000) such as by arresting people who commit crimes, dispersing brawls, and controlling other activities inimical to the security of individuals and society. By having the authority to use force in the conduct of police work, excessive use of force is the abuse or malpractice of this authority.

In recognizing the necessity of considering context, excessive use of force is the unwarranted or unnecessary use of force and overstepping of the limits of authority (Alpert  Dunham, 2004). This stresses on the illegitimacy of the excessive use of force. It is broad and open to various situations that can comprise excessive use of force and requires judgment, which fall under the role of the justice system such as tribunals and courts (Bennett  Hess, 2007). An effort to provide a more specific understanding of excessive use of force is the policy of the Miami-Dade Police Department to require the filing of a report in case of the use of certain techniques or if particular situations arise. These techniques and situations are those likely to involve excessive use of force. Police officers make a report on situations that likely or actually resulted to injury or a complaint, when struggle or resistance leads to injury, and when using chemical agents, baton and neck restraint. (Alpert  Dunham, 2004)

The determination of the exercise of unnecessary force or the overstepping of boundary is important in the judgment over the use of excessive force. One means is the use of the proportionality principle, which provides that the action or reaction should be proportional to the stimulus (McPherson, 2006). This applies by considering the number of people involved, the relative state of the parties involved, and the relative situation. Information on these factors, based on the perspectives of the parties, determines the proportionality of the means employed by police officers in relation to the other party and the situation. Another related principle employed in determining excessive use of force is the reasonableness test, which considers whether actions fall under the limits of what constitutes reasonable given the situation (Alpert  Smith, 1994 Alpert  Dunham, 2004 Bennett  Hess, 2007). The question that this test answers is whether a reasonable man would do the same act given a similar situation (Bennett  Hess, 2007).   

The use of excessive force by the police finds explanation from three perspectives. One reason is the individual traits of police officers (Friedrich, 1980). Traits such as narcissism, paranoia, and abusive attitude support the tendency towards excessive use of force (Scrivner, 1994). A second reason is the resulting situation when police officers meet civilians (Friedrich, 1980).  Factors such as violence, resistance, struggle and threat are issues emerging in situations involving police officers and civilians that determine the use of excessive force (Bennett  Hess, 2007). The last reason is the organization and environment within which police officers work (Friedrich, 1980). Very strict policing styles, poor supervision, and complacence over accountability are work conditions that can breed excessive use of force (Scrivner, 1994). These three explanations for the use of excessive force by police officers provide the causes of this issue as well as the areas of focus in addressing this issue.

A study (Adams et al., 1999) attempted to measure the amount of force exerted by police officers and against them during arrests through the weapons and techniques employed. The study identified four levels of force, from the weakest to strongest, as physical force, physical force with threats, continuum of force, and maximum force. The study found that while police officers use force, these fall under the weaker levels of force. While the use of excessive force comprise the exception in the behaviour of police officers, the commission of this act has dire implications on law enforcement and the role of the police in society (Alpert  Dunham, 2004). This supports the excessive use of force as a significant issue that requires resolution.

A number of solutions to the excessive use of force exist. One is pre-employment screening to select the people fit for law enforcement and to determine the people at risk of excessive use of force (Scrivner, 1994 Anderson et al., 1998). The results of pre-employment screening can lead to interventions for at-risk individuals (Greene, 2007). While this is one solution, law enforcement cannot rely solely on pre-employment screening because risks can develop during the course of career as a police officer so that testing of existing police officers is also important (Scrivner, 1994).

A study on controlling the use of excessive force by police officers showed that screening and testing identified five profiles prone to violence that also comprise the precursors to excessive use of force (Scrivner, 1994). Addressing these precursors goes to the root of the problem. The profiles are 1) personality disorders such as narcissism or egocentrism, 2) work-related experience such as trauma, 3) inexperience and immaturity, 4) inappropriate policing styles such as provocative responses, and 5) personal problems such as death, divorce or financial difficulties (Scrivner, 1994). These precursors can exist before and during employment as police officers. Screening and testing identify these precursors for individual police officers and identify the appropriate interventions.   

An intervention receiving increasing attention is training. The forms of training vary. There are training programs that address the problem at a broad level by fostering ethical practice, strengthening community relations, and enhancing law enforcement techniques that do not require force. These forms of training have indirect impact by influencing the precursors to excessive use of force. There are also training programs intended to create change in the attitudes of police officers and the work environment, such as community partnership policing that bring communities and law enforcement closer, to address excessive use of force indirectly. Better community relations build positive conditions to control the precursors of excessive use of force. (Adams et al., 1999) Training program can be multidimensional to control various precursors of excessive use of force. Training applies adult learning principles to build knowledge, awareness and informed decision-making together with opportunities for application through role-playing and simulations. Training also focuses on stress management and competency building to prepare police officers in dealing with various situations more prudently. (Scrivner, 1994)

There is variance in the training implemented by law enforcement authorities particularly the extent of focus targeting the solution to excessive use of force via its precursors (Scrivner, 1994). Moreover, training programs do not often come with comprehensive evaluations to determine impact on addressing the issue of excessive use of force (Adams et al., 1999).

Research Questions and Hypotheses
Research Questions
1) Does training specific to excessive use of force helps decrease the incidence of behaviours that precede such use of excessive force
2) Can the behavioural effects of such training be sustained over time

1a) Training specific to excessive use of force helps decrease the incidence of precursor behaviours through awareness and knowledge building.
1b) Training specific to excessive use of force helps decrease the incident of precursor behaviours through practice given different situations.
1c) Training specific to excessive use of force helps decrease the incident of precursor behaviours through stress management and competency building.
2) Behavioural effects of training are sustainable when training focuses on excessive use of force.

Evaluation Site and Subjects of the Study
The evaluation site is police departments whose law enforcement officers hold the authority to use force in the course of their work. Doing the training evaluation in police departments provides first-hand data on the effectiveness of training in controlling precursor behaviours leading to the excessive use of force based on the outcomes for participating police officers. 

The subjects of the study are patrol officers purposively selected. Patrol officers are the target participants of the training because these do general police work and likely to encounter different people and face various situations. The police officers to participate in the study should meet certain inclusion criteria to qualify as a subject (Creswell, 2008). In the study, the police officers should 1) have at least a 2-year tenure, 2) currently be in a field assignment or duty (vis--vis an administrative post), and 3) express willingness to participate in the study. Meeting the field assignment criterion ensures that the training participants are officers doing work in the field and directly dealing with civilians and situations with civilians. Compliance with the criteria on tenure ensures a common factor for all participants. Willing participation supports the validity of the results.

Evaluation Design
The study shall adopt a quasi-experimental research design involving two groups and using pre-test and post-test. A quasi-experiment adopts most of the characteristics of an experiment but without having full control over extraneous variables (Creswell, 2008). The use of this research design was because of the difficulty of using randomization and having equivalent or highly similar groups. Extraneous variables such as age, ethnic background, and similar variables may not be subject to full control in the study. Nevertheless, employing quasi-experiment supports the determination of the impact of the treatment to inform on its effectiveness.

The quasi-experiment involves a comparison of two groups of patrol officers. One group shall act as a control group representing the absence of training while the experimental group shall involve subjects who shall undergo training. The groups shall be from the police force of two contiguous and similar communities in terms of population and population characteristics. Doing so ensures having a comparable group to determine effectiveness based on relative outcomes. 

Determining the effects of training over time shall be through a pre-post test. A pre-test of the two groups will happen prior to the treatment by using a questionnaire. The two groups will complete a questionnaire asking them about the frequency with which they exhibit behaviours that predispose them to the use of excessive police force. It is expected that there are no significant differences in their scores to establish homogeneity between the two groups. The next phase involves the intervention to be carried out by a police psychologist. The timeframe for monitoring effects through a series of post-tests is only at 8 weeks. The same set of questionnaires shall be administered to the experimental group within 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks following the training session. This will be carried out to determine the outcomes of the training on behaviour over time and to ascertain their implications to the conduct of follow through training. 

The police officers forming part of the groups belong to the same police department. Talk about the training and the evaluation may happen. There may be a tendency to copy or influence responses to affect the validity of the study. Nevertheless, the questionnaire involves self-reporting and requires the respondents to focus on their personal experience. This together with guarantees of confidentiality could encourage self-reporting based on their own opinion and experience.

The lack of full control of extraneous variables and the limited number of participants could affect the reliability of the study. Consideration of the extraneous variables and having more participants could affect the results. Nevertheless, the use of stratified random sampling supported comparison between the groups and random selection of participants representing the patrol officers of the two police departments. 

Population and Sample
The Australian police force is the population of the study. However, for pragmatic purposes, only a sample of police officers shall be enlisted in the study. Police officers in two contiguous and similar communities comprise the population sampled using stratified random sampling (Creswell, 2008).

The criteria for selection are position as patrol officer on field assignment and at least 2 years employment in the police force of the either of the two communities considered in the study. After identifying the individuals that qualify for each of the police departments in the two communities, 30 patrol officers will be selected at random. The 30 patrol officers from one community will comprise the experimental group and the other 30 patrol officers in the other community will become the control group. Employing this sampling method ensures similarities between the two groups to warrant comparison in support of determining training effectiveness.

Obtaining participants from two similar communities support generalisations for the police force in these two communities as well as for the police force in similar communities. Generalising the results for the entire police force of Australia may not be possible. However, the results can have important implications on training programs focused on excessive use of force in different police departments in the country.   

Variables and Data Collection Methods
There are two variables of interest in the study. These are 1) training and 2) precursor behaviours to the use of excessive force. The independent variable, training, shall have two levels those without training, and those with training. The dependent variable, behaviours leading to excessive use of force, shall be measured through scores on a self-administered questionnaire documenting the frequency of the behaviours indicating risk for excessive use of force (Scrivner, 1994). There are intervening variables that could affect impact of training on precursor behaviours such as age, gender, ethnic background, personality, personal problems, and other similar factors. While these may not completely controlled in the study, the selection and sampling process ensures similar conditions to support comparison. 

Two data collection methods are useful to the study. One is secondary data collection, which shall be undertaken through the collation of journals, online references, and books related to the subject matter (Bryman  Bell, 2007). Secondary research supports the conceptual framework of the study, particularly the determination of the research questions and hypotheses as well as the variables. The other is primary research carried out through a self-report questionnaire, which will be administered to the police officers who expressed willingness to participate in the study and who are included in the sample. This shall be pilot tested, and established in terms of validity and reliability prior to deployment. The primary data will provide responses to the research questions and test the hypotheses. Secondary and primary data collection when used singly has limitations in the type and extent of data collected. Combining secondary and primary data will satisfy the data requirements of the study.

Data Analysis
Secondary data will be analysed using thematic classification and presented in the introduction, literature review and methodology sections of the study. Secondary data will also be useful in interpreting primary data. The primary data drawn from the self-report questionnaires will be tabulated and summarized per question for initial analysis using descriptive statistics to determine frequency, mean and standard deviation. The method of data analysis for the primary data is t-test to determine the significance of difference between the means of two groups. The first research question and the corresponding hypotheses will be tested by considering the changes in the reported frequency of precursor behaviours before and after the training for the two groups. The existence of significant difference between the groups inform on effectiveness of training in controlling precursor behaviours of excessive use of force. The second research question and its hypothesis will be tested by comparing the frequency of occurrence of precursor behaviours in 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the training. The progression of outcomes will provide a response to the second research question.                     
The research will comply with the principles of ethical practice adopted by the university. The consent of participants will be obtained by informing them about the study and the importance of their participation. The respondents will be assured of confidentiality of the information and responses given by the respondents. The information or responses could lead to negative reactions such as ostracism or stereotyping of individuals. The identity of the individuals will not be mentioned in the results of the study. Questionnaires will also be kept in a secure vault in the university with limited access.

Project Organisation, Management, Schedule and Budget
The evaluation program will involve the researcher organising the research process and doing the preparations of the research including secondary research, coordination with the police departments and officers, and preparing and pilot testing the questionnaire. The researcher will have help from a police psychologist in conducting the training. The timeline of the activities in the evaluation project per month is shown below.
1st2nd3rd4th5th6th7th8th9th10thSecondary ResearchPrimary Data Collection   Sampling    Pilot
Testing   Pre-Test   Training   Post-TestFirst DraftSecond DraftFinal Paper
The estimated budget required to carry out the work is shown below.
ItemEstimated Cost (AUD)Transportation 250Communication 75Computer  Printing 75Police Psychologist Salary880

Brief Conclusion
The seriousness of the issue of excessive use of force warrants the investigation of effective solutions. Training, as a promising solution, will be subject to evaluation in the study through a quasi-experiment. The literature review identified the research questions, hypotheses, and research variables. Consideration of the methodological framework makes the study doable. The expected results have important implications on the role of training in addressing the issue of excessive use of force by police officers.                                                                                                                       

Personal Understanding of Crime Commission

Behind every crime committed, there is a theory that drives it. Crimes are intentional and they are not random. The opportunities that pave the way to the commission of the crime are also not random. Crime opportunities may come from unsuspicious occasions or events like daily routines, urban structures and social networks. Lack of control of elements provides opportunities for crimes. Each crime has its own complexity that is related to the offenders, the victims, and the environment of the crime.

First we have to understand what crime is. A crime may be an act that is followed by legal punishment. It is a legally forbidden action and the punishments also depend on the seriousness of the crime committed. The difficulty with trying to understand crime is that any attempt to do so demand knowledge on many different aspects and areas. However, the study of crime does not entirely depend on psychology, but it does contribute a lot.

Psychology is an important factor when dealing with criminology because the theories to be used are very crucial. For example, was the offender a rational being Did the crime occur due to influences from the environment or other external forces 

In understanding how a crime was committed, we also have to dissect the reason behind it, as well as how to prevent it from happening again. There are different crime theories that help crime analysts understand and predict how offenders and their victims behave.

One is the Rational Choice Theory. In this theory, the offenders make their choices about committing crimes based on anticipated rewards or opportunities. In reality, any person will commit a crime if given the right opportunity. Individuals will also decide not to commit a crime if the risks are too high or if the rewards do not match up to their standards.

Second is the Routine Activities Theory which focuses on the opportunities for crime commission due to changes in behavior in a society. A study showed that changes in Americans routines provided an increase in crime rate during 1947 to 1974. For example, the increase in Americans who left their houses on a daily basis to go to work increased, and therefore, guardianship in their houses decreased and left opportunities for burglars. Likewise, change in routines and behavior can also decrease the rate of crime. Examples of this is increasing supervision of children and increasing security of homes and properties.

Last is the Repeat Victimization. This states that people and places who have been victimized before have a higher chance of being victims once again than the ones who havent been victimized yet. There are four types of repeat victimization namely peopleplaces that get highly victimized, properties that are repeatedly victimized like consumer items which are attractive to thieves, specific locations or areas that always suffer from crime, and types of places that get victimized though not in the same area.

If crime commission is a stage, there are actors.

In 2003, Ronald Clarke and John Eck designed the crime triangle.

Figure 1. The Crime Triangle by Ronald Clarke and John Eck (2003)
The crime triangle shows that a crime only happens when the offender and the victim come together at a particular place. The outer triangle (handlers, managers, and guardians) show the types of people who can control the three elements in the inner triangle.

Guardians are the ones who protect the victims, like victims themselves, government officials, security guards, and owners of properties.

Managers are the ones responsible for the different areas. Examples of managers are hotel clerks, store clerks and building managers.

Handlers are the people who know the offenders personally and they hold such positions that allow them to control the ones who committed the crime. Parents and police officers are examples of handlers.

For a crime to take place perfectly, the actors must play their parts well. There must be a person who is willing and able to commit a crime, a vulnerable target, and a venue which lacks security.

Still, a better situation is that which has no crime involved. Crime should be prevented, and one way to prevent crime is to understand the behaviors of the offenders. Since crimes are based on opportunities, it is best to reduce them. It is also important to understand how criminals think.

Some commit crimes because of personality disorders such as the Antisocial Personality Disorder. With this disorder, the chances of being a psychopath are high. Psychopaths are manipulative and they seem to lack social conscience. They engage in criminal activity often.

Aside from psychopathology, there have also been many hypotheses on what causes crime, and how behavior affects crime as well. Bandura claims that violent role models in the environment can affect the offenders subconscious since most of the human behavior is from observing others. There are other behavior types and theories connected to the criminal mind which will be discussed later.
In relation to this, understanding the behavior of the offenders is necessary to be able to prevent the crimes from happening again.

Crime prevention is a difficult task, often mistaken for crime control, though the two things are really different. A study was conducted on how new approaches in preventing crime and delinquency could be done.  In Preventing Crime in America and Japan A Comparative Study by Robert Thornton and Katsuya Endo, it was emphasized how the crime rate in Japan is low compared to America and other countries.

There have been theories made as to why the crime rate in Japan is low, and these theories have something to do with behavior of the people. The population in Japan is extremely homogenous, which means that the people have a strong sense of community. There is a high level of citizen involvement in activities dedicated to preventing crime. In Japan, there is a hierarchy system in which the rank and status of a person is an important part of the society. Work ethics of the Japanese are strong, and the workers are all diligent and dedicated to their jobs. Japan also has an extremely low unemployment rate, which may be a vivid reason as to why there are little reports of robberies or theft. Japanese also have high respect for their laws and they cooperate with the police. The schooling and education system in Japan also contributes to crime prevention because they have what they call character education. At a young age, Japanese are brought up with discipline and a sense of social responsibility.

To successfully carry out crime prevention plans, we need to get in the mind of the offender and think like one too. We must be critical and also take into consideration what measures we must take in case of intervention of authorities.

Situation given
I am a student with many extra-curricular activities and affiliations. I live away from home, and I live with my grandparents. My parents send me money through my ATM every week to pay for my school stuff and also for my allowance. Recently, I have been under a lot of pressure regarding payments and fees. I barely have enough to feed myself when I am not in the house of my grandparents. The main problem is that I now have no cash on hand and I have to pay my fees within 24 hours, or else I get kicked out of my affiliations. The total cash I need is 1000.

Crime Script 1
Since I live with my grandparents, it may be easy for me to get a little money from them. I got this idea when I saw my grandfather get some cash out of his wallet and put it inside a drawer. Another time, when my grandmother was doing something for her business, I saw her take out a key and open another drawer from which she got out all the cash connected to their business. I got all this information just by observation.

It would be easy, I know their routines well enough. Every morning they eat breakfast at around 7 or 8 and no one is in their room. This is a piece of cake. All I need to do is finish my breakfast early and go up to their room, say that I need to go to the bathroom or catch some more sleep. I can easily get the key to my grandmothers drawer and get the cash I need, or get some from my grandfathers wallet. The consequence is when they realize that a big amount is missing. They will start suspecting everyone living in the house, and this means higher security.

This option is really very easy to execute, and there is almost a hundred percent chance that I wont be caught in the act. I can lock the door while getting the money, and if someone knocks, I can easily say I was dressing up. This is an opportunity at its best. 

The order of events would be like this

STAGESSTEPSDecision MakingYes or NoPreparationWake up early to join grandparents for breakfastActingFinish eating early, act like you have to go to the bathroomEnteringCarefully enter the room and check if there are any people around. Lock door to ensure safety.Select TargetCarefully locate the wallet or the key to the drawer.Complete the TheftGet the money quickly and put everything back in order, exactly the way it was before you intervened.Exit the SceneStart preparing for school and leave the house.
Figure 2. Crime Scene 1.

Crime Script 2
I work at a local restaurant as a cashier and as a waitress sometimes. This means I have easy access to the cash registrar and the money. My shift is usually during the opening and the closing of the restaurant, during the times when business is slow. The restaurant is small, and the staff only works two at a time. There are no security cameras, since the location of the restaurant is in a friendly suburb. The manager of the store comes in three times a week, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays during lunch time, when business is at its peak.

I can easily get money while Im doing my job as the cashier, but that would make me the primary suspect. The best way to get the money and not be considered as a suspect is if I will be seen as the victim, instead of the offender.

I can ask the help of two or three of my close friends to act as robbers and then instruct them on how to make it look as if I was victimized. The staff working with me must also be clearly victimized, and heshe should see that I am helpless in the situation so he will not suspect me.

The time of the staged robbery should take place during the times when business is low, either during the opening or the closing. The opening would provide better opportunities since during the night a lot of people are out on the streets and might report a robbery, if they happen to pass by the restaurant. That would put my friends at risk, and also me. The staged robbery should also take place on Tuesdays, Thursdays or Saturdays to ensure that the manager will not drop by.

This is a good opportunity, given the lax security and the routines of the people involved are all being followed every time.

StagesStepsDecision MakingYes or No Set the details time, date, who to ask help fromPreparationCoordinate schedule of opening of restaurant so the friends would go in at nice timing. Make sure that costumes will conceal their identities well.Entering the settingMeet with fellow staff to open the restaurant for the day. Start doing daily routines like cleaning, setting the tables, etc.Enabling conditionsAvoid being tensed, act normally. Do not fully open the blindsdoor yet so that the theft will not be seen by the public.Select targetHelp your partner with whatever heshe is doing so that when the thieves come in, your partner will see you being victimizedThe theft properOnce the thieves come in, act surprised and try to protect your partner. Avoid screaming or shouting so as not to attract many people.Completing the theftOnce they have gotten the money from the cash register and they leave, do not return to normal yet.Exit the SceneExplain why you shouldnt tell your managerthat he might fire you. Motivate your partner to work better today to make up for the lost money.AftermathAfter your morning shift, meet with your friends to get the money to pay for your needs.

Figure 3. Crime Script 3

Crime Script 3
This may be the riskiest one yet, but also faster than the second option.
I can rob the store myself when Im not working. This will be easy because I know the staff working there and I know where all the things are. The conflict would be about my alibi, so I should work on that before conducting the crime itself. My outfit must also be able to conceal who I am, and of course, the time and the date should be scheduled earlier. The downside with this script is that I will forever be a suspect, because I wasnt there when it happened. Also, if I am not careful, I can be seen and reported. I can be arrested on the spot, since the restaurant is in a semi-public area. That is why it is important to conduct the crime during the opening, because no one will be around yet except for the staff.

StagesStepsDecision MakingYes or No Time, date, outfit.PreparationDecide on the time when less people will be there. Maybe you can spy a little or keep an eye out on the customers.Entering SettingKnow how to deal with the staff present at the time you decide to execute the crime. It is best to keep them quiet. For example, powder that can make them unconscious temporarily.Complete the TheftGet what you need, leave peacefully. Do not leave any trace of who you are.Exit the SceneDo not head straight home. Head somewhere you can dress up, and leave the outfit behind.AftermathAct normally, act concerned, and even offer help.

Figure 4. Crime Script 3

If you noticed, all crime scripts started with the decision making. According to the classical theory of criminology, people decide to commit a crime when they believe that the benefits weigh more than the risks or costs. Without a decision to commit a crime, there would be no crime. This is a direct manifestation on the effect of behavior to the crime itself.

There is another theory, which is called the conflict view. This states that society has divided individuals into groups which are in conflict with each other. The conflicts arise because of unequal distribution of resources, and this in turn provides yet another opportunity for crime. As mentioned at the first part of the essay, in Japan, there is a distinct hierarchy in which they respect the status of the individuals, and instead of being an opportunity for crime, it is a crime prevention tool.

Robbery is perhaps one of the most common crimes in history. It can range from simple pick pocketing to million dollar thefts. Robberies must be planned well to succeed, and for crime analysts, they should learn how the mind of a robber thinks like. For analyzing crimes and preventing crimes, a lot of measures have to be taken into consideration.

In crime script 1, if the grandfather always takes his wallet with him, or if the grandmother always takes the key with her, the crime can never happen. In crime script 2, if there was more security in the restaurant, or if the manager opens the restaurant every day, the opportunity for a crime will lessen by a lot. Finally in crime 3, it is the most dangerous script out of the three. At anytime, an authority could go in and catch the offender at once in the act. Again, if the manager was the one who opened every day, the crime rate would definitely go down.

Through these facts, it is obvious that behavior greatly affects the crimes that take place. It is not entirely the offenders fault, but the victims themselves who create opportunities for the crimes. Routines, daily activities and observations are simple things which can easily create more opportunities.

In regards to crime prevention, Ronald Clarke has given some tips on how to do it. First, one must be prepared and must be very crime specific. Second, the crime triangle is important because it will help you identify the people involved. According to Clarke, we must never forget that opportunity makes the thief and that we should expect the offenders to react negatively. It is important to think thief or to think like the offender and it is also important to study the history of crimes. Pay attention to routines and hot spots, and think of the factors that make a person or a place be highly victimized.

Crime is not a simple thing and it is hard to analyze. However, if we are able to prevent it from happening, that is a success. In crime prevention, the behavior and personality of the people must be taken into consideration too. Again, I will use Japan as an example. Even without all the security needed in other countries, Japan still has a low crime rate because of the sense of social responsibility and obligations that are instilled in every citizen.

That is the key to the start of good crime prevention. It must not only depend on higher security and it must not only focus on lessening the opportunities for crime. Crime prevention must also be instilled in every persons heart and mind for it to be called a success.

It is true that psychological factors affect the crimes and offenders. Like, for example, bad parenting, poverty, abuse, etc. However, there are things that are just around us that create opportunities for crime, and this is what we should concentrate on.

Crime prevention starts with the people, and with cooperation and the decision to do good, it is safe to say that the crime rates will lower.

Research, Evaluation Policy Analysis of the Aboriginal Justice Plan of New South Wales

Certain action plans have been done to address the problem of unequal protection under the law. One of such action plans is the Aboriginal Justice Plan which is a response to the observed overrepresentation of members of the Aboriginal Community imprisoned for offenses where bail can be made.

The study centers on New South Wales (NSW) where the Aboriginal community is the largest. Statistics and data on the number of offenses by Aborigines and the rest of the population of NSW will be taken and statistical analysis for correlation is performed. The data from NSW shall be compared with data obtained from the Northern Territory where a justice plan for Aborigines is also in order and with other states where there is no such policy.

The study aims to establish a correlation between income and the number of bails given by individuals of the Aboriginal population before and after the justice plan was implemented. The correlation hopes to provide a measure of how effective the justice plan really is in providing equal protection under that law for this community.

The criminal justice system should be implemented fairly to all. Unfortunately, there are still cases where there are people who do not receive equal treatment and consideration in the court. The government recognizes this fact and have exerted efforts to bridge the gaps and patch up the holes that exist that prevents the law from protecting everyone under its jurisdiction. Government efforts include the formation of the law enforcement agencies, policy making bodies and several support organizations that ensure that these laws are carried out. They must be able to recognize any flaws and try to correct and intervene regarding the shortcomings that current legislations may have brought about in the criminal justice system.  These organizations and agencies often take action by formulating policies and support systems for the better implementation of laws for them to be able to protect and serve the people better. One of the most comprehensive intervention programs to be implemented in the country is the Aboriginal Justice Plan developed by the Aboriginal Justice Advisory Council (AJAC, 2005). 

Intervention Program
According to Cunneen (2005), the over-representation of the Aborigines in the justice system was ascribed to the criminality of the indigenous people, but through continuous observation and research, it has been noted that there is another reason for this effect. There are inherent biases in the current justice system and these biases were termed as systemic biases. These biases are the ones that disallow the indigenous from accessing the same protection from the law and this causes their overrepresentation in criminal and offense records.

Because of these findings, the government has started to formulate strategies that aim to eliminate or reduce these systemic biases in order to make the rule of law available to protect everyone. The Aboriginal Justice Plan, was one such strategy. The AJP is a comprehensive strategy that addresses the innate disadvantages of the Aboriginal people in New South Wales (AJAC, 2005), was implemented in the region in the year 2004.  This plan is implemented under the recognition of the government that Aborigines have areas of natural sensitivity and vulnerability when it comes to the implementation of criminal laws. One of the areas that have been identified as socio-economic factors that influence their vulnerability is income and their lifestyle and culture (AJAC, 2005). The Aboriginal Justice Plan was implemented with the aim of reducing the number of arrests made on the individuals of the Aboriginal community who, due to their state, do not receive the full protection and advantage of the laws.

Other than providing assistance to members of the Aboriginal community during their encounters with the criminal justice system and their difficulties in its processes, the justice plan also outlines several preventive means and measures that would help Aborigines cope with the disadvantages they have when it comes to law. This is to create a more long-term solution rather than remaining just an intervention program that aims to deal with the consequences of the problem after it occurs. The Aboriginal Justice Plan aims to create more comprehensive solutions and strategies that address the causes of these disadvantages instead of simply dealing with the effects of these disadvantages (AJAC, 2005).

Low income and their nomadic lifestyle are conditions of Aboriginal people that make it difficult for them to post and be allowed bail in the criminal justice system (Mac William, 2001). The justice plan works by outlining means to provide the Aborigines with better opportunities to improve their living conditions and lifestyle like giving the indigenous a more or less stable source of income. This action would allow members of the Aboriginal community to enhance their financial capability to post bail.  Other concerns like their nomadic lifestyle which clashes with the conditions of the bail process shall also be addressed by providing them with housing.  Because of these actions, members of the Aboriginal community would be empowered to create for themselves means and measures that they can use to experience the same protection of law. 

Implementing such a plan will not only do well to the Aboriginal community, but it will also benefit the governments relationship with the indigenous. Implementing such a policy will help establish good will and strengthen ties (Bennet, 2000).

Research Questions
1.  Does increasing the socio-economic level of the Aboriginal people increase their ability to post bail

2.  Would a comprehensive strategy that addresses both the socio-economic factors of the Aborigines and assistance to better criminal justice system support be better than just providing bail assistance

3.  What issues of the bail laws are being addressed by the intervention programs that would allow Aboriginal community fair treatment

Evaluation Site
The main subject to be evaluated for the study will focus on the statistics and historical data of New South Wales (NSW) on the number of offences where bail can be posted and compare this with the number of offending members of the Aboriginal community who were able to post bail and the number of offending members from the rest of the population that were not able to post bail. Data on the income of the Aboriginal community from census data taken from NSW will also be obtained and become part of the evaluation. With NSW having a high concentration of Aboriginal communities, a national sample may also be gathered to ensure that the number of incidents is not related the concentration of Aboriginal people in NSW.

A parallel comparison can also be made with the Northern Territory where they have implemented a similar comprehensive action plan to address the disadvantage of Aboriginal communities there as well (Northern Territory Government, 2009).  The same data to be taken from NSW shall also be obtained for the Northern Territory. The years where the policy was implemented for each territory (2004 and 2007 for NSW and Northern Territory, respectively) shall be called the marker years. Maker years shall be set for both territories to set a point of comparison to establish if the policy was indeed effective in improving the condition of the Aboriginal community. The time frame from where the data from both territories will come from shall be within 2000-2010 to keep parameters for the comparisons for both territories constant.

The data from each territory shall be evaluated to determine if there is a significant decline in the percentage of the Aboriginal population in correctional facilities with offences where bail can be posted before and after the strategic action plans were implemented. Furthermore, to eliminate the chance that the changes in percentages is influenced by general trends in the crimes committed in the state, the data about Aborigines shall be compared to the general trends of the whole population of NSW from the same time frame. Data on the income of the Aborigines from both regions and other regions with no justice plan in the specific time frames shall also be taken from census offices. The data of NSW shall then be compared with the data from the Northern Territory to provide additional evidence of the effects of comprehensive strategies to address the disadvantages of the Aboriginal people in the criminal justice system. Analysis of the Northern Territorys initial reports can be cross-referenced with the results of the NSW plan in its first few years of implementation.  Finally, to determine whether preventive strategies are effective, a comparison of the data will be made for those states with no known plans to help improve the socio-economic conditions of the Aboriginal communities.  However, it is important that intervention efforts have been done by various organizations in providing aid and support services with Aborigines who have come in contact with the justice system.

Population and Sample
The study will mainly focus on secondary information like statistics, historical information and census reports regarding the Aboriginal community. This information can be gathered from various organizations like the police, correctional facilities, census offices and special organizations like non-government organizations that take care of the Aboriginal community. An adequate to a large sample size can be taken from the NSW region without fear of statistical invalidity and obtaining unreliable results because the region has the most concentration of Aboriginal communities in the country.
As per the variables of this study, the independent variable for this study is the implementation of the Aboriginal Justice Plan which aims to affect the Aborigines socioeconomic conditions and standing in the justice process. The dependent variable is the data reflected in the statistical analysis of the number of Aborigines convicted but got out of a jail because of bail. Mediating variables may include the level of crime in the city during that year in the state, and means to prevent these variables from affecting the results by standardizing the year where the data is to be taken from. This will work to keep other variables constant while focusing on the variables of concern.

The information shall be gathered by requesting for this data from police offices and correctional facilities via formal communication. Other sources of historical information and census reports can be obtained through books, archives and government websites in the internet that authorize the release of these documents to the public.

Working with secondary sources could be either easy or difficult because of the fact that some information can be easy to find others very rare and some are not released to the public.

Data Analysis
The data taken about the number of arrests for offenses where bail can be posted from 2000-2010 will be organized by year and the offenders who were able to post bail will be separated from those who were not able to. These two groups shall then be further segregated into the members of the Aboriginal community and the members of the rest of the population.  The data will be organized and tabulated. The data of the arrests for the years 2004 and 2007 for NSW and Northern Territory, respectively, shall be highlighted as marker years. This method shall be done for the data from both NSW and the Northern Territory.

The data for the Aboriginal Community and the rest of the population shall be organized in simple line graphs to physically see any trends in the number of offenses committed where bail can be posted. Each territory shall have separate line graphs where the marker years shall be given extra attention. Marker years are given emphasis because they are the pivot points for any changes that may occur in the number of offenses in the Aboriginal community as these are the years where the justice plan was implemented for their respective regions.

After this treatment, the data for the Aboriginal communitys income shall then be taken and organized per year and will be juxtaposed with the number of arrests made on the Aboriginal community which is further segregated into those who were able to post bail and those who were not. A correlation analysis shall be performed on the data to spot any trends regarding how the socio-economic conditions of the Aboriginal community affected the number of offenses committed with income as a main factor of measurement. The Spearman correlation coefficient () will be the one specifically applied to this analysis to indicate any positive or negative correlation between income and the number of bails posted by members of the Aboriginal community. The same methods shall be done for the data in the Northern Territory and in other regions where there is no justice plan for Aborigines implemented in order to provide a point of comparison and to further strengthen any point that is made by the statistical correlation.

The dependent variable (number of arrests that were bailed out from) is expected to increase following the improvement of socio-economic conditions of the Aboriginal community through the justice plan. If this is the result that will be obtained from the actual statistical analysis of the data, then it can be concluded that the Aboriginal Justice Plan was successful in providing means through which members of the Aboriginal community can be helped when it comes to their socio-economic standing and in preventing any unequal treatment under the law. This conclusion will imply the fact that for certain communities and groups of people, assistance is necessary and essential to ensure that the law protects them also. This also emphasizes the role of government when it comes to recognizing the short-comings of the rule of law and addressing it accordingly.

The study shall be working more with statistics and data from offices and organizations regarding the Aboriginal Justice Plan. No individual Aborigine shall be interviewed for this study and so there is no immediate worry for anyones safety to be compromised in this research.

It is important, however, that the data be obtained legally from their source. The proponent will ensure that all data that will be used in this research will be taken in due process and within bounds of information dissemination and copyright laws. The consent of the offices and agencies will be taken first through professional and official communication and the respective fees, if any, shall be paid duly. Letter of requests duly signed by the proponent, professorresearch adviser or school administrators, if necessary, shall be sent to the persons concerned in the offices.

Other sources of data shall also be explored like archived records in the library and information in credible websites like the official webpage of certain organizations that provide statistical information for public consumption.

All data utilized shall all be credited back to their sources in the final paper work, and the point persons and heads of the organizations involved shall also be mentioned and cited accordingly.Project organization, management, schedule and budget

The project shall be divided into three phases obtaining, organization, analysis. The first phase shall comprise of all actions done to legally obtain the data needed for this project. All forms of correspondence with organizations, access and other means to obtain data shall be done in this phase. The second phase is where all data gathered will be organized according to the plans outlined in the data analysis section. Data shall be taken, tabulated and divided into the appropriate groups needed for the statistical analysis. Data that is unnecessary shall also be taken out in this phase. The third phase is where all statistical analysis will be performed. The construction of graphs and the performance of statistical analysis will be done in this phase.

It is estimated that the first phase of the project will last anywhere from three weeks to a month which is to give adequate time for the correspondence exchange between the organizations or offices concerned  and the proponent of the research. The organization phase is estimated to take anywhere from two weeks and the analysis phase will last for anywhere from two weeks if a computer program is available, or longer if there is none.

Since the research will be working more with secondary sources, the project can be undertaken at a minimum budget.  But an amount of (TO CLIENT please insert amount here) will be allocated for any expenses incurred for fees for data access and other miscellaneous fees for the production of this project (i.e. printing fees).

Laws are to protect everyone without exemption, but sadly, there are cases where this does not happen due to a host of factors like income and other cultural considerations. Such biases are recognized by the government and specific plans of actions are formulated to address this issue. This study shall center on one of the efforts done by the government to provide assistance to members of the Aboriginal community, the Aboriginal Justice Plan. This plan aims to enable members of the Aboriginal community to get equal protection from the law by improving their socio-economic condition. The study will perform statistical analysis to compare the number of offenses committed by members of the Aboriginal community that were bailed out from to their income levels to establish a correlation. This correlation will provide evidence to support actions made by the government to address the over-representation of Aborigines in prison, because they have difficulties in posting bail and providing requirements for bail to be posted.  The study hopes to further strengthen the correlation different states and territories where there is no Aboriginal action plans, and with one where it is existent like the Northern Territory. This is done to provide effective points of comparison and so that the study can provide factual evidence of the effectiveness of their intervention strategies to address the disadvantages of Aboriginal communities when in contact with the justice system.

Crime Mapping Geographic Information Systems

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used to gauge crimes extents as well as establish which type of crimes prevail within a certain region for instance slums, street intersections, etc., as GIS allow quick examination of the types and number of offences, arrests, etc., within a particular radius, enabling quick elimination of excess information. GIS also allow analysts to determine the types and number of offences happening within a certain radius for example within 2 kilometres of all schools in a particular area. With GIS it is also possible to identify crime hotspots e.g. of burglaries, violent crimes, rape, etc., because of their ability to offer consistent methods of measuring of crime concentration over time. With quick and easy hotspot identification the police can be able to easily compare which areas require more attention than others or concentration of certain crimes, making it easy to predict crimes. The police can be able to overlay specific crimes with gender, age, ethnicity, etc. However, this could cause revelation of victims identities, although this may be unintentional. Officers using GIS software and other sets of data can use laptops or other computers in their cars using crime-mapping tools. This way they can check the number of recently released probationers or parolees and their release conditions in order to determine when they violate those conditions.

Among GIS softwares main advantages is that it enables co-ordination of vast multiple-source quantities of data in particular locations and enable coverage of very large geographical areas which would be difficult to analyse using traditional methods. Moreover, GIS data is more resistant to damage, allow unlimited editing, is faster and much more efficient compared to manual crime-mapping processes, besides consuming less time and less money. These make it easier to update and manage GIS than in traditional systems. Nevertheless, some police officers may opt for traditional hotspot identification and management methods because sometimes computer information systems may be complicated. However, this can be solved by developing user-friendly systems. Therefore, GIS use in crime-mapping to identify hotspots is the way to go if crimes are to be dramatically checked.

Discussion Question Crime Mapping

Crime mapping applications have become increasingly integrated and sophisticated. The use of geographical information system (GIS) has become the hallmark of the modern era. It is expected that the next generation will witness more integration of technologies that were once separate such as digital photography, orthophotography, digital videography, global positioning systems and other local databases with critical information into one cutting edge technology (Harries, n. d). This paper will give a general overview of crime mapping in order to draw a clear understanding of the application in crime prevention.

Crime Mapping
Crime mapping is an important intervention that helps the police to reduce crime and ensure a safe society to live in. Crime mapping tools allow the representation of crimes visually on a map or the grid of a particular locality normally done by the security personnel of that particular region.  Persons from law enforcement unit analyze crimes in a manner that they are able to identify the areas of apprehension and the information that can be helpful in combating crime. The law enforcement personnel use crime mapping in various ways and in several localities (Harries, n. d).

Criminalists often apply crime analysis and mapping techniques in helping the law enforcement personnel in making perfect choices and in formulation of policies for instance in forecasting of crime. Mapping of crime helps arresting serial criminals who may cause unrest in the society (Harries, n. d). This is done by the national crime and operations through profiling of geographic locations to help identify the most probable residential localities of serial criminals. Mapping of crime has also helped in identification of crime hotspots and further helped in setting up crime reduction responses that suit the locality (Harries, n. d). This has significantly reduced crime in most parts of the world where crime mapping is applied.

The main obligation of mapping crime is to help reduce and prevent crime. This implies that there is need for people to create an understanding as to why some locations are crime prone areas than others. This understanding will help them fight crimes and ensure a safer society. Crime mapping can be useful in identifying why crimes happen and help in deploying law enforcement personnel on such localities (Harries, n. d). Mapping of crime also creates an understanding of patterns of criminal behavior and confinement and aids in crime prevention.

Improving Community Security Through Crime-Mapping

Policing has evolved from the traditional force-led structures characterized by menacing, uniformed and heavily-armed police officers patrolling the streets looking for criminals to a more intelligence led affair which makes it possible for police officers to analyze crime data to isolate centres of high crime intensity and even predict, with varying levels of success, spots where crimes are most likely to occur. Modern-day policing professionals understand the need to identify crime hotspots and to focus resources according to the need. Hotspot policing is now a preferred policing strategy in the UK, USA, and Australia (Ratcliffe, 2004). Crime mapping is key to the prevention and detection of crime, and the proportionate distribution of available resources.

Community security can be improved significantly through crime mapping and the proportionate allocation of policing resources. Studies have established that criminals consider the reward and the possibility of apprehension when considering where to commit a crime. According to the optimal foraging theory, an initial criminal event is closely associated with a series of more events in the same neighbourhood, turning the zone into a crime hotspot or a crime hotspace (Johnson  Bowers, 2004).

The mapping of such spots means that police officers can target them, taking into account the time of the day, month or year when crimes are most likely to occur. Even though they may not always arrest criminals in the act, the continued presence of police officers can destabilize criminal gangs.

According to Johnson et al. (2004), a crime may not happen unless a potential offender encounters a potential target in the absence of a guardian. The presence of the police as capable guardians therefore discourages potential criminals. Using information from crime-maps, citizens can improve their own security by avoiding the hotspots, lighting up dark alleys, or patrolling the spots. In the long-run, crime-mapping improves community by giving direction to police and community anti-crime efforts.

Crime mapping can be used to show not only the crime hotspots but also the communities harbouring the criminals. Johnson et al (2004) observes that the residences of potential criminals tend to be clustered in space. Police can thus map probable hide-outs and intensify their watch on such areas and people, thereby creating a sense of fear in potential criminals. Psychologically-beaten criminals are unlikely to commit crimes, even though they may have purposed to.