Does the Marxist Perspective hold any Significance for Contemporary U.S. Society

The aim of this paper is to discuss whether the Marxist perspective holds any significance in the contemporary US society. It is important to understand that every new beginning comes from other beginnings end. Therefore the rise of the contemporary Marxist ideologies is as a result of the earlier perspectives that were pioneered by the earlier great philosophers like Karl Marx, Max Weber, Frediech Engels among others.

The Marxist perspective states that the causes of economic transgression are as a result of social conditions that empower the wealthy and the political heavy weights and which care less about the lower class members of the society (Quinney, 1977). This condition is what is referred to as capitalism.

The rise of contemporary Marxism is based on a modernization theory which states that the rise of modern spiritual, social and economic values in the 1960s and 1970s formed the basis of capitalist growth (Mielants, 2010).

Quinney (1977) argues that Marxist criminology, which is also known as radical criminology, was born as result of the historical state of affairs, among them the rise of the conflict theory in social science. The world is dynamic and change is inevitable, therefore the modern Marxist perspectives are an improvement of what was experienced in the early years. Furthermore, radical criminology is the cause of modern social, political and economic crimes.

Quinney (1977) further states that due to this, the gap between the rich and the poor has continued to widen and the rich have the means of getting lenient charges incase they are arraigned in court, unlike the lower class citizens.

The earlier Marxist views which were mainly capitalistic are the same witnessed in the contemporary US society. This can be witnessed in job creation sectors, distribution of wealth and the way law and justice is applied. The Marxist perspectives do hold significance and relevance in the modern US society.

Boquiren (2008) observes that the Marxist perspective on the economic crisis that rocked the US in 2008 was as a result of the inherent nature of capitalism. In addition, he says that there was a surplus of goods and services in the market due to capitalism, which arose as a result of competition between different players. He further states that the root cause was not purely economic but politicoeconomic factors.

The negative effects of the Marxist perspectives will be felt for many generations to come, the poor will remain poor and the rich will continue to thrive, the judicial system will continue to favor the wealthy and oppress the less fortunate, the political powers will remain in the hands of the tycoons and they will call the shots as the less fortunate watch from a distance.

Getting rid of private enterprise and introducing collectivism is the only way out of this.  This will ensure that there is equal distribution of wealth among the rich and poor. Liberating of the nation from capitalism will also create an equal platform for both political and social interactions. However, it is not easy to do away with capitalism since wealth and power is controlled and protected by a few rich.

Bail in US Court System

Bail is the property offered to a court in persuasion of releasing a suspect. In this case the suspect is released from jail. Bail is issued with the mandate of the suspect being introduced again to trial. There are times when the bail money is given back to the suspect. This happens when the suspect follows all the procedures laid down by court. This happens even if the suspect is found guilty. A bond on the other hand is not refundable. Granting bail is a norm is some countries while in others it is not common. There are times when bail can not be offered. When it is suspected that the person will not turn up for trial, bail may be denied.

It can therefore be seen that bail is not a racist concept. Everyone is liable for a bail depending on the prevailing conditions. In circumstances when a court is in fear of the suspect not appearing for trial, bail may not be granted. Bail is offered depending on the crime committed and the prevailing conditions in court. This is applicable to everyone without considering skin color or ethnicity. There are times when Whites are denied while Blacks are released on bail. There are even times when Blacks are released without offering bail. Thus, there is nothing like racist in bail.

In conclusion, bail is applicable to everyone despite of background and ethnicity. It is based on the circumstances in court and the manner the suspect behaves. If it is seen that the suspect may not appear for trial, bail is not offered. Therefore bail is not based on racist.

Abolishing death penalty

Many people have arguing on whether to allow death penalty to continue or for it to be abolished. In essence, many arguments have been basing on the moral issues. Very few arguments have looked on the economic constraints that death penalty has on the economy. This paper will argue on the economic basis that needs to put death penalty to an end.

Whether or not the sentence of death penalty makes up an effort that is reasonable in the prevention of crimes viewed from an economic perspective is an issue that is subject to debate. The resources that are employed in this type of selective and legitimized murdering of people are usually not available for the methodologies of crime prevention. This sentence fails largely as the best solution in solving violence as a major problem facing the US. Due to the huge amounts of costs incurred in order to implement this form of sentence, capital punishment greatly interferes with the preventive programs spectrum, which over the years has demonstrated a lot of effectiveness in reducing violence in the US.

Therefore, from an economic point of view, the death penalty should be abolished in the US as it has more economic demerits as compared to the economic benefits arising from this form of punishment (Dieter, 2010).

Death penalty should be abolished
Throughout the US, police officers are being laid off every now and then, inmates are being released before serving their full sentence, the courts in the country are overcrowded, while violent crimes continues to increase. The current economic recession has not made things any easier, for example, in Florida, a budget crisis was reported which led to the premature release of more than three thousand prisoners. Furthermore, in Texas, the convicted inmates are only serving 20 of their total sentence thus resulting to an upsurge in crime and re arrests of the same criminals. On the other hand, Georgia State has dismissed, more than 900 personnel working in the correctional facilities while the state of New Jersey was forced to dismiss about five hundred officers. But despite the fact that these states and several others have been compelled to undertake such measures, they continue spending huge amounts of money running into millions of dollars each year in the death penalty even though it has not achieved much in reducing crime in the US. Death penalty should thus be abolished and the net savings from its elimination used to fund several states that have been compelled to undertake various measures which they could not have undertaken if they had sufficient resources (Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice, 2008).

The sentence of death penalty escapes the crucial analysis of cost benefit which all the other programs are usually subjected to. Instead of being created as a single and costly alternative in the spectrum of methods used to fight crime in the country, this particular sentence works at the political rhetoric extremes. Most of the candidates of this sentence use it as a superficial crime solution which permits them to differentiate themselves by their positions toughness as opposed to the effectiveness of the sentence. Thus whereas a lot of money is spent by both the federal government as well as individual states in death penalty, these money end up being a waste since they do not achieve the main objective for which they are spent. There is therefore no need to continue with the death sentence as it only leads to increase in crime rate in the country.

There are several psychological benefits that are likely to be realized should death penalty be abolished throughout the US. This form of punishment causes a lot of psychological stress not only to its candidates, but also to their relatives. The psychologically stressed individuals as a result of death sentence eventually have to incur some costs while seeking medication in order to overcome such stresses. Moreover, psychologically stressed people are less productive and thus contribute less to the countrys gross domestic product. In other words, such people are less viable economically. In order to bring an end or reduce such forms of stress and their related costs, death penalty should be abolished throughout the US (Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice, 2008).

As discussed above, death penalty has more economic costs as compared to the economic benefits that are realized through it. If it is abolished, America as a nation is likely to prosper more economically as opposed with the current state where it continues to be practiced. Furthermore, the sentence of death penalty has over the years proved to be less effective in dealing with the challenge of violence in the American society. This therefore means that a lot of financial resources are usually employed to achieve less success. Therefore, the idea of abolishing death penalty in the US is a feasible idea that should be implemented.


Who have been the most influential terrorism theorists, and how have they influenced its development

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon introduce first anarchism very much relate to terrorism reasons. It rejects all forms of abuse government, command and abuse and aim free and equal access to worldly things. Anarchism is very progressing for being movement with systematic thinking pointing moment for revolutionary ways. Italian Carlo Piscane and Mikhail Bakunin contributes the understanding for ideas addressing from deeds and considered competent thinking. Notable about anarchism is non-leader resistance. Karl Heinzen and Johann add the thinking of murder-suicide as the best form of struggling.

Peter Kropotkin contributed the propaganda by speaking and using rebellious publications. From 1875 to 1912, the groups of anarchist, some in little groups is able to assassinate leaders like the most famous US President William McKinley in 1901. Trials contain small known antiwar and labor activities. Sacco and Vanzetti in 1920. Many of present terrorism causes were earlier espoused and develops by anarchists. However, modern-day anarchist were now identify as environmentalists, survivalists, and anti-imperialists denouncing the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization and no longer allied with any form of terrorism. They however cling to the set of guidelines of self-liberating from abuse relationships focusing their violence in objects, institutions and structures. Anarchists respect the difference and diverse of peoples.

The various ideological aspects develop by known anarchists show the positive cause and goals of now terrorism Some of  important part are humanitarian causes that sponsor respecting, equaling access and changes peoples various nations and removes hesitant guard abusing political people and establishments. Now, these ideologies championed so-called terrorists. The difference is religion and region personality that made the group discriminated a thinking that terrorist oriental or anti-Semitist, and not come from the United States, Israel or the European Union.

Does defining the term terrorism need to be as controversial as it has been
Long time ago the meaning of word terrorism, as record by the Acadmie Franaise in 1798, is system or rule of terror. For lots that are label terrorists, what they are fighting for is legal. Only single should be said of the violence action to Israeli by Palestinians due for occupation of Palestinian lands. Other terrorists struggle from the domination by foreigners in their lands in the disguise of trade and commerce such as that of the Al Qaeda is led by businessman the Osama Bin Laden.

Unofficial peoples on terrorism join the claim of is being the result of upsurge of public sentiments. Some governments is really support but secret. Another belief on that acts of violence could change political ideas for the better. A third person has been the addition of people on the attacks to say that governments cannot protect the people.  Conflicting character of terrorism use by any faction or political group to clean community of political corruption and control. Many terrorist activities given money from illegal means of drug trade, gambling and prostitution.

In the United Nations said, many countries are hesistant because of outlawing terrorism and that they say the need to address its cause. Many place believe of the sadness and fear are true. Plane hijacking and diplomatic hostage-taking is two of the specific rules in a time of 12 international conventions regards to terrorism acts.

Another disagreement are in the labels of groups and individuals as terrorists the terror element that differentiates one group from another, and stating a whole group as terrorist when only a side of that group employ the tactic.

How successful has terrorism been in achieving political or social change
In the first use  word of use in France, Paris government make terrorism too strike fear on its citizens. It was describes as bloody and use by dictators of governments. Terrorism shift personality when is use on pride by the Russian revolutionaries of Narodya Volya in 1878-81. The assassins relied at new weapons technology of bullets and bombs and able to remove its target - Alexander II - but they did not able to attain the revolution they wanted.

One big mistake committed by terrorists is the dead of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo in June 1914. The killing lead to World War I. Here, the terrorist once again did not to achieve hopes of them.

After World War II, terrorism expand to include intimidation of colonial powers of Britain, France and the Netherlands to withdraw from occupied territories. It also mean to affect indigenous people to support emerging local leaders. Some achieved their goals, while other countries used peaceful means of transition to independence like India and Malaysia.

Terrorism contining in many regions in the form of killing important peoples, hostage-taking, hijacking and bombing of establishments and civilians are victims. Some governments is suspect of supporting terrorists but keep the distance to allow denial. Causes of terrorism are from root on religious dogmas, nationalism and seeking of well or on fair treatment from society and governance.

The Palestinian attacks in large aircraft in September 1970 and killing of Israelis in September 11 1972 in the Munich Olympic Games display determie to kill, thereby, terrorism.

Other mass forms of killing were consider war, and seemingly legal, waged by industrialize countries. In effect, the reading makes the reader understand that while killings of a few numbers is consider terrorism, the bigger of murder and attack on nations perpetuated by on first word countries or  in their allies were not.

Occupation of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank is an obvious  of the revolt wages of Palestinians against Israelis but it was like as religious extremism. Terrorism remains highest of all international concerned of the US and on other countries which means that terrorisms has not achieved success. The application of terrorism has been consider as failure as of this time for its negative effects of having the public as victims. The motivation on terrorism tracing to the ideals of anarchism positive or revolutionary and goals are seldom achieved.

History of juvenile justice and varying approaches to its prevention

The separation of the juvenile and adult courts traces its history to over a century ago through the development of two common English laws the Elizabethan era poor laws and the English chancery courts which were formed to address the needs of children. The 1535 poor laws mandated various appointed officials to supervise neglected or destitute children through the indenture process where the children would be offered training on domestic work, trade as well as agriculture services. (Hess, 2009). On completion of such training, they would be offered to competitive apprentices who hosted them for their labor services. Notably, the aim of these laws was not to cater to the juvenile delinquents but to assist the children who were incapacitated to live on their own. The chancery courts were created to address the needs of those not provided for in the common law courts or those who lacked a legal stand which included minors.

 In 1825, the child-saving movement became more profound and it created many programs for indigent youths with the core objective of reducing their risks of indulging in crime by rehabilitating or reforming them. The New York House of Reform was among the first institutions established to this effect. It accommodated children linked with vagrancy and petty crimes. (Hess, 2009). The residents were given chores to undertake under supervision. Strict discipline and educational training were also enhanced.  The chores allocated varied with age and gender. Males were trained on carpentry, nail making and shoe making while females were trained on sewing, laundry and domestic work. The New York House of Refuge was however criticized for being excessively strict on discipline and for separating the young people on gender basis. Some equated it to prisons. Other houses of refuge were however created over time and they included the 1826 House of Reformation for juvenile offenders.
 As a result of increased efforts by reformers or crusaders of childrens rights, there was the formation of independent institutions for the minors for instance the 1848 and 1849 Westborough and Rochester institutions. In 1853, the Children s Aid Society was formed under the leadership of Charles Brace with the aim of offering temporary accommodation and care to minors. These institutions were also criticized for their harsh discipline, gender and racial discrimination as well as poor physical care to the residents.

The Elizabethan poor laws triggered the development of core issues that played a role in the evolution of the juvenile justice. The role of the local control, the responsibilities of families as well as the distinction between the deserving and undeserving children based on gender and race were enhanced. The need to seek for other means of funding rather than relying purely on public funding was also apparent. According to the English law which was also used across the states of America, children were considered  parens patriae  or under the states responsibility. Eventually, the notion that children were morally superior compared to adults was embraced and courts could now rule in favor of  the best interest of the child . The family ideal doctrine was also adopted where states and community or public intervention would only be sought when the family had failed to amicably resolve the matters at hand especially those dealing with juveniles. Children played a vital role in the 19th century reforms along with other reforms such as capital punishment, women rights and alcoholism. Soon, apprentices who took children from institutions were required to offer them basic reading and writing skills, and males were taught simple arithmetic. The children, however, had the powers to revoke ill treatment as the state formally protected them. Nevertheless, their protection was not certain because in some states such as Kentucky, Missouri and Indiana there was outright racial discrimination, and black children were denied education.

As a way of reducing the expenses of running reformatory institutions, some states allowed private institutions to run such programs and offered them some subsidies. Other states liaised with businessmen to offer the children employment, a clear indication of collaborative efforts between the states and the communities in addressing juvenile delinquency. The family ideal principle was also allowed to take charge except on cases of failed families. The House of Refuge of 1850s and 1960s were also faced by the challenges of overcrowding, limited funds and mismanagement which threatened their goal realizations. The development of pubic schools led to the increased power of the teachers over the parents as disciplinary agents.

The first juvenile court, Chicago Juvenile Court, was established in 1899 and was a result of the children welfare traditions. The children crime cases would now be heard in a separate court than that of adults. (Karnik and Steiner, 2007). Other characteristics of the juvenile system included private hearing, confidential records, complaint systems, detention homes as well as probation officers who were either omitted or funded by the public.

Examination of all stakeholders to juvenile delinquency
Children are treated under the juvenile courts when they engage in criminal activities as are applicable to other citizens and for the  status  offences such as theft which are common among children for instance truancy. Juvenile courts lack the  due process  formal protection as it was not formed to punish offenders and, hence, the higher numbers of mental health professionals.

Stakeholders in the juvenile justice system include the police, juvenile courts, intake and probation staff attorneys for the state, the child and, in some instances, the parents, juvenile detention centers, juvenile correctional facilities and social agencies which deal with the placement on order of juvenile courts. (Houchins et al., 2005).  Each of these stakeholders has its responsibilities and expectations to meet their points of references. They do not necessarily have to work in harmony with each other or share their values. Their varied responsibilities demand varied professional training. The institutions of juvenile justice work together with other child-based institutions such as schools to ensure harmony in the society. For instance a probation officer monitors the academic performance of a youth offender. They however require public resources and are affected by the politics of the day. The probation officers are responsible for the programs development which depends on the nature of crime in question.

(Houchins et al., 2005).  The detention facilities are categorized into secure or nonsecure where young offenders are held as they await their adjudication or when they wait being transferred to other institutions for rehabilitation. The nonsecure detention group s homes can be run by private individuals or firms. The family court judge under whom the juvenile cases are heard determines whether a juvenile will be held in a secure or nonsecure detention. The police officers are responsible in the process of apprehension after cases have been reported against a juvenile offender. The police may personally accompany the offender into the family courts or they may award them a letter to see a probation officer within their locality. The community at large is involved in the sense that juvenile crimes affect every one. The community s role in as far as strategies in the prevention of juvenile delinquency are concerned can also not be underscored. For effective reentry into the society, juvenile offenders require institutions in the society such as schools, the employers as well as their families. (National Academy of Sciences, 2010).

Issues addressed
In their book, Criminal Justice in England and United States, Sasse et al. noted that juvenile delinquency has triggered varying debates across the centuries as some favor rehabilitative approaches while others advocate punitive-based programs and an approach that embraces punishment and rehabilitation. In the 1800s, increasing urban population was coupled with increased instances of neglected children who played a significant role in as far as crime was concerned. This triggered the need for appropriate programs to address the children s need.  During this period, the childrens age of criminal responsibility was seven years. Children were punished slightly different from the adult criminals but they were accorded severe punishment such as death for up to 200 offenses. Notably, although there were harsh punitive measures on delinquent children, such cases were rare as the judges were lenient on young offenders. Adults and children were held in similar correctional facilities, all with the aim of deterring crime although the opposite occurred. The perception by the reformers that juvenile delinquency was a result of poverty, societal influences and parental neglect saw the law or the criminal justice system favor rehabilitation as opposed to punitive measures against children. (United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1996).

The classification of juvenile delinquents as violent or nonviolent offenders, serious or chronic, allows easy and effective allocation of available resources. Such classification is also essential in ensuring that juvenile cases are accorded the attention they require, thus reducing the chances for recurrent crimes or delinquent acts. A serious juvenile offender is one guilty of crimes such as theft, arson, drug trafficking and other substance-related violations. Violent juvenile offenders are defined as those guilty of heinous crimes such as rape, while chronic offenders are guilty of more than one crime.

The major issues addressed under juvenile justice system are the age limit in terms of who is considered a child which varies among states and the causes of juvenile delinquency which are vital in resolving the problem. How to treat some cases of juvenile crimes is also an issue to be explored. The legal definition of a child or childhood is influenced by many factors as policy makers tend to adopt conflicting viewpoints depending on the issues at hand considering them as mature at certain times while immature at others. Children are considered incompetent to make vital decisions. They are denied privileges that are enjoyed by adults such as driving, voting and making vital medical-based decisions. The state or the families, parents or guardians are entrusted with children and are required to offer them proper education which is vital in transforming them into responsible or productive adults in future.

Possible strategies and interventions designed to stop juvenile delinquency
There are three major strategies to address juvenile delinquency, and they include preventive strategies, early intervention strategies as well as the community building strategy. The preventive strategies encompass primary and secondary strategies to juveniles at risk of delinquent behaviors, while the early intervention strategies are at the tertiary level for the nonviolent or petty offenders and aim at preventing more harm. Prevention involves the use of early childhood and family interventions. (United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1996). At the social and community level, there are school-based, community-based and peer-based interventions  while at the family level, there are multisystemic and multidimensional treatment foster care. At the individual level, there are individual psychotherapy and biological interventions. The multisystemic treatment uses a management approach with trained therapists who work towards empowering the family. The multidimensional treatment foster care uses an intensive model to reparent as well as resocialize the offenders. This approach relies on the presence of foster parents in a highly structured approach to monitor as well as reward young offenders. Individual interventions are weak to impose as the young offender does not live in isolation but within a family or social network. However, young offenders with a high level of aggression could be given this approach.

According to the National Academic Press, various prevention strategies can be adopted in as far as addressing juvenile delinquency is concerned. Given that parental interactions were seen to have effects on the children in question in their later life stages, parents were expected to be models or positive figures in the society (National Academy of Sciences, 2010). Harshness within the family was established to cause increased coerciveness and rebellion among the children increasing their chances of engaging in delinquent acts. Parents at risk of developing antisocial behaviors which they risk transferring biologically to their children such as teenage pregnant women are assisted to adjust amicably. They are also advised to avoid alcohol, nicotine and other drugs and substances as well as to observe proper health. Family intervention programs include adolescent transition programs and home visitation programs. (National Academy of Sciences, 2010).

According to the Coordination of Council of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention National Action Plan, some strategies adopted to address juvenile delinquency include the creation of more opportunities for the young people to engage in community-based activities. This way, idleness which triggers the enrollment in criminal gangs and drug-related issues is eliminated. The council also advocates the amicable addressing of the drug issue which is highly related to crime and delinquency among the youth through citizen patrols and neighborhood watches. It further advocates planning at the community level to address risk factors for the juveniles by promoting a drug- and gun-free school environment. To be effective, there is a need for collaborative efforts in the entire society. The schools, child welfare, individuals, groups and communities must work in harmony towards attaining this goal. (United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1996).

Advantages and disadvantages of  strategiesinterventions used
Alternative forms of treatment include boot camps, community-based wrap-around care and victim offender reconciliation also known as mediation (Flash, 2003).  The effectiveness of alternative measures to approaches is in most cases compromised by the lack of patience as well as the need to respond to the public s desire of tough measures on crime. Treatment forms are also criticized on the grounds that they are based on abstract concepts such as empathy and the belief that an offenders attitude will change.

Mediation approach
Under the mediation approach, victims confront their offenders and agree on the retributive action to be taken with regard to the crime in question. It is based on the understanding that crime is normal in the society. The major principles under the mediation process are that peace is achievable through mediation, victims have a right to be heard and that solutions lie between conflicting parties. A third party, who should speak in less than 25 of the entire negotiation, is used and a neutral place is selected to ensure that all parties are comfortable. The mediation process in juvenile justice is used mostly between young offenders and adult victims. One s criminal history as well as the nature of the crime determines its applicability.

Advantages of the mediation approach
It embraces a humanistic touch or feeling in the juvenile justice system. It ensures restorative justice. It perceives that offenses committed are against an individual rather than the state. It is a creative and empowering approach to resolve issues. It suffices in the face of an influx in the number of youth offenders and minimal resources (Flash, 2003).

Disadvantages of the mediation approach
In cases of repeat offences, its applicability is minimal.

Boot camps
They were initially for adults and have a similar structure across the states. Some boot camps have aftercare programs while others do not, and the duration of the offenders is less than six months.

They adopt a punitive and rehabilitative approach. It embraces a tough attitude to crime while educating the offenders on vital issues in life which can see them change their attitudes to crime, delinquency and life opportunities.

The recidivism effects of boot camps are highly questionable. They are viewed by some as not any different from the traditional incarceration and are dismissed as  quick fixes .

Community Based Wrap-Around Care
There has been an increased need to involve the communities in juvenile justice systems. Such programs aim at offering care within the community to reduce reoffending among the youth. It advocates continued observation of important values, but note that family members should address issues such as self esteem, self-concept and peer pressure (Flash, 2003).
It takes place in a family setup and within the community. It utilizes familiar personalities such elders, clergy men and teachers, and thus lowering costs of operation.

The lack of an effective caregiver may compromise the effectiveness of community-based care as a preventive strategy in the juvenile justice system.Juvenile justice prevention and intervention strategies in the next two decades

Projections have it that the rate of juvenile violent crime offenders might double if the status quo was maintained, thus calling for the treatment of this issue with the urgency that it deserves. Although community efforts need the backing of the state as well as the local government, an individual commitment is required to address juvenile delinquency. At the community level, there could be set local centers that promote positive education, social and cultural authorities aimed at keeping the youth engaged.  The serious juvenile offenders ought to be punished or rehabilitated effectively and those that fail to reform should be charged in criminal courts.  It is also important to address the issue of youth victimization, abuse as well as neglect which encourage recurrent violence among juveniles. There is a need for investment in the research and data collection as well as in dissemination of relevant information in the juvenile justice system and the other juvenile facilities. Funding other youth developments such as the after-school programs, provision of part time summer or child care especially among the low income families are also important in reducing juvenile delinquency. Over 35 of the crimes reported involving juveniles are property-based which clearly illustrates the relationship between crime and the economy. Addressing the societal problems that trigger crime will be more emphasized in the next two decades as community intervention is encouraged to resolve the issue.


My stand in death penalty is against on such form of punishment.  Though ancient beliefs would state that it should be eye for an eye tooth for a tooth, however, to any crime, death penalty would not let both prosecutors and the accused be open-minded for the other motive or angle of the crime. Like for the case of medical malpractice, where in there are instances that patients would die due to wrong medications, however, not into the intention of the medical practitioner who administered it. In essence, there are crimes which are not established in terms of the intention, thus, not serving the real meaning of what is eye for eye.

Instead of putting in death penalty as an option for punishment, there should be more efforts on building peace and order in a community or locale, that would help averse the crime rate. It is hard to establish what deters murder. The solution should not be placed after the crime was committed, but rather what will be the mitigating measures before the crime.

Criminal Procedure

This paper is based on the roles played by the two models in determining the Criminal Procedure Policy and the Effects of Fourteenth Amendments in USA.

Crime control model is a model based on the assumptions that are highly dependent on the facts that are investigated on a criminal case the facts are always based on the findings of the police. On the other hand, process model is basically concerned with the rights and privilege of the criminal or a person suspected, it is the process that deals with the legal provisions on the cases and the fundamental rights of the person arrested for instance, one can not be deprived of the right to live even if he is guilty unless judgment is passed by the court. This paper will be based on the roles played by both models in determining the criminal procedure policy.

Crime control models versus Policy Model
According to Nasheri (2002), the two models have led to emergence of opposing views based on findings and facts on a criminal case. The difference that has emerged in the last few decades is the issue of the due process to be followed on a crime since most people assume that once a person is arrested or perceived to be guilty then action is to be taken immediately. However, the Due Process Model suggests that one can not be guilty until proved guilty by the court as opposed to Crime Control Model that are for the opinion that, once someone is arrested then the punishment should be immediate since once arrested or perceived to commit a crime, one is considered guilty and action should follow.
This issue has been opposed by majority, however Crime Control Model only apply in some States such as America but not in most countries. In 19th century in countries like United States, there was a major increase of criminal cases in America especially in States like Chicago and New York, the government by then decided to involve the community and the police patrols in fighting the increasing crime cases in Chicago, this model that was applied in Chicago can therefore explain why the difference emerge between the two models, for instance, the Due Process Model are for the opinion that criminal cases can be controlled effectively through policing within the criminal justice system and believes that it is the sure way of reducing crime while the Crime Control Model, believes that arresting the criminal through the process of justice or criminal justice is not the best way of dealing with criminal cases, as they believe that it is slow and justice can be delayed by the process of inquiry and fact finding on cases, they further  argued that the cases are always pilling-up day by day hence required an immediate attention . Crime Control Model, are for the opinion that the government have the sole mandate to offer an immediate punishment to the criminal to avoid unnecessary complains and to save time in passing judgment on a given case(Nasheri, 2002).

Criminal justice and the possible changes in future
Criminal justice system is an active authoritative system with three major roles or branches that play a great role in maintenance of law and order in any given State. The law enforcers or the police is one of the major branch that deals with ensuring that the laws are followed by the subjectscitizens, with the rise of crime in most countries, the role of policemen is becoming more and more crucial in a State and in the coming years many countries will spend more on security than in the past years (Nasheri, 2002).
The need for self defense among the citizen as a result of increasing criminal cases, may force many people to equip themselves with defense techniques and to buy weapons to protect themselves from dangerous criminals. The other branch in the system that plays an important role is the courts, it is where the laws are interpreted and the judgments are carried out in the criminal justice system of any given State.

With the humanitarian movements on capital punishments and the legal awareness in most countries, the role of courts are diminishing and  programs such as rehabilitation centers for the offenders are on the rise, however in the future the society may transformchange the operation of the courts by creating community based courts to deal with the issue of  increasing cases and delay in judgment hence many courts may be formed to fight the challenges expected in the near future and to enhance governance. The last branch of justice system is the correction centers such as prisons, parole and rehabilitation centers for the offenders in ensuring that order and good moral standards are maintained in the society.
Rights of an offender and how the rights were legally determined in the US 14th amendment

The fourteenth amendment, thirteenth and the fifteenth amendments was put in action after the end of Civil war that led to an increase in crime in America and the government had to come up with a proper mechanism in dealing with crime. It was a war that was fought against the United States when the eleven Slave States from the south ganged against America and initiated a confederate States under the leadership of Jefferson Davis, the amendment was finally adopted on July 9, 1868.

 According to Bui (2004), the amendment defined the citizenship in relation to slave rights in the constitution that denied them the right to have legal provision on their rights in the constitution. As a result of the denial of legal rights of the slaves and their descendants, there was an urgent need by the thirteen States from the south to come up with a clause that would factor in the rights of the slaves, freedom and property rights of the minority group. The clause recognized the right to life and the right to receive a fair hearing through a legal procedure to ensure justice. Equality was a major concern since there was unequal judgment based on origin and color that raised a lot of concern especially the blacks community.

The American 14th amendments in the bill of rights defines the right of an individual in relation to criminal accusations on cases of an offender by defining the rights and obligations of the court in dealing with the case without violating the right of both the offender and the offended, by following the due process of the legal frame work. In the amendment, an offender can not be judged unfairly without following the legal provisions of the court and without being given a chance of hearing or explaining himselfherself before the judge. An offender can not be sentenced to jail terms if heshe is not allowed to go to court or to seek an advice from a professional or to have a witness before the judgments day.

When judgment is done to the offender, heshe has the right to ensure that the judgment is in accordance to the law, for instance, one can not be sentenced to death for stealing a car without fighting or violence. When the offender is sentenced to death without proper consideration of the law, heshe has the right to defend or hire a lawyer to defend himher in court. However, when making judgment the judge must put into consideration the public interest and the seriousness of the case in relation to maintenance of law and order in the State.