The motto of the citys police department would be Defend lives and rights. To effectively accomplish this and cater to the needs of the community, there should enough number of police officers in the department. As the city has a population of approximately 18,000 citizens, 50 police officers are needed to maintain a healthy police-to-population ratio of 1 360 (Police Structure and Organization). While the salaries police officers vary from 30,000 - 45,000 based on their qualification and specialization, the salaries of higher police officials such as captains and lieutenants would be in the range of 50,000 - 70,000. Therefore, the total cost of compensating all the officers in the police department would be around 2.8 million per year. The yearly premium of insuring all the police officers in the department would cost another 130,000. 

The citys police department would be split into four major divisions the north, south, east and west precincts would be located at strategic locations to ensure that the department is accessible to citizens across the city. The budget should accommodate costs incurred in procuring supplies for these four facilities which would serve as offices for the citys police department. A designer will have to be hired to design the officers badge and uniform. Care has to be taken to ensure that the uniform is comfortable as well as dignified to command the respect of the public. While this will cost about 15000, an additional cost of about 65,000 will be incurred in procuring footwear, batons, handcuffs, flashlights, night-vision goggles, holsters and other office supplies for the officers.

The Chief of police would head the citys police department, while the captains of various departments would report to the chief (Los Angeles Police Department 1). The lieutenants of each unit in turn would be answerable to their department captain. Each lieutenant would be responsible for marshalling the detectives and police officers under his command. The SWAT (special weapons and tactics) taskforce is a critical unit that averts disaster through the use of specialized machinery. A computer expert will also have to be deployed to combat cyber crime and gauge online threats of terrorism. While an animal trainer will be deployed to train dogs in the canine unit, a pilot will be recruited to fly the departments helicopter. Other support staffs in the department include receptionists, artists that draw sketches of suspects, clerks responsible for safely storing evidence and forensic experts that analyze evidence (City of Brooklyn Park Police Department 1).

In todays electronic age, the police department would require a website that would help interact with the people of the city. This website could serve as a feedback mechanism as it would be instrumental in collecting suggestion and comments from the general public. It would also serve as a notice board that makes the citizens aware of safety measures, achievements and threats assessed by the department. It could also list the phone numbers of police officers to simplify the communication process. The cost of developing and maintaining the website would come to 5000.

The department would need computers to store and recover data pertaining to criminal records and database of previous crimes. Computers are also an essential tool for conducting forensic research. Other IT functions include document imaging and maintaining an intranet for the department. The total cost of installing computer systems will reach about 55,000. Other electronic equipment such as tracking devices, lie detectors and recording equipment are the critical to process of acquiring evidence, investigating and capturing law offenders. A card-access system will also have to be put in place to restrict access to the police departments premises. The cost of acquiring these electronic devices would total to approximately 250,000.    

While the duty of police officers is to primarily protect citizens, sometimes weapons such machines guns, pistols and tasers are required to immobilize violent offenders. These budgeting of weapons needs to be carefully planned, as purchasing excess of weapons would be prove to be a futile exercise while shortage of weapons spells disaster. The cost of buying weapons should work out to 350,000. The procurement of safety equipment such as mob-control gear, bullet-proof vests, bomb-diffusion kits, gas masks, metal detectors, fire-extinguishers and first-aid kits are also equally critical. These devices are expensive and could cost up to 150,000. However, they are worth as they help protect invaluable lives and uphold order by preventing riots from getting out of hand. Care should also be taken to ensure that weapon contracts are given to the right companies. Internal affairs should be on the lookout for irregularities as these contracts invite a lot of bribes and favoritism. 

Choosing a hybrid vehicle as a squad car has many strategic advantages. It gains the publics respect by sending out the message that the police department is environment-conscious. It also helps in cutting down fuel costs on the long run. Eight Nissan Altima Hybrids and Eight Toyota Prius cars would be purchased to serve as squad cars for police officers. In addition to the sixteen squad cars, four Ford Explorer SUVs would also be purchased for the department to navigate through rough terrain in the outer limits of the city. This pushes the total cost of vehicles to 520,000.

Two officers would share a car while patrolling the streets. Six Honda VFR motorcycles costing a total of 90,000 would also be purchased in order to help police officers move quickly through traffic during accidents and traffic jams. It can also be used while performing security duty for dignitaries and important politicians that visit the city. The importance of buying a helicopter for the police department is manifold. It would be essential while carrying out searches of missing people and pursing a suspect during a chase. Thus, a R44 Raven I helicopter equipped with night vision, surveillance cameras, radar system, tear gas dispensers and searchlights, flashing light beacons, winches and winch cables would be purchased for about by 333,000 by the police department (Robinson Helicopters Company 1).

The police department would also have four well-trained horses, one at each precinct, to add a touch of elegance to the department. The police department would also be deployed with eight German Shepherds and two Bloodhounds in its canine unit. These dogs are specially trained to sniff blood and drugs, thereby helping officers perform their jobs (Moore 2). In addition to these ten canines, the SWAT team will have four separate German Shepherds trained to sniff bombs.

Just like any other organization, the primary challenge while starting a new police department is to hire talented police officers. The hiring process involves interviewing candidates that have passed psychological evaluation, physical fitness tests and competitive civil service exams. Following recruitment, the next crucial step is training. This includes briefing on job duties, code of conduct as well as standard operating procedures. Training happens on the job as a new officer is paired with an experienced officer. Off the job training occurs when special workshops are conducted to help officers in using weapons, investigation methods, studying suspects cues and psychological profile. Resource management and leadership training will also have to be provided to captains and lieutenants to improve the functioning of their teams. Due to the nature of the job, police officers are usually encouraged to attend seminars on stress management and other forms of psychological counseling. The training process is likely to cost the department about 120,000.
Conducting community outreach programs such as clean streets, anti-drug campaigns and joint police community partnership are essential to gain public support. The internal affairs department is necessary to investigate and weed out misconduct in the police department, which is again critical to maintain a healthy public perception. Arranging award ceremonies to recognize and honor officers that excel in their jobs is necessary to maintain the morale of law-enforcement officers. These non-critical functions would cost the department about 110,000. The total amount of expenses incurred in starting up the new police department amounts to just over 5 million, which is within the allocated budget of 5.1 million. This would mean that the remaining money left can be saved up for contingencies.

Policing Innovations and Issues in the 21st Century

     American policing has experienced a period of significant evolution and innovation in the 21st Century. Many claim that this era of change is the most dramatic one in the history of policing. Everybody is aware that it is the duty of law enforcers to control crime and maintain peace and order in the society by providing wide range of services to the public. Prior to the dawn of technological advances, the police do not have enough resources to keep up with their increasing workload and this major set-back put them and the civilians in an extremely vulnerable position. Today, the advent of technology made it possible for the police to do their job more efficiently and effectively. All of the developments that happened in the police force enabled the law enforcers to communicate with each other in a proficient and cost efficient manner.

    Nowadays, police agencies are relying greatly in the help of technological innovations to assist them in solving crimes. Everybody is amazed by the fast-paced technological innovations that have been happening such as the advances in crime mapping and the use and discovery of DNA in crime investigations. These discoveries made life safer and easier for both the police and the civilians. Crime scene investigation was one of the many subjects that police are training for and this is one of the areas the demand technological upgrade.

    The development of gadgets such as the of the two-way radio, telegraph and patrol car computers helped the law enforcers do their jobs with more accuracy, speed and efficiency not only the aspect of crime scene investigations but also when it comes to their daily functions. The use of the two way radio is very common in patrol cards. It is called as such because it is capable of transmitting and receiving signals and unlike an ordinary radio, the two way radios permit a person to speak into a station while sending messages from that station to other radio users in the vicinity. Police scanner codes are short term words or abbreviations that are used by law enforcers to communicate through their radio in cases of emergency. These codes enable the police to send data about their present situation quickly. These codes make use of the police scanners that act as radio receivers in tuning and scanning frequencies (Khara).

    The police cars come in great handy every time someone is in need of assistance. Police use their cars to patrol the locality, to chase the suspects, to restrain offenders and today, it is also used to communicate with fellow police officers. The modern police cars have two-way radios, computers for monitoring and high powered engines for emergency chases (Grabianowski). In Delray Beach, the installation of computers in police patrol vehicles have greatly lessened the time that the officers spend in performing their routine works like the writing of traffic tickets and police reports. This virtual planner program produced 84 increase in the traffic stops and criminal citations. Not only that, the average time they they spent on a traffic stop decreased from 25 minutes to 15 minutes. This virtual planner has a voice developer that verbally relays the information as a response to the questions entered by the police. The voice response  gives the officer exact information as to the tag and status of the drivers license as well as the color, type and model of the vehicle. This confirms the warrant hits by sending a signal an audible alert signal to the police. It also enables an officer to keep his focus on both the offender and the vehicle without a need to look at the computer screen thereby eliminating distractions and increasing police safety ( Innovations in Policing ).

    Police cars and radios are not the only tool that law enforcement have to combat crime. Today, there is also a crime solving robot that exists and is named Arturito. It was first used in Chile in order to scan a farmhouse for a business mans dead body. Within two hours, the robot has already pinpointed the place where the body was buried. The robot was also able to discover buried treasures and it also sniffs out land mines. The Leica Geosystems laser scanner has the capability to scan and photograph a crime scene quickly. In 2004, the highway patrol in California use this equipment to disprove the claim of a driver that his brakes faded before slamming into Volkswagen and killed the other driver ( Busted 10 Awesome Technology-Assisted Police Cases ).

    The high-tech equipments that police departments have been using to carry out surveillance minimizes the occurrence of injuries and puts them out of danger. For instance, the iRobot Negotiator is a devise used by Orland SWAT team has a camera so that the police can see what the robot sees. The robot can climb the stairs, deliver packages and carry out surveillances and this qualities helps police operations a lot. According to an officer, the key in handling these gadgets is knowing when to use and when not to use them. Law enforcers are often being introduced to new technological developments. They are being given headsets that picks up what the wearer is saying by reading the vibrations in the jawbones. According to FBI Secret Service, todays environment leaves everyone with no choice but to move forward. However, Sergeant Canty is of the view that despite the wondrous contributions that technology brought, it also has drawbacks. Deploying these gadgets sometimes slow his team because no matter how advanced these tools are, they are no substitute to human skill. Technology must be perceived as a supplement that helps the police do their jobs better but what is indispensable are the good qualities of the officers who must run these machines (  Police Using More High-Tech Gadgets ).

    Due to the changing of the times, there is an increasing need for the cops to be much smarter in order to catch the bad guys because it is not surprising to find out that the criminals have turned this positive innovation to their advantage. The challenge that law enforcers are facing today and in the future is the fact that the advancement of technology also made the criminals more sophisticated and up to date with what to do to escape and avoid being caught. They too, have come to terms with high tech gadgets thereby making their crimes more technologically enhanced.   This dilemma puts more pressure on law enforcement to keep remodeling and changing their tactics. Familiarizing themselves with the genre of crimes that the criminals are perpetuating is among the primary responsibility of these police men who are engaged in public service (Foster). This challenge teaches the police force in the country never to be complacent with their current position because the safety and security of the general public lies in their hands.

History of Law Enforcement

The word law enforcement is mostly associated with police forces of a state that have the authority to apply the police power of that state within a definite territory. A police service is a public force that is given the power by law to offer security by legitimate utilization of force. Law enforcement only comprises a part of policing duty. Since the beginning of society, law enforcement institutions have been in place for protecting the public from criminals or to keep justice and order and keep the leaders in power. Even in the biblical time there were military officials who were specially trained to observe peace and order (Annely, Para 1).  The world has for a long time established police forces some organized, and others temporary. From the ancient time to the modern society, law enforcement has gone through a lot of transformation. The paper seeks to trace the establishment of law enforcement from the ancient days to present.

Law enforcement in the ancient world
    In Ancient china, law enforcement was implemented by prefects. The prefecture system was established in Chu and Jin kingdoms. The prefects were government officials chosen by local magistrates, who were chosen by the head of state. The head of state was usually the emperor of the dynasty. The prefects were in charge of civil administration of their jurisdiction. They usually reported cases to local magistrates in the same way the current police report to judges. Some prefects were in charge of investigation just like the current police detectives do. The concept eventually spread to Korea and Japan (Bolick, p. 31).

    In the Roman Empire, the army offered protection rather than the organized police departments. Local watchmen were deployed to offer extra security. In Rome, there were urban cohorts that oversaw law and order and were sort of organized police department. There were no public prosecution, therefore the victims or their relatives organized the punishment (Zifcak, p. 12).

    In Europe, the current police originate from the Hermandades or brotherhoods peacekeeping organizations of armed people as was in municipal style in medieval Spain. The protective municipal leagues began to come up in the 12th century to protect people against criminals. The municipals were meant to be temporary but became a permanent feature in Spain. The first recorded case of Hermand was when the people of the north came together to offer protection to the pilgrims against robber knights on the road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia. After the war of succession, Holy Brotherhood was formed as a national police force (Roth  Olson, p. 23). 

    The fist police force in France with a modern touch was the one formed by King Louis XIV in 1667. The royal decree passed by the parlement of Paris in March 1667 established the office of the lieutenant general of police head of the new police force. The system of the Paris police force was spread out to the rest of France by royal decree of October 1699.  After the French Revolution, Napoleon reorganized the Paris police force and formed the first uniformed police force in the world. The force was known as city sergeant (Zifcak, p. 22).

    In England, a scheme of sheriffs, reeves and investigative juries came up. In the UK, the development of law enforcement was much slower than the other parts of Europe. In Britain the role of police was performed by watchmen and thief-takers. The term police was adopted from French into the English language in the 18th century. In June 1800, the government finally passed the Glasgow Police Act establishing the City of Glasgow police. Other Scottish towns soon started establishing their own police departments (Bolick, P.34).

    In the olden days, policing in the US was very poor with poorly resourced sheriffs and temporary organized poses. In the United States, the US Marshals Service was created in 1789. This was followed by other federal services like US Parks Police in 1791 and US Mint Police in 1791. The initial city police departments were formed in Richmond, VA in1807, Boston in 1838 and Philadelphia in 1854. After the civil war, police departments became more Para-military, with increase in use of uniform and arms (Roth  Olson, p. 23). 

Important milestones in law enforcement from 14th century
From 1377 to 1453 there was the Hundred Years War leading to the formation of French Gendarmerie. In 1626, the New York City Sheriffs office was established the office had a sheriff appointed to the position by the mayor. The first country to employ the services of paid law enforcers was London in 1663. King Louis XIV formed the pioneer police force in 1667. Henry Fielding established Bow Street Runners in London in 1749. In July of 1789, the Paris police force was broken up at the beginning of French Revolution and the police duties were done by National Guard and Gendarmerie.  In 1789, the US Marshall Service was formed.

In 1800, the authorities of Glasgow in Scotland established the City of Glasgow Police and the same year the Paris Police was reestablished by Napoleon. In March 1829, the first uniformed police was established in France through a decree by the French government. The police service was known as city sergeants. The Metropolitan Police Act was passed in parliament in 1829 establishing the pioneer civil police force, London Metropolitan Police and the model employed by variety of countries today. This includes the United States of America. Out of the United Kingdom, the initial police service to be established was Gibraltar Police in 1830. Toronto Police was formed in Canada in 1834. This was one of the pioneer police departments in North America. Boston Police Department was the initial full-time police department in the United States formed in 1839 (Annely, Para 3).

Establishment of modern police forces was contemporary to the establishment of states. The increase in criminal activities could not be contained without development of state and city law enforcement departments. Since their establishment, the law enforcement offices have played a key role in maintaining law and order. 

Internal Affairs within a Police Department

The internal affairs office of a police department is designed to ensure proper conduct and obedience to the law from all police officers on the force. Those working within this department are responsible for investigating any suspicion of lawbreaking or misconduct from those working for the police department. They are also in charge of making sure all officers on the force are informed of new regulations and that those regulations are followed and maintained. Because of the sensitive nature of the cases involved within the internal affairs office, individuals most often report all findings directly to the chief or head personnel of the police department.

    It is important that a police department have within it a working internal affairs office. This helps ensure that there are no cops gone bad operating within the department. Any suspicion of foul play from an officer can be reported to the internal affairs office anonymously or in person depending on the department. Some police stations have online web complaint forms available as well. It is important to note that a complaint can be filed by a member of the police force or by a citizen of the community. There are some police departments that have chosen to allow private citizens within the community to sit on the board or on a committee of the internal affairs office to help ensure there are no biases in the review of each case.

    As seen on television shows such as Law and Order, some internal affairs offices and their employees are referred to as the rat squad because of the nature of their work. No police officer wants to investigate a fellow officer and find the individual guilty of breaking the law, violating employment codes, and most of all hurting the reputation of the department. However, this position is vital to ensure the checks and balance system of those enforcing the law. Citizens are often reassured and hold their local police department at a higher level of respect just knowing there is an internal affairs office working to ensure everyone in the department and in the community whether guilty or innocent is treated fairly.

Personal Statement for Admission to Doctoral Studies

Like every other aspect of the globalized world we live in today, crime has advanced to a point that calls for detailed expert intervention to unravel the motivation behind it. Over the years, crime has revolutionalised yet respective authorities have not kept to the pace in combating crime. Many reasons are attributed to the rise in crime but few have been justified and this means that more has to be done lest crime renders all the achievements of this age useless. Perhaps one reason why crime has grown that much is lack of appropriate expertise to keenly study and devise methods of dealing with crime rather than just enforcement of the law. Understanding the mechanisms behind crime is paramount in combating crime. Being so rampant, crimes are varied and thus expert specialization would be an appropriate move to effectively tackle each type of crime. A problem identified is half solved, hence the reason why I believe that excellent knowledge in criminology would help me to produce reliable statistics and data to assist the law in specifically addressing cyber and human trafficking crimes. It is this realization and the passion I have for Criminal Justice studies that make me believe that   doctoral studies in Criminology would help greatly in solving the mysteries of crime across the world and thus I will have made the World a better and a crime free place.
    My drive for criminology studies draws a lot from the vast experience I have from crime related fields that I have worked in. Thorough evaluation of my career goal right from my junior school years, led me to choose criminal justice since crime is the worst enemy of the human race. In high school I was actively involved in leadership for instance, I was the students Council secretary and this gave me a sense of responsibility which has made me want to pursue criminology to assert my responsibility to human well being. In my undergraduate studies, I majored in Psychology and Economics as a strategy to prepare myself for a career as a professor of Criminal justice. This Social science course introduced me to the study of human behavior which would be necessary in approaching world cyber and human trafficking issues if only reinforced with a doctoral degree in criminal justice. Throughout my undergraduate course I focused on defining my interest in criminology studies by actively participating in research activities and later I succeeded in getting an admission for a Master of Science degree in Criminal Justice immediately after completing the undergraduate course.
The master course was yet another eye opener in my pursuit for a fulfilling career in Criminal Justice. It is during this course that I felt that I would rather focus on passing on knowledge to others while serving as a professor of criminal justice. This is because through a doctoral degree I would gain excellent research and teaching skills which I could use effectively in preparing a pool of Criminal Justice experts to successfully tackle crime at various categories for a safer today and tomorrow. I have skills in criminology and a passion which I am limited to practice fully at my desired capacity due to my education level.  
Research and statistics are my preferences in this pursuit for a career in Criminal Justice. Following this drive, I have more than often been involve in crime related research work thus I have been able to gather the necessary skills in researching, data collection and analysis methods to suit my dream career of enhancing teaching and researching skills in criminology. The same research has given me a glimpse of what aspects of the criminal justice systems across the world that fails to deliver such that crime is rising at such an alarming rate. I have solid experience in research gained during both my undergraduate and master courses and these skills can only be applied effectively at a doctoral education level. I am specifically well versed in general descriptive and inferential statistical analyses such as Chi-square correlations Lambda Cramers V Spearmans Rho gamma t-test cross-tabs multiple regressions and many others.   
As a research student, I developed a better understanding of the different human personalities which would be helpful in approaching criminal studies during this doctoral course. Since April, 2009 until now I have been working as a research assistant in the Universitys department of Criminal Justice and I have been doing this to develop strong skills in statistics and research which are integral in doctoral studies. This has helped me to focus on personal development so as to be the most resourceful professor in criminal Justice studies. I have had a chance to deal with trafficking and smuggling issues between the United States and Korea and I have been able to develop a strong foundation for doctoral focus on cyber crime and human trafficking cases. From the various analysis I have done, I have noticed that expert knowledge is lacking in resolving criminal, law and human rights issues and this has deteriorated given the fact of late, little expertise is directed to criminal justice.
To widen my base for criminal justice studies, I have been involved in various criminal justice professional bodies and activities which have really challenged my level of education as a drawback to my capacity to deliver. I was actively involved in the Korean Criminology Associations conference committee which proved to me that I could have done more had I been in possession of doctoral skills in criminal justice. I have sought membership in various criminal justice professional bodies to give me a foundation and a better glimpse of crime cases and this I believe will be very helpful in research and recommendations regarding crime. However, the only limitation for this is my education level and hence the reason why I have decided to pursue a doctoral degree in criminal justice and thus successfully serve humanity. As a member of, the Korean Criminal Association of America (USA), Korean Criminal Association, and the Society of Advanced Criminal Investigation, I have come to the realization that doctoral expert knowledge is paramount in resolving crime. Despite the skills and experience I hold, I require more skills to be one of those providing this required expertise and this can only be possible after pursuing a doctorate course in criminal justice which would help me know more concerning international human rights, international criminal law, research methods and statistics in criminal justice.
I possess excellent computer skills which have enabled me to survey the potential threat of cyber crime to humanity. This vast knowledge would also be helpful in my future endeavor as a professor of criminal justice in resolving cyber crime issues. Following my interest in research and statistics, I have been able to develop excellent computer-based research skills in quantitative and qualitative research programs such as SPSS, SAS and ATLAS respectively. I also have thorough knowledge of all Microsoft office aspects which would help greatly in cyber crime research and statistics not only in my doctoral studies but also in my career in crime justice. I am conversant with a number of languages such as Korean, English, Japanese and Chinese which would help a lot in the understanding of criminal justice from a wider perspective. After evaluating my achievements and goals in life, I have identified the lack of doctoral skills as the only inhibiting factor towards what I feel obliged to achieve. I am looking forward to learn with you.     

Ethical and Unethical Behaviors in Organizations

Unethical behaviors in organizations are generated and caused by a variety of factors. Very often, a misbalanced organizational culture and the lack of ethical commitment in organizations lay the foundation for the development and encouragement of unethical behaviors. The LAPD Rampart Scandal is the bright example of how unethical behaviors undermine the reputation and image of law enforcement and criminal justice agencies. The LAPD Rampart Scandal became the turning point in the development of the new ethical vision in criminal justice agencies. Apart from the fact that the scandal was the direct product of a violent organizational culture based on aggression and self-interest, the scandal also proved that fighting these behaviors is impossible without a profound organizational transformation and increased civilian support.

Ethical and Unethical Behaviors in Organizations

    Unethical behaviors in organizations are generated and caused by a variety of factors. Very often, a misbalanced organizational culture and the lack of ethical commitment in organizations lay the foundation for the development and encouragement of unethical behaviors. The LAPD Rampart Scandal is the bright example of how unethical behaviors undermine the reputation and image of law enforcement and criminal justice agencies. The LAPD Rampart Scandal became the turning point in the development of the new ethical vision in criminal justice agencies. Apart from the fact that the scandal was the direct product of a violent organizational culture based on aggression and self-interest, the scandal also proved that fighting these behaviors is impossible without a profound organizational transformation and increased civilian support.
The LAPD Rampart Scandal The Background of the Issue
    The year 2000 was marked with one of the largest scandals in criminal justice the Los Angeles City Council voted to pay a sum of 15 million to Javier Ovando who had been shot by the two LAPD officers (PBS, 2008). In addition, 29 lawsuits regarding corruption and unethical behaviors at the LAPD unit were awarded 11 million, with 140 more lawsuits waiting for their logical resolution (PBS, 2008). That was the culmination and the beginning of an end in the notorious history of the LAPD Unit and its CRASH team. For many years, professional policemen and criminal justice professionals terrorized the local population, trying to hide behind its mission to work in partnership with all of the diverse residential and business communities of the City (Peak, 2002). Later, the mission turned into a set of empty phrases which did not serve the needs of the diverse LA communities but, on the contrary, were used as a shield behind which the LAPD professionals were hiding the signs and the consequences of their ethical misconduct. The culture at the LAPD was the major factor responsible for the ethical scandal that followed the lack of managerial oversight, the distorted vision of leadership, and the exaggerated sense of self-worth were later identified as the major impulses in unethical behaviors among the LAPD police professionals.
The LAPD Rampart Scandal Assessing the Organizational Culture
    Generally, the CRASH was a group of elite anti-gang units within the LAPD set up to tackle increasing gang-related crime (PBS, 2008). One of the major tasks was to get the CRASH members into the streets, closer to gang members and their leaders, and to monitor the gang activity on a daily basis for the purposes of deterrence. Unfortunately, since the very first days at the CRASH, neither leaders nor its members had been prepared to promote an ethical organizational culture. With the emphasis on the best of the best, and trying to expand the boundaries of appropriate behaviors with gang members, the CRASH department at the LAPD was soon characterized by a complex combination of corruption, overwhelming permissibility, the lack of managerial control, and the growing sense of self-worth in its members. Even that all members of the CRASH unit had to wear the same vests and to have the same tattoos which distinguished them from other police officers was the sign of the growing organizational consolidation, in which the lack of ethics was the determining feature, which everyone had to follow (PBS, 2008).
    Rampart was always considered to have a unique way of doing things (PBS, 2008). Formally, that unique way of doing things implied the lack of effective leadership and the lack of managerial oversight. Since the very first days, in their majority the CRASH team had been illegal immigrants from the Central and the South America, who had a vision of crime different from that in the U.S. and who also did not want to change the order of things in their department (PBS, 2008). In the middle of the 1950s, with Bill Parker being the LAPD Chief, proactive and even aggressive policing became the central instrument of crime deterrence at the LAPD (Peak, 2002). That was a kind of paramilitary culture, which favored aggressive violent attitudes toward those, who were at the other side of the crime barricade. One of the major elements of the organizational culture at the LAPD and the CRASH team was their leaders desire to protect their agency and their employees in any situation, regardless of whether ethical or unethical that situation could be (Peak, 2002). More often than not, the new leaders at the LAPD, no matter how effective they were, either had to comply with the already established cultural principles or to give up their positions. As a result, the CRASH team operated in its small world with its own rules and standards of conduct, and with its own vision of management and control.
    The lack of managerial supervision and oversight was another critical element of culture at the CRASH. This particular Rampart unit was in a building away from the main station because of space problems, without supervision (PBS, 2008), and while one of the mottos within the department was to intimidate those who were to intimidate (PBS, 2008), officers in the CRASH unit knew that they would not be held accountable for their possibly unethical behaviors. The autonomous unit with its autonomous culture in a building autonomous from the rest of the criminal justice system and the rest of the world made it possible for the police officers to effectively conceal or openly ignore the growing flood of complaints, which resulted of excessive use of force, injuries, and legal violations (PBS, 2008). All those cultural controversies were further heated by corruption, power, and racism, and the Us vs. Them philosophy divided the world into the black and the white camps, which let the CRASH members discriminate against minority representatives and confirmed the unlimited authoritarian power of the CRASH members (Peak, 2002).
Unethical Behaviors at the LAPD and the CRASH Unit
    Under the influence of the misbalanced organizational culture and the lack of organizational managerial control, members of the CRASH Unit displayed a whole range of unethical behaviors, from corruption and racism, to officer-involved shootings and open violence against minorities. Apart from the fact that the CRASH Unit representatives sentenced minority individuals for the crimes which they had never committed, they actively involved in brutality and aggression against those, who were not considered to be a part of their society. Those included homosexuals, pornographers, and Blacks (Peak, 2002). Such discrimination was a tool of establishing an authoritarian and omnipotent image of the CRASH Unit and its members and to give them unlimited opportunities for exercising their power, which in no way favored the establishment of a peaceful order in the local community but, on the contrary, undermined conventional social values and turned criminal justice into a continuous bloody fight.
The LAPD Rampart Scandal Evaluating the Response
    The public recognition of the scandal became the starting point in the development of the new police vision at the LAPD. Gang approaches promoted by the CRASH Unit gave place to other, more civic-minded programs (Gottlieb, Freer  Vallianatos, 2006). In many aspects, the LAPD itself behaved like a large gang, and with numerous police accountability organizations involved, the LAPD vision was transformed to restore its legitimacy and to develop societys trust in police (Gottlieb, Freer  Vallianatos, 2006). A number of public reforms were initiated to establish civilian control over the LAPD and to track off possible incidents of unethical conduct. However, despite their relative effectiveness, all those initiatives had to be further complemented with an effective system of ethical education within the department  the element, which had to develop a new ethical awareness in the LAPD members. Needless to say that officers can only be counted as good when they use their characteristic skills in the right way, and for the right ends (Peak, 2002). As a result, unethical behaviors in organizations such as criminal justice agencies are always in need for a profound organizational transformation, without which combating ethical violations becomes impossible. The LAPD scandal shows as a relatively successful example of an organizational transformation, which goes from the outside of the organization and is the result of the civilian pressure. This is the example of the transformation, which could have been more effective if the LAPD Unit applied to the benefits of continuous ethical education and testing at workplace.

    The year 2000 was marked with one of the most significant ethical scandals in criminal justice system. The LAPD Rampart scandal is fairly regarded the turning point in the development of new ethical visions in criminal justice. Misbalanced organizational culture, the lack of managerial oversight, authoritarian aggressive approaches to crime and the lack of accountability contributed to the development of unethical atmosphere in the CRASH Unit. Under the influence of profound transformations, the LAPD members were able to develop a new sense of trust in police. However, all those initiatives could have been more effective with a well-developed system of ethical education  the element, which similar organizations should consider as the tool of developing ethical awareness at all levels of their organizational performance.

Can America Do More To Prevent Terrorism

    Terrorism is one of the most crucial global issues of today with recurring reports of terrorist attacks to America and other countries.  It was the September 11, 2001-attack to World Trade Center, in New York, which momentously threatened the world with terrorism since its intense destructive effects killed thousands of innocent people and afflicted enormous economic losses in U.S.  The incident, as the most devastating contemporary terrorist attacks, has paved way to stressing and imposing strict government regulations and prohibitions concerning national security and defense in the states and across the world, and most importantly, implementation of more preventive measures against these vile acts of violence.  However, with the persistent ruthless attacks, despite constant aggressive and intelligent strategies of government to combat terrorism, major predicaments on realism of avoidance are apparent which concerns on means and potential of America to whether pursue more or clearly obstruct protective tactics.  This article will compare Americas ability to further avert the negative effects of terrorism as opposed to its failure and incompetence to prevent due to certain factors, and also conclude a better approach in dealing with terrorism.

Motives of Terrorism and Counterterrorism Acts

    Motives of terrorism differ, but the most common three reasons behind these terrorist attacks were opposition to American neocolonialism and imperialism, that started after the WWII, as Europe lost its power and so the former gained western power and wealth which greatly influence and operate political and business interests around the world secondly, opposition to Zionism and Americas prevalent support of Israel, at the expense of other Middle Eastern neighboring countries as Palestine and lastly, the most recently, their own religious beliefs which pertain to execution of jihad or holy war of those claiming to be religious leaders as Osama Bin Laden (Piszkiewicz 127).

Despite different motives, variety of policies and lines of attack against terrorism were initiated by recent government leaders of America.  In the comparative report of Zalman and Clarke, The Global War on Terror A Narrative in Need of a Rewrite, they showed the following provisions of past and present governance.  Starting with the Clinton administration, due to rising threats and operations of terrorism, increased presidential and police powers improved counterterrorism activities and resources of FBI and CIA and better capability to detect subversive communication under electronic surveillances were his first legislative actions of counterterrorism U.S.  On the contrary, during Bushs regime, the incidence of September 11, 2001-attack in his first year has led the former president to use a more aggressive offensive approach as he announced a global war on terrorism through use of military forces which invaded Afghanistan and Iraq on the succeeding years.  While the current administration of Obama has set new light in dealing with terrorism as it uses diplomatic relations in communicating with the Muslims, a non-violence and hatred war on terror and clear recognition of a battle against appalling terrorist organizations.
Further Elimination of Terrorism

    Preventive strategies against terrorism of governments goals in safeguarding national security and assistance with the oppressed nations threatened by rebellious organizers across the world are essential in achieving freedom for mankind.  According to Former U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft, in his article, Reflections on Events and Changes at the Department of Justice, he concluded that
Security is the most important means to achieve and enhance the values of liberty and freedom. It is the purpose of security to enrich freedom, not counterbalance it. Security is not pursued to constrain liberty rather, it is employed to protect it. I do not believe that fighting terrorism aggressively and protecting civil liberties are mutually exclusive goals. We must not underestimate the threat of our enemies, but must never go beyond the limits of the Constitution in countering it (813).

This idealism has helped Ashcroft and his subordinates in Justice Department and law enforcement team in their efforts to pursue further prevention against terrorism, which in effect no other attack succeeded and destabilized America under his organization after the destruction of the WTC in 2001.  Other deterrence tactics that the department used in opposition to terrorism were also mentioned in Ashcrofts report such as restructuring the overall capabilities of FBI to prevent attacks, being the worlds leading forensic investigative organization tracking down and taking apart the monetary sponsors and alliances of terrorists improving and strengthening immigration reinforcement and seeking modern tools and technology required by law enforcement.

    Increasing oil prices, exploring other outlet for oil production, based on Losmans Do We Have the Will Taking the Fuel out of Terrorism, and seeking alternative fuel sources aside from oil (Kass 131), will help reduce the revenue funding and financing of international terrorists from the Middle East, as the worlds leading oil producer and supplier thus, control in market demand and supply of oil by America, with its economic power, is considered as a preventive measure against future proliferation of terrorists.  President Obama also believed in this ideology, in his senatorial speech on energy independence in 2006, he stated that
 Our enemies are fully aware that they can use oil as a weapon against America. And if we dont take this threat as seriously as the bombs they build or the guns they buy, we will be fighting the War on Terror with one hand tied behind our back.

Another reform to a more precautionary scheme is a call for a centralized and consistent alert system to combat the prevailing decentralized and complicated terrorism, for instance counterterrorism task forces should operate on regional and local areas nationwide to uncover and minimize threat levels (The Washington Times A18).  Further, other preventive strategies on terrorism that can be done were also discussed in the former newspapers article, Preventing the Next Attack What America Can Do from This Day Forward (A17), such as governments protection to the telephone companies and Internet service providers which helped the National Security Agency intercept suspected terrorist communications thorough control on borders, open seas, airports especially those who are getting in and out of the country effective action against recruitment of terrorists to prison inmates detection and deletion of international websites also used for recruitment by terrorists and effective training of fully equipped-task forces.

Moreover, a unified nation with great allies and powerful conviction in its extreme ability to struggle is U.S. strongest defense against terrorism, aside from its preventive and aggressive approaches.  It was strongly believed by Tony Blair, former U.K. Prime Minister, during his speech to U.S. Congress, in his support against terrorism

 This is a battle that cant be fought or won only by armies. We are so much more powerful in all conventional ways than the terrorists, yet even in all our might, we are taught humility. In the end, it is not our power alone that will defeat this evil. Our ultimate weapon is not our guns, but our beliefs.  

Failed Anti-terrorism Efforts
Due to several failures of anti-terrorism and counter-terrorism efforts of the government, many perceived that America can not prevent terrorism as supported by the fact that terrorism plots continue to grow despite any preventive and offensive strategies.  This is cited in the report of Carl Conetta, War  Consequences Global terrorism has increased since 911 attacks, a study financed by the US Department of Homeland Security, made by the Rand Corporation for the National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT), that for the period January 1998 to August 2006 shows the terrorism incidents rate grew by 250 for the 59-month period following 11 September 2001. It is inconsistent with what Ashcroft, as claimed in his report earlier, that there was no single attack that has occurred after the said WTC destructive incidence. 
Moreover, it is the unconventional nature of modern terrorists as Al Qaeda which makes their activities harder to uncover and foresee, like the one that made the September 2001-attack possible and since these organizations have no territory to defend, they may be invulnerable to the usual preventive diplomatic and military tactics (Yoo 793).

America can absolutely do more in preventing terrorism not only in the states, but also across the world at large, with the use of both preventive and offensive approach.  Terrorist attacks by international and domestic groups to any nation are always inevitable due to growing multicultural differences, racial discriminations, imperialism, colonialism and other threats to global and national security and independence.  However, giving up the fight against terrorism is not the way out as it will merely worsen the situation since terrorism is a risk and threat to economic and global stability, development and harmony of present to future generations, especially if pertinent prevention and elimination processes will not materialize before long. 
I think by taking precautionary measures such as educating the people on destructive effects of terrorism respecting other nations culture, religion and interests that are non-violent and non-abusive seeking alternative sources of fuel to impede relentless financial funding and channels of terrorists from the Middle East, being the worlds leader in oil production and employing past experiences in fighting terrorism strategically and improving intelligence expertise, we are able to battle terrorism and at the same time, gain ultimate freedom.  Though, I dont believe on hostile and forceful courses of plotting and initiating war to stop terrorism as it violate human rights and kill innocent lives, I commend American government resolute and firm actions on creating allies with other countries and humanitarian organizations sharing the same intent in addressing issues on terrorism implementing legal procedures without violating the constitution or relatively modify laws to an impartial prosecution and judgment investing on effective training and intelligence of military and law enforcement forces to combat in the event of terrorist assaults rather than directly invading sleeper cells which would only sacrifice many soldiers and promote warfare taking advantage on technological advancements for operational surveillances and promoting counterterrorism efforts such as conventions and visiting forces in other states especially those under control of terrorist groups by now.  Thus, I believe that both assertive prevention and uncompromising vigilant offenses of national and world government leaders are both essential in exterminating global terrorism.

Institutional Affiliation

1. Do ecological approach have a valid place in contemporary criminological thinking Why or why not
    The ecological approach, popularized by the University of Chicagos Sociology Department, acknowledges the primary impact of social structures and physical environmental factors in honing human behaviour. The approach held that the city is a microcosm therefore examining city interactions and norms is to understand the behavioral patterns of its inhabitants as well. The prevalence of crimes are examined using ecological research methodologies juxtaposing the  individual and community and social structures and functions to determine and decide solutions to criminality in the city. However, in these modern times, does the ecological approach really have a valid place in criminology
    In response to this question, I believe that the ecological approach is still considerably important in criminological studies. Presently, it can be noted that criminal incidences and social delinquents are confined, in the most parts, in certain areas of the city. One would need no formal background in sociology or criminology to be able to confidently say that the characteristics of neighborhoods is dynamically related to crime rates and delinquency. The findings of the the study conducted by Clifford Shaw and Henry D. McKay (1942) still holds sway. Their studies found that the citys highest rates of delinquency can be found on areas with palpable physical deteriorations and steadily decreasing residents characterized by threshold poverty or substantially low family income and high percentage of immigrant residents.
    Therefore, in 1942 as it is today, criminal behavior systems rather than individual offenders should be the locus of studies on crime prevention and criminal rehabilitation. In this respect, the ecological approach in criminology studies by itself creates an irreplaceable niche. It would be helpful in providing holistic analyses of crimes and well-rounded crime prevention programs.
2. A few years ago, an Arizona judge offered a rapist, upon his third conviction, a choice of sentences. He could either serve thirty years in jail or permit himself to be castrated. Discuss the merits of the judges offer in terms of constitutionality(the Eighth Amendments ban on  cruel and unusual punishment ), proportionality and potential for crime prevention.
    In Furman v Georgia (1972), a United States Supreme Court justice declared a set of principles, four in all, to be used in determining whether a particular punishment is violative of the provision laid down by the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The honorable judge provided that a punishment is  cruel and unusual  if 1) it is, by its severity,  degrading to human dignity  2)  obviously inflicted in wholly arbitrary fashion  3)  clearly and totally rejected throughout society  and 4)  patently unnecessary  ( Furman v Georgia, 1972). With this particular court ruling in mind, it can be easily said that the judges offer is unconstitutional and disproportional and without palpable effects in crime reduction or in curbing of an individuals criminal intent.
    Needless to say, the judges offer is an unusual occurrence in the history of the criminal justice system Its unconstitutionality lies in the fact that it is an unusual punishment and the reason behind this is that society would not and do not necessarily hand such punishment even  for an unrepentant sexual delinquent. The fact that such punishment is unusual proves that  it is  clearly...rejected throughout society . Also, given that the accused was already convicted in two counts of rape prior to the latest offense, said punishment of castration would fail to proportionally measure with the gravity of the crime committed. It is also interesting to note that castration would not, in a great part, affect sexual drives or sexual functions. Mario J.P. Dennis, a clinical director remarked of castration that it  does not completely erase sexual arousal or function. It doesnt completely obliterate arousal, drive or the ability to commit a sex act  (as cited in  Rondeaux, 2006, p. B01). Hence, the proposed punishment would basically be meaningless. On the question of whether or not handing punishment such as castration to sex offenders would reduce incidences of rape and sexual assault, said correlation still needs to be established. Although it may instill fear at the onset, I personally doubt whether it could, in any way, affect the behaviors of chronic sex offenders.
    Presented with these arguments, it is clear that the judges offer is not only unconstitutional and disproportional to the offense but it is also a potentially ineffective deterrent to sex offenders.

TransnationalInternational Crimes

 TransnationalInternational Crimes
This paper will identify three countries with high homicide rates and three countries with low homicide rates. Then economic, socio-economic, educational and other demographic indicators will be used to relate to these countries homicide rates. Any relationships between these factors and homicide rates will be explained in the end.

Countries Selected and their Homicide Rates
The countries with the highest murder rates that have been selected are Colombia with the homicide rate of 69.98 per 100,000 of population, Honduras with the homicide rate of 154.02 per 100,000 of population and Swaziland with homicide rate of 93.32 per 100,000 of population (MapXL Inc., 2009).
The countries with the lowest murder rates that have been selected are Saudi Arabia with the homicide rate of 0.71 per 100,000 of population, Oman with the homicide rate of 0.91 per 100,000 of population and Senegal with homicide rate of 0.33 per 100,000 of population (MapXL Inc., 2009)

Level of Education and Homicide Rates
Colombia which has one of the highest murder rates has literacy rate of 93 in urban areas and 67 in rural areas (U.S. Department of State, 2009). The compulsory education is 9 years but in rural areas only 5 years are offered. Literacy level in Honduras in almost 83 and compulsory period education is 6 years (U.S. Department of State, 2009). There is no compulsory education in Swaziland and the level of literacy is 82 (U.S. Department of State, 2009).
Saudi Arabia which has one of the lowest homicide rates has literacy level of 78.8. Sultanate of Oman has literacy level of around 80 (U.S. Department of State, 2009). Senegal which is another country with low homicide rate has literacy level of around 59 (U.S. Department of State, 2009). Attendance rate of middle school and secondary school is only 26.5 and 11 (U.S. Department of State, 2009). Therefore there is no consistent relationship between levels of education and homicide rates as Colombia has a very high educational level but still the murder rate is very high and the other countries such as Oman, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland and Honduras have almost same level of education and literacy levels but still the murder rates are very different.

Economic Indicators and Homicide Rates
Yes there is a consistent relationship between economic indicators     and homicide rates of the given countries. The GDP per capita of Colombia was 9,200 in 2008, unemployment rate was 11 and almost half the population lives below the poverty line (CIA, 2009). In 2008, Honduras had a GDP per capita of 4,400, unemployment rate of 3.5 and 50.7 of the population lived below the poverty line (CIA, 2009). Swazi had per capita income of 4,400 in 2008, 40 of the population was unemployed and almost 70 of the population was below the poverty line (CIA, 2009).
Saudi Arabia had a GDP per capita of 20,500 in 2008, unemployment rate of 12 (CIA, 2009) and none of the people are living below the poverty line. Oman had GDP per capita of 20,200 in 2008, unemployment level of 15 and none of the population was living below the poverty line (CIA, 2009). Therefore there is a high correlation between the unemployment rate and homicide rate in the population. Poverty level also has a positive relationship with homicide rate. The GDP per capita has a consistent negative relationship with homicide rate of a country. The higher the GDP per capita, lower the homicide rate.

Technological and Social Indicators related to Homicide level
The number of television broadcast stations, internet hosts, cell phone users and internet users are the main indicators of technological advancement in a country and are related to the homicide rate of a country. Honduras has 11 television broadcast stations, 16,000 internet hosts, 6 million cell phone users and 700,000 internet users as of 2008 (CIA, 2009). In Swaziland, there are 12 television broadcast stations, 2,600 internet hosts, 0.5 million cell phone users and 48,000 internet users as of 2008 (CIA, 2009).
Saudi Arabia has 117 television broadcast stations, 0.5 million internet hosts, 36 million cell phone users and 7.7 million internet users as of 2008 (CIA, 2009). Senegal has 1.02 million internet users, 5.4 million cell phone users although it is a very small country (CIA, 2009). Oman has 3.2 million cell phone users and 0.5 million internet users despite of its small population (CIA, 2009).
Therefore some of the technological advancements of a country also have a role to play in the homicide rate of the country.

Explanations of the Relationships
The main reason for the relationship between the education level of a country and homicide rate is that when the general population is highly educated, their involvement in drug addictions and other crimes is lower which lead to lower homicide levels. In a country where the general population is not educated much, the homicide rates are high because less educated people are more likely to get frustrated with their lives and get involved in murdering someone.
Economic indicators such as poverty and unemployment rate are highly related to the homicide rate of a country. This is because when there is high unemployment in a country, people are more likely to get involved in crimes such as robberies, burglaries and gang wars which are the drivers of murder rate. When most of the population is below the poverty line, this shows that most of the population does not have enough money to fulfill their basic needs, so the population is more frustrated and have issues in their lives. This motivates them to kill as there is nothing to look forward to.
Higher levels of technological advancements in a country show that the country is progressing and the people have more facilities than before. Therefore the countries with low homicide rates have a better communication infrastructure and entertainment which causes them to stay away from crimes which may cause homicide.

Lucky by Alice Sebold

Lucky is a story of struggle of a rape victim. Writer Alice Sebold tells in her book what difficulties a girl, a victim of rape, faces in the society. In the story, a college student who has been raped and beaten in a park near her campus has isolated herself from her friends, teachers and the people she knew. The reason is that people view rape as a negative and real low crime to commit. However, Alice failed to give solution to many problems she herself highlighted in the book.
The rape negatively impacted Alice Sebold in a significant way. Her self-esteem was impacted enormously, where she even at a point was self-deprived of herself. In addition, because being raped has crashed Alice in many ways, readers see all over the novel that there are a lot of ups and downs in her confidence.
Alice starts writing, though not successfully, during her struggle with drugs. Its not until after she quits using that her writing begins to take a turn for the better as well as her mental state of mind. This shows that she is beginning to recognize her choices and has hit a crossroad in her life. Many women come across the same trail, and understand that they can live as a victim all their lives and let this define them or they can choose to accept the effects and move on with their lives. By Alice completing her novel she has found her own way of coping by recognizing and accepting the events that have touched her life.
One can see that although the worse has happened to Alice, still she deals with the situation with courage and accepts the inevitable. On the other hand, there is a picture where Alices confidence is shown to be very low. She has difficulty keeping up her confidence and the way she thinks about herself. However, the writer has not emphasized on the point that it is confidence that determines the way you treat and view yourself.
The writer has failed to explain the harshness of the crime of rape. This crime is very harsh to deal with, in order to help aid, or cure one that has been affected. Some people believe that being raped is a disease, due to the aftermath of the way people think of the victim. In the case with Alice, it is shown from the book itself that plenty of people have tried to help her. However, as one will learn after going through this book that there is no cure that anyone can offer. Alices mother has tried to help her by talking to her and trying to divert her attention in other things. Alices closest friends even tried to help as much as possible by lending a hand or doing things for her. Her teacher even tried to get out all of the anger by letting her write up a poem in class about the rapist. Hence, after doing as much as everyone possibly could do, at the end it got nowhere because it was up to Alice to fight it out of her system and get over it.
Although Lucky is an excellent book in portraying the problems of a rape victim, the writer has left many questions unanswered in the minds of readers. We can conclude that Alice is a woman who just wanted to be accepted in society again, and to be liked by all the guys she has crushes on.
Alice lastly realizes that she is the only one that can save herself not anyone else. It takes her a long time to come to this understanding. During this time she is completely destroyed and cannot stand to see other males. She is still affected by this even after she comes to the understanding that she has to save herself. No one should have to go through situations like Alice has had to go through. Alice tells about how she had to struggle with the situations in her live. She tells a story of how she was broken completely down to nothing and had to struggle and look everywhere for answers and solace. Alices story is not that of total lose and destruction. She shows that there is hope that things will get better. Alice demonstrates to readers that one has to strive and never ever give up.

Social Learning Theory

The paper examines social learning theory and its application to criminology as it is one of the behavioral theories that are widely applied today in attempting to explain criminal behaviors and how best to minimize crimes.
Literature review
The application of social learning theory to criminology focusing on organized crime since they happen in the context of gang leaders or senior bosses of syndicate groups influencing their members within specific crime environment.
According to Julian B. Rotter a persons personality and character is a clear indication of the persons interaction with the surrounding environment (Akers  Gary, 2003).
Research Design and Methodology
Elements Behavior modeling has been defined as the possibility of an individual to take up a specific behavior just by being in a specific situation (Akers  Christine, 2004). Expectancies on the other hand are modeled from a persons past experiences. The value of reinforcement is more or less the desirability of the expected results or outcomes.
Hypothesis The social learning theory is not a reliable approach to behavior modeling in finding solutions to stopping organized crime.
Variables A persons behavior is dependent on expectancy and the reinforcement (Akers  Gary, 2003, p. 216)
Data Prisoners sourced from police headquarters and the suspects and criminals in police custody and youth of the society.
Method Observation using live models and later create a forum for the subjects involved. After the forum, the above formula will be applied to verify if the potential to remodel their behavior is high or low.
Study Limitations
Limitations The fact that not everyone will be genuine in the practice. People who will be appointed to carry out the research might not be granted access to the police head quarters. Getting professionally trained researchers to carry out this practice.
Value of the Study
Value This study will be a great milestone when it comes to preventing chances of organized groups cropping from the youth in the society.

Most youth are victims of peer pressure and hence they get easily pulled into gangs, just from the pressure from their peers. Knowing how to reverse this cycle will yield great benefits to the global community.

Juvenile Delinquency

    Juvenile delinquency refers to the behavior of children which is disapproved by the society. Juveniles are people under the age of majority. Children who commit crimes are tried in a court system that is different from the adult court system. Juvenile delinquency involves social actions by children that can be defined as deviant or antisocial by established customs. In most cases, a juvenile delinquent is a person below 18 years who is found to have violated criminal laws and thus subject to punishment by a childrens court (Cristian, 2005).
Causes of juvenile delinquency
    Different groups of professionals give variant interpretations of juvenile behavior. The biological theory is based on the fact that criminals are different from other people in their organic composition and this explains their criminal behavior. Other explanations hold that criminal activities are due to sociological factors and the social life of the offenders. The theory connects environmental factors to criminal activities of the offenders. For in this case, peer group influence may be a strong determining factor in the behavior of juveniles or the behavior of the child may be due to family issues (Mandel, 2009). Other people also hold that juvenile crime is due to socio-economic factors like poverty, family breakdown or the social system (Rou
ek, 1958). Juvenile crime can also be caused by psychological factors due to the developmental stages that the children may be going through. During growth and development, the child focuses much attention on setline conflicts between the insensible derives and the adult world. The behaviors of individuals will be shaped by how they try to control the impulses of their actions. In most cases, some of the factors will generally overlap for some people (Cynthia, 2009).

Juvenile justice system
    The juvenile justice system is a special system and different from the adult criminal courts. The two have some differences and similarities. The basic elements of the juvenile system are the status offender. Status offender is a person charged with an offence that would otherwise not be so if it was committed by an adult. For example, eloping from home, improper sexual actions, truancy, smoking or use of alcohol before the requisite age and lose of parental control. The laws used to prevent status offenses are more an effort by the society to prevent future harm to the minors and the community rather than as a form of punishment. Status offenses is not considered a serious crime to warrant imprisonment but the major concern is the influence of magnifying such behavior  into crimes that may need the attention of law enforcement officials. Community based programs are preferred instead of incarceration like in the case of adults. Although arrests are usually carried out, incarceration is not instituted. In particular cases, detention is used as the final solution is sought. Another option may be placement in healthier homes in order to alter and enhance the living conditions and possibly reform the child. There are programs like drug rehabilitation, anger control programs, after care behavior and education used to combat status offenses (Calderon, 2006).
    The law enforcement agencies are equally involved in the juvenile justice system and they are given a lot of discretion in the process. The officers may be exposed to matters that may include their judgment on family background that does not require criminal prosecution. The arrests occur in very serious offences and this depends to the discretion of the law enforcement officers. The delinquent offender is then taken to the juvenile court where the decision is taken. The procedure is the same as the preliminary bail trial or indictment and the mention of the charges. The children are not entitled to constitutional rights to bail like the adults. The court basically decides whether the child can be released into the care of the parents put the child into temporary care of the state or in protective institutions awaiting the court decision or transfer. Generally, those that are more likely to run away are not released but a petition must be drawn within 24 hours. A child can only be detained if there is probable evidence that they did commit the crime. The same applies to the adult justice system but the adults have more control over the bail process. The indictment process is similar except that the juvenile system is a bit faster and the juveniles are not entitled to jury trials. The hearings are usually adjucatory where the judge makes the final decision and they are closed to the public. The findings of both justice systems are dispositions which may include release, fines, probation, rehabilitation programs or institutionalization (Calderon, 2006).
    The intake process is important in the decision making. The parole officials, the defense and prosecution attorneys and the judge must attempt to find a solution. Apart from plea bargaining, the juvenile offences can lead to several other options. The interrogation process takes into consideration factors like family, social status. Religion, academic level, work skills, emotional issues and past history of crimes and ultimately influences the decision in both adult and juvenile systems. While in the adult system the raised issue is whether the defendant is guilty or not, in juvenile system, the offender must be found to be delinquent beyond reasonable doubt (Snyder, 1995).
The role of the police and community
    The communities and the police must collaborate in order to combat juvenile crimes effectively. The police have the legal mandate to fight crime while the communities are the major culprits of such crimes. The communities are in better position to understand the behavior of the children since they commit the crimes within the communities. The communities also have a major role to play in reducing juvenile delinquency bearing in mind that most of the causes of these crimes stem from the community (Wootton  Heck, 2002). The community should endeavor to offer the youth alternative and positive ways to value their lives especially through education. The juvenile police are supposed to investigate and establish the purpose of all crimes as per the criminal procedure code. The police must establish facts about the criminal acts and the required correctional measures. They also team up with other social workers to arrange programs aimed at rehabilitating the delinquents. The police are also responsible in enforcing all legislation related to juvenile delinquency.

Death penalty

Death penalty, also known as capital punishment, can be defined as the execution of an individual through a judicial process as a punishment for a crime committed. Crimes that can elicit capital punishment are normally referred to as capital crimes or offenses. Capital in this context owes its origin to a Latin word capitalis that means regarding the head. Initially, the punishment for a capital offense was severing the head. Death penalty has always existed in every society and thus has almost attained a universal status, except for a few states that prescribe to religions that condemn it.
    Historically, execution of criminals and political opponents has always existed as a way to both punish crime and subdue political dissent. Some of the crimes that attract capital punishment in most countries include espionage, murder, and treason. Some societies also rate sexual offenses as capital and thus attract death penalty. Such sexual crimes may include, rape, incest, adultery and sodomy. Individuals who commit religious crimes like apostasy in Islamic states are also subjects of capital punishment. Some countries also rate crimes such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, and serious cases of corruption as crimes worth capital punishment. In military circles, cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny are acts that easily attract capital punishment.
    The methods that have been employed have been changing from severe, painful and long processes to short painless methods that limit the suffering of the victim. Some of the methods that were traditionally applied included boiling to death, wheel breaking, slow slicing, flaying, crucifixion, crushing, burning, stoning, decapitation and so on. Prosecution by firing squad was later adopted. Other more human methods that were adopted included guillotine in France, hanging, suffocation, and dropping from high points. The current methods that are in application include the electric chair, gas chambers and lethal injection. Some countries have not yet upgraded their methods and thus still apply some of the painful traditional ways (Cottrell, 2004).
Death penalty in the United States
    Capital punishment has been dated back to the inception of the United States. It has been viewed to aid in vengeance, incapacitation, and compensation against the most dangerous criminals. Though federal government still prescribes death penalty for espionage and conspiracy, capital punishment has mainly been a preserve of murder cases only. There have been questions that have arisen concerning the efficiency of capital punishment. From an economical point of view, the marginal benefits of the process should be greater than the marginal cost. Marginal cost from this perspective is used to mean the difference between the costs of murder trial that can attract life sentence and the costs related to capital trial process (Bienen, 1999a).
Benefits of Death Penalty
    It has been noted that due to the threat of capital punishment, the rate of homicide has decreased. Death penalty is thought of to act for a greater deterrent effect. Though this may not hold in all the circumstances, for example, offenders who act in passion normally do not reflect on the penalties attached to their actions. Many countries usually convict criminals to death sentences but do not carry out the actual execution. This gives the offender time to prepare for their deaths, write wills and organize their families future before they die. They are also able to come up with propaganda and other strategies that may in the final end earn them freedom. The most disturbing aspect of this process is that they do not always give their victims the chance to do all these preparations. They normally strike in surprise leading to the suffering of the families of their victims. They do not always give their victims the opportunity to summon their lawyers or have the last word with their families. In most cases, the methods they normally apply to carry out their acts are ruthless and meant to inflict great pain. Why should they in turn be given some privileges that they themselves do not extend to their victims (Cottrell, 2004)
    Countries such as Singapore, which are famous for the actual execution of death row convicts, capital offenses are always on the decline. This is a clear indication that capital punishment is a deterrent. Capital punishment tends to discourage planned capital offenses when execution is almost certain. Though this kind of punishment is not premeditated as it occurs as a surprise even to the offenders and thus there is usually no time to think about the consequences of their actions. Under such circumstances there are degrees of murder and thus each case can be evaluated independently and appropriate punishment accorded (Bienen, 1999a).
    Crime rates have been on the increase in the United States due to a number of factors but chief among them is leniency. The situation worsens when we are talking about capital crimes as they normally end up in loss of life. Capital punishment serves a very crucial role of removing capital offenders from the society and thus serves as a step towards a sustained safety in the society. When an offender is dead, one is not in a position to carry out the agenda or better still other potential offenders are not able to learn from one and build up on ones strategies. Capital offense as is the case of many other offenses is a matter of free will and normally the offender is not usually compelled to do their heinous acts (Bienen, 1999b).
    Every human being fears death, even the most dreaded and brave criminals or soldiers do. If it was possible for a murderer to be executed instantly, then definitely homicide cases would hit their all time low. This may not be achieved due to the necessary legal procedures that ensure that an innocent person may not go through death sentence because death penalty is irreversible. All the same, we agree that death penalty would save a number of people who would have otherwise been victims of such acts (Geraghty, 2003).
    Execution is a real punishment and cannot be prepared with some measures aimed at rehabilitating the criminals. In most cases, capital offenders prove to have passed the point of rehabilitation and instead get hardened in prison. They are also able to build networks in prisons with like-minded individuals which can lead to more vicious acts that are well planned in future. In some cases, some of the offenders are convicted more than once for the same capital offense and thus they know that even if they are apprehended they will still gain their freedom. Some convicts are very dangerous, even to other convicts in prison and the prison staff. They even proceed to kill inmates knowing that they have been detained for life and there is no other severe punishment they can be subjected to (Bienen, 1999a).
    Capital punishment by many aspects outweighs life sentence, as those serving life sentences can get amnesty or some cases of capital offenders escaping from prison. The worst thing with this is that the capital offenders do not normally change but normally come for vengeance against those who acted as witnesses against them. There is also the possibility of a relative to the victim not being able to contain themselves when they see the offenders free in the society and in the process may end up taking the law into their own hands. Victims of sexual offenses may not withstand seeing these offenders free and may end up committing suicide or trying to eliminate such offenders making them capital offenders themselves (Bienen, 1999b).
    The resources we have are very limited and cannot even adequately cater for the citizens. It would not be prudent enough for the government to spend huge sums of money in catering for the needs and upkeep of capital offenders serving life imprisonments. The worst aspect of this is that unlike petty offenders who are able to change and focus on more important and economic activities, very many capital offenders are unable to change. Most of these offenders usually grow more vicious by the day. It may be true that the cost of executing and actual costs incurred before the execution in terms of legal appeals usually deplete the victims family resources and normally expose them to mental torture as the trials normally last for in excess of twelve years (Kasten, 1996). 
The cost is much less compared to the families of their victims losses, the many productive citizens they eliminate, and the torture they expose such innocent people to. With regards to the slow process, this should not be viewed negatively as it is aimed at ensuring that only the guilty offenders are executed. This is normally due to the irreversibility of this form of punishment (Bienen, 1999a).
    If we have empathy for the victims concerned, then capital punishment remains the way to go. The only caution is to establish that it was done intentionally and that the person executed is the actual criminal. Innocent lives can be saved in the process. Life is sacred and should not be taken away, more so if it is done intentionally. The benefits of execution to the society are immense and immeasurable and tend to be directed towards the realization of a safer society. More so is the deterrent effect associated with capital punishment.
    It is noted that the cost incurred during the investigation, attorney preparation, trial, appellate proceedings, and the actual execution has been estimated to be higher than the cost of life imprisonment. The situation becomes more complicated when we take the cost incurred when productive members some of them being sole providers of their families are killed. The only adjustment that needs to be in place is reformation of the capital process because the costs normally increase in the course of trials and appeals (Kasten, 1996). The judicial system has maintained a good level of reliability in terms of ensuring that only the offenders are prosecuted. This is normally because of the rigorous and detailed judicial procedures with almost unlimited number of appeals being extended to the offenders. We cannot claim that the judicial system is completely reliable but it has risen to almost unquestionable status..

Processes of Employee Selection and Performance Appraisal

Even though many laws have been passed to safeguard the rights of employees, the concept of fairness in the process of selection, hiring, promotions and dismissal of staff is almost universally accepted. The cost of acquiring and maintaining efficient and effective employees has been steadily increasing over the years. With enough legal restrictions, application of technology and the unpredictability of the employment market, the process of hiring staffers becomes very critical demanding utmost dexterity from the human resource departments of most firms and corporations. In this paper, I evaluate the process of employee selection and performance appraisal applied in my department.
The first step in hiring begins with the definition of the job or availability of a vacancy. For any business or organization to succeed, it is of paramount importance that the employees to whom specific duties and responsibilities have been delegated are fully able to perform them to perfection. The human resource department makes an outline of what the position entails, the amount of time the successful candidate or candidates will have to put in, that is if the job will be on a full time or a part time basis, the duty station (where the successful candidates will be performing his or her duties) and to whom they will be responsible to (Arthur, 2001). Further decisions have to be made concerning the appropriate and feasible remuneration and compensation package, the educational level and background and the extent of work experience if necessary. For example, while hiring a production engineer, it becomes necessary to make sure that the candidates must have an academic background in the relevant engineering discipline and have on-the-job experience required for efficient oversight of the department. Age could also be a factor as some positions demand extensive interpersonal skills and well developed leadership traits to execute efficiently, for example in human resource management.
After the job description and the necessary qualifications have been decided and outlined, the department advertises through dailies and on the firms website calling for suitably qualified candidates to forward their Curriculum Vitae and job cover letters to the Human resource managers desk. If potential candidates had already sent in their profiles, it still is imperative to advertise the positions for openness and transparency, as long as to avoid the risk of leaving out more qualified candidates (Thoms, 2005).
After all interested potential candidates have submitted the required documents, that is a cover letter and a copy of their curriculum vitae, the candidate pool for the particular job is systematically narrowed down to just a handful of persons. This is done by first perusing the applications to eliminate unqualified applicants. Attention is also paid to well written resumes and cover letters that may be an indication that the applicant may possess the qualities desired for the job. After this preliminary elimination process is over, the department establishes communication with the remaining candidates and invites them to sit an aptitude test to gauge their suitability for the position. Further elimination happens leaving as eligible only those candidates that score above a pre-determined threshold in the aptitude test (Arthur, 2001). The candidates still remaining in contention for the position are then invited for a boardroom oral interview to further establish the ability of each and every one of them.
After the oral interviews, the employer then is at liberty to extend an offer to the candidate or candidates they favor as most able to fill the vacancy as per the description of the job. It is the practice to have also a list of alternative candidates to extend offers to in the event of the favorite candidate turning down the offer.

Concerning appraisal, there is a realization that the biggest single reason for underperformance of employees in the department is lack of appreciation. Under duress of demanding operational schedules, seniors may forget to compliment good performances and instead focus on what is erroneously done. The fact is that even when an employee is performing well in just one of many areas of responsibility, the desire to improve in the other areas he or she is involved in will be fuelled by complementation from their supervisor. This is the foundation of performance appraisal (Thoms, 2005). The essence of performance appraisal is to motivate staff, establish the rate of productivity and hence estimate the efficiency of the existent employee base.
The first step is selecting the performance data to base the appraisal on. Considered here is employee productivity, the personal traits he or she exhibits and finally the proficiency (the skill) the employee has shown while carrying out his or her duties and responsibilities. Productivity is measured in terms of quantifiable performance accomplishments (Rosenberg, 2000). Personal traits are attributes like motivation, teamwork, the ability to take initiative and personal appearance (the suitability of the dress code and levels of personal grooming). Proficiency analysis helps establish the areas of performance needing improvement and ingrain inside the employee the desire to overcome the shortcomings that hinder satisfactory input in the department.
After the determination of the areas to perform the appraisal, a decision is made on who will conduct the appraisal. This may be the employees themselves, their co-workers supervisors or professionals outsourced from outside the organization. The rating philosophy is then decided upon (Denisi, 2005). This involves the choosing between classifying employee data based on mutual comparison with their co-workers or whether the rating is to be against some pre-established standard.
After the selection of employees, performance appraisal is in my opinion the most effective human resource management tool. This is because after proper execution, appraisals can help in refining the present workforce and rewarding excellence (Arthur, 2006).
The transparency and rigorous selection applied in selecting candidates to fill vacant positions in the department severely diminishes any chance of picking an unqualified candidate to take on any responsibilities. There also is no room for patronage and corruption in the hiring process.
Performance appraisals and the evaluation of the resultant data provide ideas for refining operational procedures or deciding on whether to institute new ones. If, for example performance appraisal information indicates that a production supervisor had continuously been involved in interpersonal conflicts with his juniors in the department, it will indicate the need for exercising more caution by focusing on interpersonal capabilities while hiring for that office in the future (Rosenberg, 2000).
In addition, even though the motivation levels and the desire for professional betterment vary from employee to employee, it is important for employees to get a feedback on how they are performing their duties. The feedback provided by performance surveys actively engages the employee to better his or her performance. When presented in a positive perspective, employees become grateful for the hints on how they can be better in their capacities and this concentrates collective efforts towards thriving of the establishment