William Muir named four styles of policing in your textbook. Name these four styles, and define them by their relation to passion and perspective. What operational style of policing do you consider the most effective in modern policing Why Use proper APA citations in your text to document your sources.

The four styles that I found in the reading are as follows
Professional-officers have the necessary passion and perspective to be valuable police officers. Enforcers-officers have a passion for the job, for enforcing the law, for taking decisive action their inner drive or value system allows them to be comforting using force to solve problems. Reciprocators-Officers lack the passion to do the job, they have difficult time taking action, making arrests, enforcing the law their value system make it difficult to use force to solve problems. Avoiders-officers have neither passion nor perspective, resulting in no recognition of peoples problems, and no action to resolve them.

The most effective operational style of policing that I believe is the most effective in modern policing is the service style. In the era of community policing, citizens are expecting more from the police officers than just simple enforcement. By implementing the service style of policing, I believe the needs of the community will be met, crime will be reduced, and the citizens will be happier.  2) Your textbook states that a number of conditions can lead to job stress name four (4) of them. List these four (4) conditions with at least one example of each. What do you suggest to help alleviate these conditions Remember to document your sources with in-text citations.

After reading the chapters, I found a number of factors which could increase job stress for the police officer. The first condition is the design of tasks. Examples of this condition include lifting heavy objects, working long hours without many breaks, and monotonous repetitious of dangerous maneuvers. The second condition which I found was the management style. Examples of this include lack of participation by coworkers in decision making, poor communication between employees, and a lack of family-friendly policies in the police department. The third condition which I found was interpersonal relationships. Examples of this include having a poor social environment and a lack of support from co-workers and supervisors. The fourth condition I found was work roles. Examples of this include conflicting or uncertain job expectations and having too many responsibilities.

I believe there are two ways to alleviate these conditions. The first would be to provide stress management for the officers. That would include lessons on eating correctly, meeting with a mental health professional, encouraging regular exercise, and providing relaxation techniques. The second suggestions I would give would be to encourage organizational change in the departments. By giving the officers more discretion, encouraging community policing, and flattening the hierarchical system of the police department, the stress levels may be managed. Consider the polices role in your own community. Is it appropriate Should there be more or less police presence Provide examples and explain why or why not. Should there be more or less police presence Support your position.

The police in my community largely implement the community policing philosophy and strategy. I think it is an appropriate role, as the officers are on daily foot and bike patrols, they attempt to develop relationships with the community stakeholders, and they have recognizable faces. It appears that the same officers patrol my community, therefore the neighbors become use to seeing the same officers, they begin to develop trust for them, and appear more likely to discuss neighborhood problems. If the officers continue this community policing style, I believe that they could actually increase their presence in the community. They appear to be helpful, not hurtful edifying, not demeaning, and they appear to truly care not only about their job, but about my community. I know this is not the case for all neighborhoods, but I believe the officers in my community are the very essence of the community policing ideology.

Saving America's Youth from a Life of Crime.

In America people like to think their children are safe. They like to think they can send children to school, out with friends and expect them to come home without facing the terror that is common place for children in other parts of the world.  The reality is however that children in America are at great risk of getting involved in criminal behavior every time they go outside their homes.  Risks are higher in certain areas of the country, but all youth are at risk.  It is important to identify risk factors for youth involvement in criminal activity and the attitudes that lead youth towards criminal behavior.  Along with identifying the problems with youth crime in America, it is important to determine what can be done to reduce the risk to the young people.  One of the best solutions to keeping adolescents away from criminal groups and behavior is to surround them with positive role models and activities.
One of the problems identified with leading adolescents into lives of crime are gangs and gang affiliation.  Young people who get involved in gangs seem to be far more likely to become involved in some kind of criminal activity than young people who are not in gangs.  Gangs can be defined as groups whose members meet together with some regularity with group defined membership criteria and organizational characteristics.  They are not adult sponsored, but are self-determining groups that demonstrate continuity over time.  In most major cities these groups present a problem not only for the safety of the youths involved in the gangs, but those who accidentally come in contact with them as well.  Young People in gangs get involved in such crimes as drug abuse, selling drugs, theft, assault, armed robbery, rape, and even murder.  When rival gangs fight with each other wars with severe casualties and loss of members lives can result.
When considering the risks involved with becoming part of a gang people would wonder why youth become part of gangs.  Most parents would do everything they could to keep their children from getting involved with gangs, yet somehow large numbers of American children join gangs every year.  Many of them are lured into gangs gain a sense of belonging.  Gangs are predominately made up of young men from similar ethnic backgrounds.The young people who get involved in the gangs often come from single parent homes or homes below the poverty level.  Becoming part of the gang gives them a sense of belonging and in many ways a family mentality.The gangs often participate in crime together (such as drugs or gambling) as a way to earn money, which provides for those who were raised in poverty.  The attraction of family like relationships and potential for high earnings lures young people into the groups in which they become entangled and unable to get out without severe consequences.
Even youth who are not involved in gangs are at risk of becoming involved in crime.  One of the most prominent crimes for adolescents to get into is drug use, abuse and often dealing.  For teenagers even alcohol is illegal and this is often the first step into illegal drug usage adolescents take.  From there they move on to more illicit drugs.  According to one source, by age fourteen approximately 35 of teenagers have tried at least one illicit drug and by the end of high school more than half reportedly tried at least one.The most commonly reported drugs used by teenagers were marijuana, ecstasy, heroin and cocaine. The teenagers most likely to be at risk are those who have poor relationships with parents, live in high risk or low income communities, have parental or peers who role model drug abuse and those who have low self- esteem or poor school performance. Young people involved in drug use and abuse are also at greater risk of selling drugs to others. In addition to the criminal behavior involved, the young people have greater long term risks such a possible long term habit and potential life long health conditions. 
Part of the problems involved with leading adolescents to criminal behaviors and peer groups, such as gangs, that replace strained or missing relationships with parents.  During adolescence young people want to spend more time with friends and peers than with parents.  When the community the youth has grown up in is made up of youth who are poor role models, the children are more likely to get involved in the criminal behaviors.There is a greater risk of this happening with young men in single mother homes.  The adolescent males may have very positive relationships with their mothers, but with no positive male role model the young men reach out to peers for companionship.  This is when they tend to get involved with gangs and friends who get them into criminal activities.  Those who have both parents often develop difficulty relating to their parents during adolescence and also turn to peers, who could lead them to criminal behavior.
In order to protect children from turning to lives of crime it is very important to begin at very early age surrounding them by positive role models and teaching them where to turn for help when they have questions.  Even children with the best parent relationships will need to have positive relationships outside of the immediate family.  In order for the parents to know those relationships are safe, however it is important for the parents to know who the relationships are.  Parents need to know who their childrens friends are and what is going on in their childrens lives.  The most important way to insure this is to get the children involved in positive social institutions.  The most influential of these include family, religion, community, and school.

The first crucial relationship to develop is the family relationship. More studies are showing the value of family involvement early and continual during the childs life. Children who have adequate parental supervision are less likely to engage in criminal activities than those with less parental supervision or poor parent-child relationships.  By building trusting family relationships, young people will be able to turn to their parents when they have concerns during the trying times of adolescence instead of needing to turn to peers.  Studies have indicated that children who are raised in dysfunctional families with conflict or inadequate parental control have a much stronger tendency to end up in groups involved in delinquent behavior. 

Religious groups are a good way to surround children with positive youth and other people who would help keep them out of gangs or delinquent criminal behavior.  By getting young people involved in these groups they can find constructive activities to become involved in and would thus be less likely to have free time to become involved in delinquent behavior.  Young people involved in religious groups often develop more positive peer relationships and social groups.  This helps the adolescent have a better overall outlook on life and a higher capacity for coping with life stressors.  Parents who surround their children with religious groups provide children with better opportunities for positive outlooks on life and less likelihood to become involved in criminal activities and delinquent behavior. 

The community a child is raised in undoubtedly plays a role in whether he or she will become involved in criminal behavior later in life.  Children who are raised in poverty stricken communities or communities with high crime rates are much more likely to become involved with peers who get them involved in criminal behavior.  It is very difficult for children to resist crime if it occurs every time a child walks out the door.  The problem is made worse when the youth sees the criminal behavior as a potential way to make money to help the familys financial situation.  Children who are born and raised in communities among working families and low crime rates have a lower tendency to become involved in criminal behavior.  Children who grow up what are considered safe communities are usually surrounded by peers of similar backgrounds and families, which help keep them from criminal activities.

School is a very important social structure for youth and provides a strong impact on youth behavior.  There is a proven correlation between positive school performance and minimal delinquency (Jenkins).  When children attend school regularly and get good grades they become involved in school activities and develop school peer relationships.  These relationships are often less likely to lead to delinquent behavior.  School success is important for parents to encourage children to accomplish as well for future success.  If children graduate from high school they have a better chance of getting out of poverty stricken and high crime neighborhoods and can thus end the cycle of crime.  In order to get children to stay in school, an interest needs to be developed in it early.  School needs to be something the young person likes to do instead of something they have to do.  Education is one of the greatest things a parent can provide a child in order to help keep him out of a life of crime.
Americas children are all at risk of getting involved in a life of crime, and no parent wants to see that happen to their child.  Single mothers raising boys in poverty may look at the statistics and simply give up, but there is hope for all children.  Although the statistics point out what children are at highest risk, it is a way to provide information to help identify and prevent those children from becoming statistics.  The single mothers of adolescent sons can still surround their children with young people who are positive role models and can build positive relationships with them.  These mothers can get their children involved in school.
Although there are certain groups at higher risk than others, no child is free from the risk of becoming involved in crime.  In order to protect youth from crime, parents need to know their children.  They need to be involved in their childrens lives and develop a trusting open relationship with them.  Parents need to surround their children with peers who are a positive influence and encourage their children to become involved in group activities such as school or church events.  Parents should know their childrens friends and teachers as well as what they are doing in school (attendance, grades).  Parents who respect their childrens privacy do not really respect their children they simply do not care enough to protect them from the dangers that exist in the world.  There are people in the world that will keep track of what Americas children are doing if their parents do not, unfortunately those people will not have the childrens best interest in mind.  In order to protect Americas children, we need to be involved with the children and make them a priority.
Girls have tended to be overlooked in youth justice policies and practices
The question of whether or not the crimes committed by or against girls have received equivalent treatment to those of boys is a matter that raises a lot of concern.

Girls and women are known to commit fewer crimes than boys and men. Girls also carry out their crimes later in life, and desist from their crimes sooner than boys. Nonetheless, the point of concern is the treatment they get once they commit the offence in the hands of law enforcers. Youth justice systems have played a role in the sexualization of female delinquency. The youth justice system is seen to have some favour towards a girl offender through preferential treatment given to girls at every stage. For example, it is more likely to prosecute a boy for an offence than a girl. A girl is more likely to be treated as a victim than an offender. A study on magistrates perception in sentencing shows that women are sentenced as troubled offenders while men as troublesome offenders.

Historically, girls have been treated as the vulnerable gender hence requiring a lot of care. Unwarranted caution has been emphasized not to criminalize some of girls survival strategies. Their social expectations to conform to stereotype of femininity have however not prevented them from committing crimes. Interestingly, crimes committed by girls in the past history were dealt with through care systems with an aim of instilling good virtues to them. This is in opposition to criminal justice system. Existing beliefs on what constitutes to delinquent girls behavior has been the key factor in setting up of policies that relate to girls needs among the youth justice system. The broad socio-political, religious and other welfare institutions have emphasizes on girls sexuality and independence. This expectation has raised concern over what is their willful and passionate behaviour. This conflicting perception about their behavior has led to girls experiencing both the advantages and disadvantages of welfares at a higher level than boys    .

Some of these advantages include diversion of their offences from formal juvenile justice system, while disadvantages include sentence up-tarriffing where lesser crimes have attracted longer sentences. Example, in 1999, girls received a higher rate of cautioning. This has led to call for equitable justice between boys and girls. Police has also been given a limit on their discretion at the point of deciding whether to charge or not. This has reduced number of diversions from court.

The growth of lawlessness among young women can be attributed to lack of stringent policies relating to girl based offences. As reported by Youth Justice Board (YJB), there has been an increase in girl based offences by 25 per cent compared to 47,358 offences committed by girls in 2004. There is a growing evidence that, violent crimes are on the rise among female offenders. In 2008, girls were reported to have carried out 15,672 violent attacks in the UK which represent a 50 per cent rise for over the past three years. This can be associated to slackened sentences on women offenders. Less than 10 per cent of the children in custody are girls, though they commit about 20 per cent of offences. This proves the low will of courts to lock up girl offenders.

In Canada, the Young Offenders Act (YOA) of 1986 gave great powers to the police, the judiciary and probation officers. More emphasis has been given to the rehabilitative needs of the offender over the nature and seriousness of the offence committed.

There is a notable difference at sentence stage where at a lower end of seriousness. Girls are found to receive penalties below community sentence at a higher proportion than boys.  For example in 1999, 54.6 per cent of girls convictions resulted to discharges compared to 40 per cent of boys. Girls also accounted for 5 per cent of custodial sentences imposed. March 2008 saw jailing of a 15 year-old girl for filming her male friends beating a man to death in Keinghley, West Yorkshire on her phone. This has raised concern and some evidence suggests that the lenient treatment given to girl offenders is on decline.
In conclusion, it is in no doubt true that the justice system for girls is different from that of boys. This varies from leniency in treatment to the offenders of crime to necessary provisions available in the correction facilities. The perceived motivation for the offence and the demeanor of the defendants should not be biased on gender. Such actions will help in removing the perception that, female offenders are differential and respectful than male offenders as this makes the system treat girls with remorse and compassion.

The law enforcement officials have been found to be lenient on girl based offences. This can be rectified by strengthening of institutions that impact on welfare girls welfare as relates to behaviour formation programmes, education, health, policing, courts, and youth prisons.

Intimate Partner Violence.

Getting a restraining order is one of the most effective means to get away from intimate partner violence. Some of its advantages include the possibility of the victim to live away from the perpetrator and be protected from any kind of abuse. On the other hand, its disadvantages include the inability of the intimate partner to resolve the issues that challenged their relationship and to start anew. It is not difficult to get a restraining order as long as the evidences of abuses are strong, but it is a limited remedy for intimate partner violence.   

The castle doctrine involves a post-conviction remedy which is a relevant approach when trying to correct past miscarriages of justice. It is based on the idea that a man or woman who was attacked in his or her room may not retreat from the home and fight back if imminent danger and bodily harm is present. This doctrine is very much applicable to intimate partner violence then. Upon the time when the courts started to notice battered woman syndrome as an available self-defense dispute, convicted women may present evidence of abusive relationship to an executive clemency board for another study or investigation. In that case, if a woman kills or injures an intimate partner due to effects of abusive relationship, then they will be given hope to survive any legal ordeal.

The castle doctrine was applied and formulated in the case of Weiand v. State. In this case, Kathleen Weiand faced a first-degree murder charge since she killed her husband. Kathleen Weiand presented proofs that her husband always abused her in their three-year relationship. In this case, the court utilized the exception of the castle doctrine wherein Kathleen was precluded from retreating in her home because of the glaring evidences that her husband abused her in many ways during the entire relationship.

The concept of learned helplessness means the inability of a woman to be freed from any battered woman syndrome effect. In that case, his husband or boyfriend would threaten her to injure or kill her in case she will leave the home. In the case of Kathleen Weiand, she had many opportunities to leave the house every time her husband abuse her, but fear of being abused more often prevented her to do so. The castle doctrine exception is the perfect remedy for learned helplessness in case the battered woman kills an abusive intimate partner. In addition, the castle doctrine has something to do with the legal use of self-defense since. Looking into the case of Weiand v. State, Kathleen interposed self-defense while presenting proofs of violence by her husband. Hence, the court accepted her defenses.

There are myriad research findings with respect to the extent of intimate partner violence. First, a famous survey instrument called the Conflict Tactics Scale is always utilized to analyze the magnitude of intimate partner violence. The finding of one study using the said research instrument is that 16 of the subjects mentioned at least one experience of violence during the past year. In addition, Gelles and Straus even reported in 1988 that nearly 25 of all intimate partners will experience any kind of domestic abuse in their entire lives. It also includes a finding that in all women who were physically abused by their husbands or boyfriends, one in a number of three women is injured. In all these cases, women had no choices but to suffer from their situation while living with intimate partner. The worst thing is that there is a possibility that they could kill an intimate partner and has to go through a full-blown court trial despite the fact there is an obvious battered woman syndrome.

Moreover, there are various theories of intimate partner violence. These theories include intra-individual theory, patriarchy, and as well as the learned helplessness perspective. According to Doerner  Lab, intra-individual theories search the reason of deviant behavior inside an individual. The other term of the theory is psychopathology. The focal point of the theory is finding the wrong within a person and studies various issues that caused any untoward behavior. On the other hand, patriarchy has something to do with socio-cultural explanations. Simply put, it has something to do with our culture of allowing husbands or men to dominate in our homes. In that case, many women suffer because of the patriarchal influence that surrounds the home. With respect to the theory on learned helplessness, women were forced to endure in living with their intimate partners because they always end up beaten if they would show any hint of leaving the home.   

The stages or cycle of violence is worth studying for. It will help people find solution to the problem of intimate partner violence that affected millions of family members. A man and a woman live together under the same roof. Later on, the husband displays his influence and power as the patriarch of the home. For some reasons, the husband may physically, emotionally, and psychologically abuse the wife. The cycle goes on and on with the final phase as the reconciliation period which happens every time the husband realizes his mistakes. This is the scenario between the husband and wife wherein battered woman syndrome is present in the home. The painful reality is that the batterer think that he could control his behavior against his victim when in fact he cannot and will not do it. The influence of alcohol and drugs will also increase the risk of domestic violence.  

Essentially, the Minneapolis Experiment and the Lautenberg Amendment relate o the police and domestic violence in such a way that both topics help solve the problem on intimate partner violence. The most helpful of these topics is the Lautenberg Amendment wherein anyone convicted of a misdemeanor involving domestic violence must not be allowed to hold or own a gun. The gun control law is designed to protect women from being retaliated by the batterer.   

Finally, the power and control wheel is the most interesting topic of all. In undergoing domestic violence over and over again, the physical and psychological well-being of the wife is compromised. There were many factors that will trap a victim in the situation. There might be an initial assessment of the marriage or union as failure, but the woman involved does not know the correct remedies. The most notable of these factors include the economic aspect wherein a mother would choose to remain with her abuser just to let her children live with the provider. Therefore, the power and control wheel must be disbanded in order to free women from domestic violence as soon as possible.

working violence.

Workplace violence is a major issue in the United States based on the number of workers it affects. In an attempt to solve the issue, this paper analyzes the extent of the problem especially in high risk occupations such as the service industry and retail trade. The paper also looks at the strategies that have been put in place by different organizations to prevent workplace violence. The paper ends with some recommendations which can be applied to prevent workplace violence.   
    Workplace violence can be defined as any violence or kind of threat the employees of a particular organization are exposed to in their place of work or outside. Workplace violence may include physical attack, murder, threats and abuses issued verbally. Therefore, workplace violence may be physical violence which involves kicking and punching between the employees or between the employees and outsiders. Threat and intimidation of any kind in the work environment either from fellow employees or from the employer are also considered to be workplace violence. Statistics indicates that the number of deaths related to jobs or other workplace related violence is on the increase. Due to this reason, workplace violence has become a major concern not only to those directly involved, but rather other stakeholders have become very concerned. Hence it has become imperative that plans to reduce workplace violence are put in place (OSHA, 2002, p 1).
Workplace Violence
    Violence at place of work should be taken seriously by the employees and the employers as well as the authorities. Workplace violence has far reaching effect on the workplace environment due to its great influence on the workers morale. Frequent workplace violence in a particular organization is more likely to damage the reputation of the organization which may in turn affect the ability of the institution to attract competent and dependable staff. Workplace violence is associated with additional expenses as a result of employees being frequently absent and insurance premiums being higher as a result of increased risks. The organization may also incur additional costs as a result of legal fees in case the organization is sued by the workers for negligence and the resulting compensation and penalties. To the employees, violence at place of work may result into suffering and disability due to physical harm, psychological problems leading to distress and even worse - death. Physical violence may have serious and immediate consequences on the employees but persistent intimidations and threats may have adverse short term and long term effects on the employees health and ability to work for the organizations as a result of anxiety and stress. Thus, gossips at the place of work are also identified by many scholars as workplace violence due to the distress and lack of comfort it is associated with (Paludi, 2006, p 13).
    Everyday, there are cases of work place violence being reported in the United State and different parts of the world. The media today is full of these reports which call for interventions to determine the cause and possible solution to the problem. The attention attracted by workplace violence is partly as a result of the report published by the National Institute for Safety and Health together with other organizations indicating the level of violence workers in the United States are exposed to in their places of work. However, the media has focused on the violence the workers are exposed to as a result of confrontations with co-workers and their employers while failing to address the violence experienced by workers such as taxi drivers and security officers in the course of their duties. These workers are frequently attacked in their places of work and very often these incidences go unreported in the media. Many cashiers, restaurant employees and retailer sellers are attacked every day all over the United States and therefore workplace violence is of serious concern. It is not in order for death or physical assault to be inevitable as a result of the career or a job an individual chooses nor should violence be accepted as a cost of doing business or working in the United States or any other part of the world.
    Although the strategies that may be developed to reduce incidences of violence at places of work may not be applicable or even appropriate at all places of work, there is need to review the workplace violence with an aim of reducing or preventing incidences of workplace violence. There is need for both the administrators at place of work and the authorities to develop strategies to deal with the ever increasing threat the workers are faced with at their places of work. Prevention of workplace violence is inevitable even if it means changing the workplace settings or the way work in an organization is done to reduce the risk involved in working for the organization (NIOSH, 1996, p 4).
    In many cases, violence at place of work has been treated differently by analysts, although it is a criminal act like any other violence. One of the reasons why workplace violence is of importance is the number of deaths related to this violence. Workplace violence has become a major contributor of physical injuries and deaths in the United States. NIOSH data indicates that violence at place of work is the second leading among the causes of injuries and deaths in the United States only surpassed by road accidents. Moreover, almost two million American workers are assaulted at their workplaces in course of their duties. The national survey also indicates that workplace violence accounts for over fifteen percent of all violence attacks reported in the United States.
    Another reason why violence associated with the place of work differs from other forms of violence is the circumstances under which this violence takes place. A very good example is a report by NIOSH that indicated that over three quarters of all deaths at workplaces in 1993 were as a result of armed robbery while less than ten percent of homicides reported in the same year in the general population were related to robbery. The same report indicated that while almost half of all homicides reported in the general population involved the murderer and the victim being closely related or familiar to each other, majority of murders or attacks at workplaces involved persons not known to the victims. Most of the violence leading to death in the general population was mainly related to unstable relationship which contributed less than twenty percent of the reported workplace violence. 
    Research on workplace violence indicates that the risk involved in work places varies from one place of work to another. The risk is therefore not randomly distributed across the whole work force since some occupations are reported to be much more risky than others. Retail trader and workers in service industry are reported to be at a much higher risk accounting for over half of all occupational homicides in the United States. In these industries, occupation related homicide is rated as one of the leading causes of deaths among the workers. It is also reported that 85 percent of all assaults at places of work in the United States occur in these service and trade industries. With the changing economy in the United States, where more focus is on the service industry, workplace violence is increasing and is likely to be a major security and health concern if desperate measures by both the workplace administrators and the authority are not taken (NIOSH, 1996, p 5). 
    Other reasons why occupation related violence is special compared to other forms of violence is the specific factors which provide the risk of violent attacks. These factors include the workers being in close contact with the public or dealing with exchange of liquid cash or goods and services delivery. Consequently, due to the specific factors that contribute to this violence, there lies a better opportunity of implementing ways of preventing or reducing cases of this violence. Prevention strategies can be put in place since it is easier to identify loopholes where the workers are likely to be attacked as compared to cases if the attack was directed to the general population (NIOSH, 1996, p 5). 
    In the 1980s and the early 1990s, workplace violence was less common but increased tremendously towards the end of the 20th century. By the years 2000, the number of deaths attributed to workplace violence was more than deaths caused by machines and approached the number resulting from road carnage. Majority of deaths resulting from occupational violence affects men according to NIOSH data released in 1995. However, the report indicated that there were a good number of female deaths where majority of them worked as retail traders and in the service industries. There was disparity on the occupation of the male victims, though most of them worked in the service industries and retail business, a good number worked as public administrators or in transportation industry which was not observed in their female counterparts. The same report indicated that homicide was the main cause of workplace related deaths among the women. However, men were reported to be faced with a higher risk of homicide in their place of work compared to women.
    The NIOSH report also indicated that workplace violence involved workers of all ages ranging from 16 to 93 years. Although the largest number of victims who died out of occupational homicide was between mid twenties and mid thirties, the rate of death increased with increase in age. The highest rate was recorded among workers aged over sixty five years old. This trend was observed in both the male and female workers in all states. Race was also observed to be a factor where majority of the victims were observed to be white, although there was a higher risk for workers of other races (NIOSH, 1996, p 6).
    In the late 20th century and today, majority of workplace homicides involves the use of lethal firearms. Firearms contribute to the increased number of homicides in the place of work in many parts of the world including the United States. However, the high number of deaths and injuries related to workplace violence is just a tip of the iceberg. There are many cases of not physical attacks, such as intimidation, that go unreported, which means there is no substantial data on the same. The judicial systems as well as the public health statistics have little information about the magnitude of occupational related violence which is nonfatal. Though there are many incidences being reported in the media about workplaces violence, the media reports only the fatal incidences while the nonfatal incidences are never reported nor recorded. Despite the fact that the effect of fatal or nonfatal violence to the employees or the employers varies, they have something in common. Whether the violent attack was fatal or nonfatal, the worker was at his or her place of work and going about his or her business as usual, but a situation facilitated by the environment in the workplace exposes the worker to attack by coworkers or people from outside. These situations are however predictable and preventable to some extent. However, with almost two million workers in the United States being victims of occupational related attacks and with its cost to the employers being in billions, there is no substantial research which aims at developing strategies to reduce workplace violence and its consequences.
    However, occupational violence has received increased consideration as a result of increased awareness on the adverse effects of violence in the place of work. There is still a big information gap on the causes and best approach in order to reduce incidences of physical attacks and intimidations in workplaces. Today, the level of violence associated with workers occupations in the United States is not well known nor is the exact number of workers suffering from these attacks known. This is more so when nonfatal attacks are considered, since most of them go unreported. Although workplace violence is easy to predict and possibly easy to seal the loophole, the case applies to fatal attacks and is less applicable to nonfatal attacks among the workers or by people from outside. Therefore, addressing occupational violence is a complicated issue due to the fact that violence emerges from several causes and strategies aimed at dealing with the problem should address all these causes (Merchant, et al, 2001, p 3).
    Workplace violence may be as a result of a criminal intent where the perpetrator does not have any legal attachment with the workers or the organization and in many cases commits other crimes in the cause of the violent attack. The aim of the perpetrator may not be attack and always involves other crimes such as theft, burglary, robbery or trespassing. About 85 percent of occupational related homicides are as a result of this kind of workplace violence. The perpetrators of a violent attack can also be a customer or a client to the organization who may turn violent in the course of being served by the workers. In this case, the executors of the attack and the organization have a legitimate relationship. This category is more widespread in the service industry where there are cases of students attacking teachers, patients attacking doctors and nurses or inmates attacking the prison officers. The nurses and caregivers in health facilities, nursing homes and organizations that give psychiatric services as well as prison staff are believed to be at higher risk of such workplace violence due to the type of clients they deal with.
    The other form of workplace attack involves a worker being attacked by a co-worker. The attack may not be physical leading to injury or death but may be a threat or intimidation which may make the worker feel uncomfortable. However, this category of violence accounts for about seven percent of workplace homicides reported in the United States. The violence may also take the form in which the perpetrator and the victim may have some personal relationship. The violence may be as a result of domestic violence or individual differences which may overflow to the workplace. Understanding the category of the attack is essential in the establishment of a solution to the problem. However, the little information about nonfatal attacks, the implication of workplace violence on the organizations performance and the effectiveness of the employees is a major setback on the development of a hybrid solution to the violence being experienced in workplaces (Merchant, et al, 2001, p 5).
    To protect their employees from possible attack by individuals with criminal intent, organizations have developed different mechanisms depending on the work environment. This includes provisions of favorable environment which does not discourage the criminals. This includes proper lighting of the workplace, use of security engineering technology and hardware to dispirit the assailants. Organizations have also developed administrative programs and implemented policies and practices in their workplaces which create a safe environment for the employees. Many organizations have also developed training programs for their employees to train them on interpersonal relationship to equip their employees with mechanisms of responding to conflicts and violence in the workplaces. However, there are limited reports on the effectiveness of these measures in reducing workplace violence with criminal intentions.
    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration which is an organization dealing with the safety of workers in their places of work has come up with guidelines that can be employed to reduce violence associated with workplaces. The guidelines are specific for special types of organizations, especially those which involve higher risks. However, there is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of these guidelines within a specific workplace environment in order to establish whether they can be relied upon (Merchant, et al, 2001, p 7).
    The United States government does not have regulations that directly prevent the workers from workplace violence. The guidelines developed by The Occupational Safety and Health Administration are not recognized by the Federal or the states law. However, some states have enacted some laws that touch directly on issues related to workplace violence. These states have legislations that prevent the medical care workers from attacks by their clients and others to safeguard the security of workers in retail businesses working overnight. The implementation of these laws requires some of these stores to change their mode of operation which has resulted in most of them opting to close early rather than comply with the regulations. The changes in the law and the early closing have not been evaluated to determine the extent of workplace reduction. At the local level, some of the OSHA recommendations have been implemented. For example, the greatest risk of workplace violence is faced by taxi drivers, according to statistics. However, these statistics focus on the fatal assaults which are very common among the taxi driver in the American cities. Some security regulations such as installation of barriers which are bullet proof in taxis have been implemented in many states in the United States. However, more research needs to be carried out to access the effectiveness of this approach in the reduction of homicides among the taxi drivers.
    Risk in different organizations presents the administrators with varying challenges in dealing with violence in work places. The type of business, number and type of client as well as the type of workers in the business dictates the interventions to be taken to reduce workplace violence. The workers also need to play an active role in ensuring that workplace violence is reduced. For this reason, employers have tried to implement measures which assure their employees safety. In many workplaces, there is enhanced physical security such as improved lighting or better methods of handling liquid cash which reduce the likelihood of attack. Organizations have also developed team oriented response to any threat posed at their places of work. There are established programs in many organizations which aim at assisting employees who are at risk of attack by acquaintances, relatives, spouses or co-workers while at their place of work. Development of strict policies that do not allow any threat or intimidations in the places of work has been predicted to be a possible solution to some non-physical attacks among the workers. Training programs to educate workers on detection of hazardous situations have also been formed in different organizations which give the workers knowledge on how to respond to these situations. Many organizations screen their workers and clients whenever it is possible to help the administration detect individuals in the organizations premises who are a threat to the security of other workers. Since most of the liability of any attack at the place of work is bent towards the employers who are accused of negligence, organizations are opting to incur additional running costs by contracting security firms that are specialized in prevention of violence at work places (Merchant, et al, 2001 p 8).
    In my own view, workplace violence is a major concern to both the employers and the workers. As an administrator in a workplace, I would take desperate measures to ensure that the workers entitled to me are safe and free from any attack. This would be done through identification of the risk factors associated with workplace violence. These factors include the environment, the practices at the workplace and characterizations of possible perpetrators of violence as well as their victims. The first interventions will be to ensure that the environment does not allow any violence. This can be done by reducing the availability of weapons among the workers and visitors through increased surveillance. In case violence emerges with no weapons available, injuries as well as fatality level will be greatly reduced. To ensure security in hospitals, especially for medical workers dealing with mentally ill patients, following the patient history would be paramount to establish the risk involved in handling the particular patient. To increase the security of the environment of work, I would put necessary mechanisms to restrict access by the general public in the working areas. This will include, if necessary, the use of staff uniforms and name tags for easier identification of the employees by the security personnel. The location of the organizations premises will also be a priority. The parking area should be well lit and the organizations vicinity should not be one that is inhabited by gangsters or drug abusers.
    The work place practices especially in organizations that deal will large number of clients is also a major contributor of workplace violence. To avoid cases of attack due to unsatisfied or delayed clients, I would avoid long waiting queues especially when dealing with impatient clients. This can be effected by the number of staff members being enough and competent to deal with the average number of clients. Isolation of working environment where a worker is left at the mercy of the client is also to be avoided. I would also develop programs to equip the workers with the ability to identify and deal with an aggressive visitor or intruder.
    Once I have ensured that the environment does not pose any risk to the workers and the practices at the place of work do not give room for violence, the next step will be to characterize the workers, clients and visitors to identify possible risky individuals being admitted in the organization. In most cases, a perpetrator of violence is more likely to have been involved in another violence making it easy to identify them from their profiles if they are frequent visitors or among the organizations workers. It is also important to be free with the workers who in turn will be able to disclose possible risks posed by their acquaintances or spouses which are likely to attract violence at the workplace.
    It is essential to ensure that the implemented strategies are effective in assuring the workers that there is so much needed security while at their places of work. Therefore, I would create a task force within the organization to oversee all security strategies in the company. This task force, once established, would have the full support of the organizations management in all aspects of their mandate. The task force should have representatives from all ranks and should be backed up by professionals on safety in organizations. As noted in many plans implemented in different organizations, many plans fail because they are not evaluated. Moreover, the effectiveness of the plans cannot be determined because they are not evaluated. The evaluations of the plan would include comparison of data before and after the implementation of the measures depending on the prevailing circumstances. The evaluation would also include looking at the types of incidences the plans were able and unable to eliminate and making appropriate recommendations. At this point, the input of every worker, especially those at a higher risk of attack, would be very valuable. This will be followed by implementation of the recommendations where appropriate to improve on the strategy.
    It is indisputable that many workers do not report cases of workplace violence, especially if the attack is not physical. Moreover, many organizations see the implementation of safety plans as an expensive venture. To avoid these shortcomings, a plan can be introduced directly to be implemented by the employees themselves rather than being implemented by the top management. Therefore, I would involve workers from all ranks or their representatives in the development, implementation and evaluation of the safety plan.

Individual Project 4 Facial Recognition Technology.

The governor will be visiting town for a major upcoming sporting event. Under such a situation, one of the major responsibilities of the authorities will be the governors security. This security can potentially be aided by using software such as facial recognition technology within the local stadium.
    In order to see how this would work, the objective of this paper will be to give a security vulnerability assessment in using this software. It will give an overview of the facial recognition technology, followed by how it has been used in the past and whether it was successful. Finally, the paper will study whether it can be used to aid traditional security measures and how these security measures can then be used in the sporting scenario.

Facial Recognition Technology

Overview of the Facial Recognition Technology
    Facial recognition systems are computer software that, by design, detect people in an uncontrolled environment. Researchers started studying such systems in the mid 1960s (Tech FAQ, 2009).  These systems work by using several facial features or nodal points in a persons image such as distance between the eyes, jaw line length, cheekbone shapes and many others to arrive at a persons numerical face print and matching this with images or face prints that already exist in the database (Bosnor  Johnson, 2001). It is used as security measures or as an enhancement to them.
    To be more specific, these systems were two dimensional facial recognition systems. The problem of this type of system was that accuracte identification was tricky and hard to achieve. For example, people facing cameras equipped with such software had to be facing at an angle of no less than 35 degrees (Tech FAQ, 2009). Differences in light orientation and facial expressions in an uncontrolled environment also contributed to low accuracy in recognition of such systems (Bosnor  Johnson, 2001).
    As a solution to these problems, a three dimensional system was developed. This system intercepts a real time three dimensional image of a persons face and for recognition uses different features of the face that are unique and dont alter with time (Bosnor  Johnson, 2001).

Past Usage and Success Rate
    In TV shows such as Las Vegas and movies such as Twenty One, face recognition software has been used in casinos to detect counters or thieves. These faces are then matched with those in a database and if a match is found, these offenders are taken out (Bonsor  Johnson, 2001).
    In reality, also, this software is used to detect delinquents and enhance security measures. In 2001, it was employed by the Tampa Police Department. Their police cameras had the facial recognition technology installed in them for the Ybor City Nightlife district, in an attempt to decrease crime rate. However, the cameras and the technology proved to be very ineffectual because people would come wearing masks and would carry out such actions due to which it became impossible for the cameras to detect anyone. It was finally removed in 2003 because it proved to be a failure (Bonsor  Johnson, 2001).
    Moreover, the Mexican government used this system in their 2000 presidential elections to match their voters from their database to authenticate their identities and reduce voter fraud (Tech FAQ, 2009).
Another area where this technology was used, but not successfully, was at the Bostons Logan airport. It was used as a test at the airport security checkpoints and failed miserably when it showed an inaccuracy rate of 38.6 percent (Bonsor  Johnson, 2001).
    The reasons why it failed because it failed to capture images properly because of things like variations in light, hair obstructing the face, images captured in an environment that was not controlled, and many others. As a result, a 3D model of the technology was developed which showed more accuracy. Therefore, owing to improvements in technology and reductions in costs, the technology is now used successfully in banks, airports, immigration points, voting points and other law enforcement and governmental projects. Potential uses are in ATM machines where face will be detected to ensure safe transactions from the owners card (Bonsor  Johnson, 2001). Steps involved in recognition include detection, alignment, measurement, representation, matching and verification (Bonsor  Johnson, 2001).

Facial Recognition Technology as a Potential Security Aid at the Sporting Event
    At a large event, such as the sporting event under discussion, the environment is such for which facial recognition systems were first designed  uncontrolled and crowded. The first time the facial recognition software was used at Tampa was for security purposes  to bring crimes levels down. Since then, its use has been recommended as an investigation tool after terrorist attacks (Colatosti, 2001).
Therefore, when the governor attends the event, there is always a possible threat of an attack. For such a purpose, a facial recognition system will be ideal if used with other traditional security measures such as check at security check posts, use of metal detectors, and others. If used alone, however, there is no guarantee of its effectiveness. Past usage of the technology never shows 100 percent accurate results.
It will also be unrealistic to expect accurate results in scanning a stadium where there will be thousands of moving people, under different lighting conditions and in challenging environments with no ability to use choke-point mechanisms such as turnstiles. (Colatosti, 2001). It will also be difficult to detect one persons head from a mob of moving heads. There must be some segregation mechanism and environmental factors such as lighting and weather conditions will have to be controlled (Colatosti, 2001). In a stadium, this will be nearly impossible.
In conclusion, facial recognition systems could be used as a security measure at this sporting event, but in combination with other traditional security measures. It cannot be depended on alone for effective security and must therefore be used with other measures and that too, as a precautionary measure.

Narcotics Department Interdiction Funds Allocation.

In accordance with the annual Narcotics Operation Budget, the seized amount of 150,000 will be allocated amongst the various departments in order to increase the overall efficiency of the narcotics force team. This brief report will primarily identify the specific departments which shall receive a certain portion of the interdiction funds corroborated with adequate rationale.
In essence, almost every department needs to be revitalized by an injection of money. However, there are a few specific departments that need considerable monetary attention because they lack the necessary funds to function properly. First on the list is the surveillance department which lacks the necessary funds for the acquisition as well as maintenance of expensive and sensitive equipment. The surveillance department of any narcotics force team is of extreme importance because it involves the collection, identification, analysis and storage of sensitive information. Therefore, it has to be kept up to date with the latest technology. The second most important item on the list is the department of weaponry which sadly is not supposed to receive any sort of funding this year. The safety of every personnel working for the narcotics department is of utmost importance as has been specified within the constitutional framework of the United States. The narcotics department is primarily involved with law enforcement work of an extremely dangerous nature and it is imperative that every officer have adequate weaponry at his or her disposal in order to protect themselves against harm. Therefore, a certain portion of the interdicted fund will be awarded for the specific purpose of the acquisition of appropriate weapons.
The training department also needs to be beefed up so that every officer receives the desired training that coincides with his or her unique set of skills. Just as it is with adequate weaponry, it is also necessary that training be provided when necessary as well as the fact that the enrollment of new officers is primarily dependent upon the level of training that is given to the new comers. Training also is directly related to the augmentation of weaponry and surveillance equipment. An increase in funding of all three will primarily result in an overall efficiency increase of the entire department.
Surveillance equipment, weaponry and training are the presently the three most important departments on the list of improvement because of reasons that have been adequately explained above. However, in order to conclusively sum everything up, it must be explained that, as has been mentioned above, the three departments complement in each other in the sense that an augmentation of one will result in a direct positive impact of the other. Therefore, the fact that the allocation of the interdiction fund is being somewhat equally distributed throughout these three particular departments will basically result in an augmentation of the entire narcotics force by increasing the collection and analysis of sensitive information, better protection on the streets for narcotics officers as well as superior training.

Criminology in Context.

Throughout the history of time, the concept of criminology as a discipline has continued to generate mixed reactions as to whether it ought to be classified as such. To some, this concept is indeed a discipline in its own merit. Yet still, others are of the opinion that it is not a discipline but rather an aspect of a conglomeration of other related disciplines. However, from as early as the mid twentieth century, the concept of criminology has been receiving remarkable attention from a cross-section of quarters. According to Walklate, criminology was not to be a professional discipline in the United Kingdom until in 1935. This was followed by its gradual and precarious development throughout the country.
In particular, this has been in terms of creating a clear-cut distinction between criminology and other subjects in terms of its discourses aimed at presenting it as a distinctive discipline. This has in most cases been brought to the fore through its presentation in its own journals, professorships, professional associations as well as creation of institutions. Perhaps it is imperative to ask whether criminology is a discipline in the first place. Currently, criminology has been construed to be an independent discipline by approximately 40 universities in the United Kingdom. To add to that there is a fully fledged British Association of Criminology which has been specifically established to deal with a range of issues in relation to criminology. One of the functions of this association is that it acts as a standard a guide for the code of ethics for criminologists on issues such as research. These developments point towards the idea that criminology has finally been accepted to be a discipline in its merit.  
Of importance to note is the fact that despite this debate, there is the general consensus that criminology is united by a single element crime. What then constitutes this concept of discipline According To Raymond, an  academic discipline, also known as a given field of study, refers to  a branch of knowledge that is taught as well as researched at the university or college level. One characteristic feature of any discipline is that it is usually defined which in turn leads to its recognition by the various academic journals within which research information is published, alongside their learned societies and the respective academic faculties or departments to which the said disciplines belong. According to Walklate, criminology is viewed to be an independent discipline since it is concerned with the subject of crime despite the fact that it is not defined by a specific unit from the social sphere. Others on the other hand hold the view that criminology does not merit being a discipline based on a range of reasons.
One such reason is that it is multidisciplinary in the sense that it is usually a meeting place for persons or professionals from different fields and who are only united by the idea of crime. For instance, some of these professionals might be coming from the psychological and sociological fraternities united by a common interest in crime. However, it should be noted that though this might be the case, they usually have different dimensions on what really constitutes a criminologist. Also, they argue that criminology is multidiscipline since it is not dominated by a given discipline. In addition, criminology might not be looked at as being an independent discipline owing to the fact that it has been marred by introduction of a number of disciplines throughout its history. The other reason which has been against the consideration of criminology as a discipline is that it tends to be influenced and draws upon other fields such as  psychology, legal theory, sociology and history among other subjects. Finally, it is believed to be an area which facilitates for the meeting of various scholars from different professional backgrounds.
Criminology on the other hand has been defined as the scientific study of nature, causes, extent and control of any criminal behaviour within the respective society and the concerned individual. Hence, this essay shall seek to explore the issue as to whether criminology is a discipline or not. By so doing, the essay shall delve into the debate as to whether it is an inter-disciplinary or multi-disciplinary concept.
Section One
The concept of a study area being multidisciplinary refers to the integration of various fields or disciplinary approaches in order to have an in-depth conceptualization of the main field being studied. In this regard, criminology could be seen to be multidisciplinary since it involves the incorporation of several disciplinary approaches for example, psychology, politics, sociology, law among others according to Sellin. This can be attributed to the fact that criminologists can not exist as experts in all these areas although these approaches all converge in crime due to the complex inter-connectivity between them. The existence of this intricate connection therefore necessitates the integration of all the other disciplines to provide and to allow for the proper conceptualization of crime in relation to the behaviour of a person and variables within the wider society. This is evidenced by the collaboration between various professionals and criminology in terms of sharing of knowledge, teaching and learning as well as research. 
It should be noted that the concept of a discipline is quite different from the cross-disciplinary working although they may appear to be similar. Faced with a number of cross-cutting challenges, there has been an overwhelming interest in the need for trans-disciplinary cooperation among different professional fields. For instance, the Higher Education Academy has established a specific group which is charged with the responsibility of promoting interdisciplinary teaching and learning. At the same time, there exists a difference between the concept of inter-disciplinary and trans-disciplinary just as is the cases with the multi-disciplinary concept. In the overall, the concept of trans-disciplinary is focused on the generation of new theories, practices and models all of which contribute to increased richness in terms of perspectives and opportunities for both learning and development of persons involved. Hence, this normally leads to the development of new ideas or concepts within the scientific community. The primary emphasis is placed on collaboration through borrowing of concepts from and within the scientific fields in comparison to the other two concepts.

Section Two
Inter-disciplinary concept entails the incorporation of sub-levels of study areas into the mainstream discipline. On this note, criminology is also inter-disciplinary since it is the rendezvous of other related disciplines which attempt to have an in-depth insight of crime. Hence, these sub-levels focus on understanding crime in relation to the individual and their society as argued by Sharon White. As was stated above, criminology has tended to be influenced by sociology in a number of ways. This can be attributed to the fact that sociology is devoted to exploring the concept of human behaviour which is known to play to a significant role in crime. This has therefore seen criminology having to focus on the aspect of human behaviour as one way of understanding the whole idea of crime. A closer look into the history of sociology reveals that it was first taught in the present day United Kingdom during the beginning of the 20th century although its spread took place much later  having been influenced by Americas Sociology. When criminology is considered to be inter-disciplinary, it then means that it seeks to understand crime based on the concepts and theories from other professional fields. In this respect, it uses sociological principles to categorise human behaviours as either unacceptable or not. According to Sharon White, the idea of deviance and conformity are founded on sociological principles. At the same time, it is the study of these attributes which eventually helps in the development of theories and concepts in sociology before being used within criminology. This is applicable in a number of subjects or disciplines which are closely linked to the aspect of human behaviour such as psychology.


Police misconduct and use of force can be broken into three categories, unarmed, deadly force and nonlethal force. Each category has its own advantages, disadvantages and ideal situation for use. Nonlethal force technology is a still evolving technology promising enhanced control methods with minimal impact to recipients.The concept of the police force as an organization that is responsible for protecting people developed from the idea that the military is like a Praetorian Guard of ancient Rome. The Romans got a high level of law enforcement which carried on until the decline of the empire as well as the Middle Ages (History of Police Forces).
    Regardless of style of policing, uniformed patrol officers are the backbone of the police department, usually accounting for about two-thirds of a departments personnel. Patrol officers are the most highly visible components of the entire criminal justice system. They are charged with supervising specific areas of their jurisdiction, called beats, whether on foot, in a patrol car, or by motorcycle, horse, helicopter or even boat. Each beat or patrol area is covered 24 hours a day by different shifts. The major purpose of patrol is to
Deter crime by maintaining a visible police presence.
Maintain public order (peacekeeping) within the patrol area
Enable the police department to respond quickly to law violations or other emergencies
Identify and apprehend law violators
Aid individuals and care for those who cannot help themselves.
Facilitate the movement of traffic and people
Create a feeling of security in the community.

There have been several instances of police misconduct and racial profiling as well as dehumanization.  They can harass individuals and this can lead to abuse (Baseless Arrest Demonstrates Need for PoliceAccountability). Police responsibilities are immense they may suddenly be faced with an angry mob, an armed felon, or a suicidal teenager and be forced to make split-second decisions on what action to take. At the same time, they must be sensitive to the needs of citizens who are often of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. The first national private police agency in the United States was begun by Allan Pinkerton in the early 1950s. Since the public urban police was concentrated on public order and a host of other duties, it became the job then of the private police to enter into the picture of protecting property and detection of crime (Morn, 1975118).
It was revealed that not only do police deny access to pertinent materials that are even public in nature but the way they deny them to people seem abrasive and arrogant. Police officers think that if they provide access to this information, this would interfere with the ongoing investigations on the case. They also think that the act would violate the privacy of the people involved. While there is some truth to this, this is no reason to deny outrightly the access to such data that may be needed by researchers. There is a kind of paramilitary mentality that the police know what is best and that they are in control of everything. It is also possible that the police fear, as too many public officials in other settings do, that releasing records might somehow embarrass or incriminate them. (Conclusions and Recommendations).
When looking at the concept of organizational culture among police, one will see several paradoxes. There are accounts of police deviance caused by cultural traits. For example, solidarity can create unsatisfaction between the rank and file. At the same time, this kind of solidarity unites the members of the workforce. Some may extol the virtues of teamwork while others will view it as some kind of arrogant clique. Many police leaders have been thwarted in their attempts to engender change in the organization due to existing cultural barriers inside their own departments. Much of the research regarding police culture appears in the literature relating to police deviant behavior, ethics, and misuse of force and discretion (Brown, 1981 Cohen  Feldberg, 1991 Goldsmith, 1990 Reuss-Ianni, 1983).
It is important, though, to remember at this point is that when we talk about police culture, we are actually referring to the police sub-culture where each member of the police is a mix of the various attributes from the broader American culture. . While White male officers continue to form the majority population, the hiring patterns over the past 15 years have brought many women, Blacks, Hispanics and Orientals onto American police forces. Each of these groups brings with them a variety of cultural traits that weave into the fabric that becomes the police sub-culture (Conclusions and Recommendations). Police culture is sustained through the way new members are selected, trained, and accepted into the police ranks. Most police agencies require applicants to go through a rigorous series of steps prior to being hired. These steps are designed to insure that various criteria that have been deemed important to the organization are met. The outcome of the process is intended to ensure that only the fit will ultimately be hired. It is left to other studies to debate the job relatedness and the necessity for each of the entry level requirements.
              One of the main problems in the police system is the lack of sufficient recruitment management, training and development, and management development in police departments. Recruitment and training lack foundations on ethics is needed in conducting operations. At the core, there is insufficient provision on discourses relating to the specific authorities of the police as it is positioned with regards to the rights of the people. This lack of training leads to police departments lacking clear process structures that would define their authorities in law enforcement in the country (Public accountability and transparency). This leads us to the second argument. Police brutality that arises from lack of standards would create massive public terror and fear of law enforcement, which would undermine the sense of security that police departments should provide.
Police use of brutality undermines the efforts of the country to fight violation of human rights. This is important in the context of United States leadership in human rights issues, especially in the Middle East. This comes from the lack of management capabilities in the police department, which results in problems of implementing sanctions and punishments for not following procedures. The process of reporting arrests and incidents lack robustness. This means that the system of reporting is not embedded in human rights protection. The system also lacks sufficient capabilities for monitoring, oversight, and accountability systems that would help the police department to effectively curtail the incidents of abuse (Shielded from justice Police brutality). The system of reporting allows for cover up and protection of police officers that have committed abuse of authority and power. The inaction of police departments results in problems of persistent abuse of human rights in the United States and an increase in public distrust of the police department.
Trends in police abuses are not reported because they are usually not monitored. As a result, police departments are unable to respond efficiently on the problems of police brutality. Certain plans to curtail abuse also lack basis because of insufficient information. This results in lack of deterring effect on abuse incidents. High profile abuses are the only ones acted upon albeit minimally just to quell public exposures on police brutalities.
    At the core, police brutality is a violation of human rights. The occurrence of police brutality is an irony considering the law enforcement or the police are symbols of the capacity of the country to protect the rights of their people. The continuous occurrence of police brutality is instilling a different image of our law enforcers. While not all of them are using their force to inflict abuses on arrested or imprisoned people, the over all respectability of the institution is at stake. Police are a very important source of security in any country. The inability of the police department to provide protection to its citizens, criminal or not, undermines the safety and security that the police department would like to deliver. It is, therefore, very important that the police department revitalize their processes and ensure that accountability and responsibility of law enforcers are preserved in all of the steps in the operations.    
For many years, preventive police patrol has been considered one of the greatest deterrents to criminal behavior. The visible presence of patrol cars on the street and the rapid deployment of police officers to the scene of a crime were viewed as particularly effective law enforcement techniques. However, research efforts have questioned the basic assumptions of patrol. The most widely heralded attempt at measuring patrol effectiveness was undertaken during the early 1970s in Kansas City, Missouri, under sponsorship of the Police Foundation, a private institute that studies police behavior (Kelling et al.).
    In sum, police authorities and forces need to improve the kind of information that they give out to the public according to the needs of the local communities. Police authorities need to improve public engagement and use more unique methods that are appropriate to the local communities.

Operational Plan for Increasing DUI Arrests.

It has come to the attention of the traffic department in this city that the number of driving under influence (DUI) incidences has peaked in the recent past. The police chief in this station has come up with a strategic plan to reduce this number. The chiefs strategic plan involves increasing the number of DUI arrests within the next sixty days by twenty percent. This is an outline operational plan detailing the steps that will be followed in effecting the chiefs plan. The first step will be to increase the number and frequency of patrols. This will be done by re-allocating both human and material resources in the department. The second step will involve increasing the number of sobriety checkpoints by twenty percent. The police department will encourage the public to report drivers under the influence, and this will be the third step to be implemented.  
 Operational Plan for Increasing Driving Under Influence Arrests by 20
Driving under the influence remains one of the major causes of accidents in our highways today (Dula, Dwyer  LeVerne, 2007). This been the case, the police departments need to increase their vigilance to ensure that this form of misdemeanor is brought under control. There are several strategies that are adopted to address this problem. They include, among others, public education, increased arrests and prosecutions of drivers who are arrested driving under the influence (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, 2009).
The following steps will be followed in implementing the strategic plan that was adopted by the traffic department in this city to deal with this misdemeanor
Increased Patrols
To effectively cope with DUI incidences, there is need to detect the drivers who are under the influence, stop and apprehend them (NHTSA, 2009). This way, they are effectively removed from the streets, making our highways safer. One way that this police department can achieve this is by increasing the number and frequency of patrols. The following steps are proposed to be followed
Increase the number of police officers attached to the traffic department from the current twenty to thirty. The current number of officers makes this department to be one of the most understaffed in the station. The officers can be sourced from within the station by re-allocating officers from other departments, or can be hired from the outside.
The number of patrol vehicles attached to this department also needs to be increased from the current three to seven. This will enhance the mobility of our officers. The vehicles can be sourced from within by re-allocating those from other departments, or they can be bought. 
The officers will need to increase their patrol especially on weekends and holidays. This is because these are the times that majority DUI incidences are reported. They especially need to pay particular attention to areas surrounding bars and other drinking dens, erecting surveillance on those who emerge from those locations and start driving while they are visibly drunk.
2 Sobriety Checkpoints
It has been observed that states which adopt strict rules as far as DUI is concerned report reduced incidences of this behavior (CDC, 2009). One way to achieve this is by increasing the number of sobriety checkpoints. These are roadblocks that are erected by police officers whereby suspected drivers are checked for blood alcohol content. If their blood alcohol content exceeds the states set limit, they are apprehended. To this end, the following steps are proposed
This station will increase such checkpoints by twenty percent. The extra officers that will be acquired will be used to man these checkpoints.
The checkpoints will especially be mounted during weekends and festive periods when people are likely to indulge in alcohol.
The police will use a device that detects the level of alcohol in the drivers system. This is a gadget where the suspected driver gets to breathe into it and the level of alcohol in their breath is gauged. It is proposed that the department acquire twenty of those gadgets.
Organized crime has existed in the United States and other parts of the world for so many years. Organized crime has been a great bother to the security agencies for so many years due to the level of criminal activities these criminal gangs commit against the public. Organized crimes are criminal activities which are systematic and are carried out by experienced criminal gangs with the aim of making profit or gaining economically. Criminal gangs involved in such crimes may operate within a city, a state or can be involved in international crimes. The operations of the criminal gang are kept as top secret among the members and they mainly use word of mouth only as a means of communication. One of the most organized criminal gangs in the United States is the Irish mob. The prohibition era which is the period between late 1910s and early 1930s resulted into an increase in the number of organized criminal gangs in the United States. This was as a result of the government attempts to enforce prohibition. In the United States, the act of involving in organized criminal activities in a criminal gang is referred to as racketeering.
Irish mob
    The Irish mob has existed in the United States from the beginning of the 19th century making it one of the oldest criminal gangs. It originated from a group of Irish Americans who had a criminal gang known as the Irish American Street Gangs as celebrated by Herbert Asbury in his book, The Gang of New York. This criminal gang has committed major crimes in many parts of the United States such as New York, Chicago, and Boston among others. Moreover, the criminal gang has been reported to have committed crime outside the United States such as in Canada, England and Ireland.
    The activities of Irish mob in Boston are well known throughout the United States especially in areas which were dominated by the Irish Americans such as South Boston, Somerville and Roxbury. Due to the high number of Irish Americans in these regions, the first groups of Irish organized criminal groups started in these regions during the prohibition era in the early 20th century. The Gustin Gang which was led by Frank Wallace controlled the underworld activities in the whole of Boston until he was killed by the Italian gangsters in 1931. Between 1920s and the mid 20th century, Boston experienced many incidences of organized criminals wars which were mainly between the different Irish gangs who wanted to gain control over the underworld. The result of these wars was a reduction in the number of Irish gangs in the mid 20th century.
    The Winter Hill Gang, an Irish criminal gang operating in Boston is considered to be one of the most flourishing criminal gangs in the United States history. It took over the control of the underworld in Boston in the 1960s and controlled it for more than three decades. It was founded in Somerville in Massachusetts where the first boss James Mclean came from and thus the name Winter Hill. The Winter Hill Gang was associated with many organized criminal activities in the area for several decades up to the mid 1990s. Moreover, they were involved in other underworld activities and are believed to be the group responsible for the wide spread horse race fixing especially in the northeastern parts of the US.  In 1979, twenty one members of Winter Hill Gang and acquaintances which included Howie Winter were accused by the government prosecutor for organized criminal activities. The leadership of the gang was taken over by James Bugler and Stephen Flemmi who had an Irish origin (McIver, 2008).
    In the 1960s, there were many conflicts between the dominant Irish mobs in Massachusetts. The two criminal gangs were the Winter Hill Gang and Charlestown Mob from Somerville and Boston respectively. The Winter Hill Gang was led by James Mclean while the Charlestown was led by the Irish brothers Bernard and Edward. It is believed that the war was triggered by a woman whom associates of the criminal gangs were fighting for resulting into a rivalry between the two criminal gangs. The war was as a result of revenge for members of one gang who had been assaulted or killed by the other gang. The result of the war was wiping out the Charlestown mob when all its leaders were killed by the rival group. Those who survived the war, such as George McLaughlin were convicted and sent to prison for being involved in criminal activities. The other members of the Charlestown mob joined the winter hill gang which took the control of the underworld until the mid 1990s.
    Since as early as the 19th century, the New York underworld has been controlled by numerous and powerful Irish criminal gangs such as the Dead Rabbits and the Forty Thieves. These Irish criminal groups existed before other criminal gangs such as the Italian Gangsters and the Jewish Mafias started developing and competing for dominance in the late 19th century. In the first decade of the 20th century, the Italian gangsters such as the Black Hand developed very fast and threatened the Irish mob territories in New York. This resulted in the merging of all the Irish criminal gangs to form a stronger gang-White Hand Gang, to keep the Italian gangs at bay. At first, the union of the Irish gang was successful but it was later faced with internal problems such as in fighting and unstable leadership. The internal problems facing the White Hand Gang resulted into its failure in the 1920s and the Italian gang took over the dominance of New York underworld (Blackwood, 2001).
    Another predominant Irish mob was known as the Westies who operated from the Hells Kitchen. Hells Kitchen is located in the western parts of New York City. The criminal gang dominated the area between the late 1960s and the early 1980s. In that period alone, security agencies in New York believed that the westies committed between 60 and 100 murders. The victims of this criminal gang were tortured to death which also included mutilation of the victims body. During their operations, they are believed to have been the most feared criminal group in the city due to their violent and well organized attacks (English, 2008).
    Despite the Irish mobs dominating the criminal world in the Hells Kitchen with well organized criminal attacks and their rise to power over the New York underworld in the 1960s, the Westies were not known until 1977 when one of the members was associated with the Genovese crime family. The Westies was composed of between twelve and twenty members and the members were occasionally in and out of jail. The Westies are taken to be the last generation of Irish gangsters to dominate New York City (English, 2008). 
    One of the most notorious leaders of the Westies is Mickey Spillane who took over the leadership of the Hells Kitchen gangs after a few years without leadership due to fleeing of the gang leader to evade arrest in 1950s. Spillane was trained by Hughie Mulligan who was leading the group since the departure of their leader. He used to send flowers to sick neighbors and help the needy which portrayed him as a godfather. At the same time, he owned gabling businesses which came along with loan sharking. This from of fraud also led to physical attack while at the same time he was involved in burglary. However, his most audacious criminal activities were kidnapping powerful and wealthy businessmen for ransom. These crimes are believed to have resulted into his downfall. His influence in the city can also be attributed to his union with a powerful family when he married a woman from the prestigious McManus Family. This union enabled him to strengthen the Westies in their organized criminal activities and other underworld crimes (English, 2008).
    Despite his powers as the Westies boss, Spillane was threatened by an Irish boy, Coonan who wanted to revenge against the assault his men had done to the boys father. The boy accused him of planning for the kidnapping of his father and for having a relationship with his mother. The boy used an automatic machine gun to fire at Spillane and his associates in a building but he was not successful in his mission. The boy was sent to prison for a few years and released in 1971 and formed a gang of young Irish who began committing crimes which were aimed at intimidating the Westies. The gang formed and headed by Coonan, kidnapped, assaulted and killed many Spillane associates. Later, Coonan enlisted another young Irish Vietnam war veteran Featherstone as his right man. Featherstone was to assist Coonan in the fight against Spillane. The war between the two gangs was intense to a level that called for the Hells Kitchen residents to choose sides. Those who supported Spillane and his associates were subjected to assault by the Coonans notorious Young Irish Gang. The Westies on the other hand consisted of old and respectable members and therefore those who supported Coonan were not subjected to any harassment (English, 2008).
    In the early 1970s, Spillane feared for his life and moved with his family out of Hells Kitchen into Woodside. Thus Coonan was able to gain control over the Irish gangs who operated in the area. Many of the Spillane supporters defected and supported Coonan while those who did not defect were eliminated. Although Coonan had gained control over Hells Gate and had become the new boss of Irish mobs, he still felt that he had to revenge against the former boss Spillane. When Spillane was murdered by Coonans associates, Featherstone was accused for the offence but he was acquitted. Coonan was able to tighten his association with the Westies and other Irish mobs in Hells Kitchen. Together with his right hand Featherstone, he was able to establish territories in Hells Kitchen where they carried out organized crimes in the 1970s. In 1979, they were accused of murdering a bartender but were latter acquitted. However, they were both imprisoned the following year when Coonan was found guilty of illegally possessing a gun while Featherstone was accused of financial crimes such as loan shaking and gambling. Despite the leaders of the Irish mobs being in jail, the illegal activities of the gang continued in the city as usual. Later, Coonan was able to work very closely with the celebrated criminal John Gotti from the Gambino Family in the mid 1980s where the Westies and the family formed a contract killer gang in the United States (English, 2008).
    Coonan and Featherstone gang could collect protection money from businessmen and prominent individuals in their territories. Businesses which did not cooperate were considered enemies to the Westies and the owners were threatened with murder or burglary. Coonan had also developed some working relationship with the Italian gangsters working in other parts of the United States. This resulted in bad blood between him and Featherstone. Featherstone was later framed for killing a bar owner where Coonan killed the businessman in broad daylight wearing a moustache, a horsehair and driving rented car identical to Featherstones car to impersonate him. When he was convicted, he tried to cooperate with the authority in order to get the case be overturned. The information he and his wife gave to the court proved that he was innocent and the court overturned the case (English, 2008).
    The information that proved Featherstone innocence led to the arrest of Coonan and other associates and was charged with murder and other criminal activities. The prosecutor also announced the accusation against Coonan and his associates for crimes committed for up to two decades. Featherstone was the main witness and testified in court for a month between 1987 and 1988. Following this case, Coonan together with other westies was sent to prison for sixty years.
    In the 1990s, the Hells Kitchen had undergone numerous changes. Its demographics had disappeared and it had changed its name to Clinton. The Irish Americans who were the major community in the area had been replaced by diverse ethnic community. This led to a reduction of Irish mobs and the number of street crimes. The Yugo who was a Serbian nationalist started his Westies affiliation. He was able to control the Irish Americans gang. He also reestablished the Westies criminal relationships with John Gotti. Westies worked as a contract killer gang until the arrest and imprisonment of John Gotti in 1992. The Yugo otherwise known as Radonjich was later arrested and released due to lack of witness in his case and was later returned to Siberia.
    Irish gangsters have also operated in other cities and states in the United States. In 1920s, two Irish gangs were at war with each other for dominance in Philadelphia and Pennsylvania. These two gangs were led by Daniel O. Leary and Maxie Hoff. After the Second World War, KA was the dominant Irish gang in the states underworld.    
KA gang was also known as the Philly mob and composed of gangster who were Irish and American Irish. The group started as a youth street gang and group into a major and well established gang which was involved in gambling and burglary among other crimes. By 1980s, the gang had started extending their boundaries to other parts of the country extending beyond Kensington. In Chicago, the prohibition era was the peak of Irish mobs criminal activities. They were mainly involved in bootlegging and hijacking among other criminal activities. Before the 20th century, other Irish mobs such as the North Side Gang, Southside ODonnell Brothers and The Valley Gang operated in Chicago (English, 2005).
    Irish mobs have also existed in other parts of the world such as North America, Europe and Australia. The West End Gang was a criminal gang dominated by the Irish and operated in Canada. It was an enterprising gang and is part of the Montreals Consortium and therefore is very influential organized criminal gang in Canada. Australia, especially Melbourne is well known for Irish criminal gangs. They have controlled trade union and drug trade since the end of the Second World War. They are believed to have made significant contribution in the Melbourne Gangland Killings. In England, the Clerkenwell Crime Organization which is an Irish criminal gang is the strongest criminal group in the United Kingdom.

Social Disorganization and Organized Crime

For a long time, criminologists, law enforcement officers and other stakeholders in the community have been preoccupied with the explanation of causes and sources of crime in society. This is especially organized crime. Many theories and explanations have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. One school of thought is of the view that organized crime and social disorganization are inextricably intertwined.

According to Thabit, social disorganization can be conceptualized as the failure and disintegration of social institutions and organizations in the society (Thabit, 2006). These institutions are for example the family, the school, the police and the religious institutions among others. According to the proponents of social disorganization theory, it is noted that this failure is specific to certain communities and neighborhoods in the community. It is especially conspicuous in urban areas, but it can also be found in some rural communities. In urban areas, it is to be found in those localities where the population comes from different social and ethnic backgrounds (Thabit, 2006). This diversity in backgrounds and experiences makes it difficult for the community to act in a unified fashion as far as engagement in communal matters is concerned (Sociology Guide, 2006). Individualism reigns supreme, and community concerns fail to take precedence in the life of the individual. Social solidarity and social consensus is absent in such a community (Sociology Guide, 2006), and this is what comprises social disintegration.

As earlier indicated, social disorganization and crime- organized crime in particular- are related. Historical social disorganization in the society has organized crime as one of its consequences. When individualism, anarchy and such other attributes of a disorganized society prevail, individuals find solace in organizations, regardless of whether these organizations are legal or not. When members of the society are in disunity, the self-policing attribute of that society fails, and organized crime reigns. Gangs of criminals start to emerge because the society is unable to consolidate its efforts to fight them. Youths are attracted to such criminal gangs, leading to their perpetuity. The youths are attracted to these gangs in their neighborhoods because the institution of the family has failed in socializing them effectively, and this role has not been assumed by any other institution in the society because they have all failed (Jax, 2007). 

Organized crime has several criteria that define it. One of them is collaboration of more than three individuals for a period of time in conducting criminal activities. Another is the availability of opportunities in the society that promote such activities, for example the presence of a ready market for counterfeit or other illegal products. Social disorganization, to some extent, does meet some of these criteria and in effect, encourages the evolution of organized crime. For example, lack of self-policing in the society encourages the criminals since their efforts are unfettered. Individualism, an attribute that is related to both organized crime and social disorganization, makes the individuals abandon concerns for the society in pursuit of personal benefits and profits. As a result, they engage in criminal activities like drug peddling and money laundering that is harmful to the society.

A disorganized society is replete with social ills such as corruption as individuals seek to optimize their personal gains with no regards to the wellbeing of the society. If such form of corruption permeates the political machines within the community, organized crime tends to develop and thrive (Jax, 2007). One of the techniques employed by organized gangs to survive is the corruption of political officials. Once such officials who have a corrupt personality are compromised, they cannot effectively shield the society from the criminals. They are owned and ran by the criminal gangs. In such an environment, organized crime will tend to flourish and entrench itself.

Social disorganization as a perspective in criminology was borrowed from the wider ecological theories. These theories holds that the attitudes of the individual are not so much determined by the inherent personality of that individual, as by the interaction between the environment and the person. As such, a person will regard crime as an acceptable means of earning a living due to the prevailing conditions in the society. If the conditions encourage this activity, it will flourish, but if the conditions are not conducive for such an activity, it will be curtailed. Social disorganization, as explained in this discourse, provides ideal conditions for the development and evolution of organized crime.