Punishment Philosophy

Punishment philosophies differ from person to person.  Victims and prosecutors alike each support a different view.  In some cases the punishment is too mild while in other cases it is too stringent.  Despite the many theories supporting both sides of the issue, the main focus throughout this writing will support the punishment fitting the crime committed.  Retribution and deterrence issues have long been pitted against rehabilitation.  For the purpose of this paper, special attention will be given to the crime of pedophilia as an example.  The current prison system is beyond over-run and almost depleted with respect to its effectiveness.  Justice, medical, and custodial models will be used to effectively evaluate punishments being handed down by the court system.  Ultimately, each model will be closely examined in order to determine which one is most needed in our prison systems today. 

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     The long-standing prison system in the United States is a direct result of punishment philosophy.  In the past, the most often heard of forms of punishment were that of physical torture and death.  Throughout the changing times, punishment evolved into reform and began to eliminate the use of physical torture to some extent.  A correctional system, also called a prison, is used to impose an unpleasant experience in order to correct malevolent behavior.  This is done so based on the system of beliefs set forth through the judicial system.  By housing inmates, the correctional system hopes to eliminate the undesired behavior and return the individual back into the community as a function and productive member of society (Alexander, 1922).  If a prisoner is a convicted pedophile, the model applied in order to achieve this goal is designed especially to meet the needs of the party, but there are no guarantees that it will be successful.

     Present day correctional institutions house many inmates, many of whom have been convicted of sex crimes.  Solitary confinement is often provided in order to protect the inmates physical safety.  Sentencing is viewed from the justice model standpoint.  Based on the nature and severity of the crime, many pedophiles are ordered to be imprisoned for very lengthy periods of time, but many are released early due to prison over-crowding.  The justice model provides that a deserving penalty be imposed in order to correct the wrongdoing (Farmer, 1992).  The justice model also provides contracted deterrence due to the fact that the inmate is locked away from society and is unable to re-offend.  Generally, the pedophile offender is kept incapacitated in a maximum security facility with little if any contact with any other human beings.  The main focus and goal of the justice model is to make sure that the offender realizes that the malevolent behavior committed within society is not acceptable and there will be serious consequences to follow.
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     The medical model supports the theory that physical, biological, or mental issues may have played a role in the undesired behavior of the offender which led to incarceration.  Supporters of the medical model believe that rehabilitation is critical.  Rehabilitation is thought to be able to restore a person to a useful and productive place within society.  However, the recidivism rate for pedophiles is an alarming 42 despite having received rehabilitation programs (Hanson, Steffy, and Gauthier, 1993).   Medical model supporters also include deterrence and incapacitation within their plan of action for success.  Retribution seems to be frowned upon in part due to the tougher penalties for specific offenders.  It would appear as though the supporters of the medical model prefer to have a separate list of penalties because certain offenders have medical, biological, or mental conditions.  The expectant goal of the medical model is to create an environment whereby an offender can learn to understand the physical, biological, or mental illness and learn to effectively control and treat it.  This is believed to prevent future criminal behaviors.

     As a result of the security needs of inmates and the psychological and physical reassurances needed by both the inmates and surrounding communities, the custodial model was designed.  The custodial model of punishment philosophy is bound by a more traditional penal complex consisting of high security.  It functions on a stringent retribution premise (Owen, 2010).  Inmates often complain of dirty living conditions, over-crowding, and mistreatment by staff, and sexual assaults.  Each complaint is investigated and addressed thoroughly and adequate measures are taken to remedy the problems.  Pedophiles are simply able to fall through the cracks within this model of justice.  Time is served on a daily basis and once completed, the door is open.  The primary goal of the custodial model is to simply provide separation between the

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offender and society (Raver, 2007).  The custodial model is societys way of allowing itself to receive restitution through vengeance.  By denying one freedom, justice is served.  It resembles a very well constructed time-out under strict authoritative conditions.

     The history of the prison system has changed over the many years of its existence.  Society must rely on a well orchestrated system of rules in order to prevent chaos.  Those who cannot follow the rules must face the consequences and sometimes spend time incarcerated away from the rest of society.  The justice, medical, and custodial model all differ in various ways.  The common goal of the three is to protect society and aid in the redevelopment of the inmate whether it is via rehabilitation or retribution and deterrence.  Pedophiles are a unique group of criminal offenders.  Their needs are more demanding, and their rehabilitation is vital to society as a whole.  While prisoners continue to complain about filthy living conditions and the like, it is equally noted that most prisoners live better than members of their surrounding communities.  Each prisoner is guaranteed three square meals a day, cable television, books, vocational training, education, and religious activities.  These do not include the often required group therapies, individual therapy, medical and dental treatment, and employment within the prison.  Punishment and its philosophy contained therein is ever-changing.  Changes are made only to continually meet the disciplinary needs of the offenders.  Punishment is a means of future success for an inmate, but it is rarely viewed that way from the inside.

Conflicting Generational Values in Criminal Justice Organizations

This paper takes a look at two generational values causing conflict among criminal justice organizations and the reinforcement behaviors management uses to establish unity among personnel.

Conflicting Generational Values in Criminal Justice Organizations
    Values of various generations come into conflict within criminal justice organizations on a routine basis. Two particular examples of such values coming into conflict among those in law enforcement and the criminal justice system includes the spanking of children and the role of prayer in public schools. Both values have divided agencies across the board causing arguments and disruptions on whether or not charges could actually be brought against a parent for spanking a child or charges brought against an individual for praying or reading the Bible in a public school.

Those raising children prior to the late 1990s most likely agree that spanking a child is not physical abuse, but instead the appropriate punishment to bring about positive results among children. However, throughout the 1990s, the rule of the road began to change and parents who spanked their children were being arrested on charges of abuse. Law officials, judicial courts, and the department of children and families began struggling within on the principle behind spanking children changing sides on the issue several times. In fact, in 2004, a Canadian court ruled parents and teachers can still spank naughty children (Canadian Court 2004). Likewise, prayer in public schools also brought about conflict. Those growing up prior to the 1960s saw no harm in the Bible and prayers role within the school system, however, once the courts changed those laws, the generations afterwards found it offensive (School Prayer 2006).

Law enforcement, in particular, faces such conflicts on a routine basis as they are often called to investigate supposed abuse cases based on reports of a do gooder witnessing a parent spanking a child in public. It can be discouraging and bring about disputes among the officers of different ages and generational backgrounds. In this case, management looks to reinforcement behavior strategies to boost morale and encourage employee unity by setting aside their differing values and focusing on what the law requires of them. Management provides positive reinforcement as a way to increase both required and encouraged behaviors in the workplace (OSHA). They do so through a set of positive recognition that includes employee recognition, public thankfulness, monetary awards, and even monthly bonuses (Safety Supervision  Leadership 2008).  These positive rewards are given to those who put aside generational value differences and work together. Negative reinforcement such as punishment or the taking away of such benefits and awards is used when conflicts are not resolved and larger disputes erupt.

There are a variety of generational values that come into conflict simply because of the differences in age, and time periods. Many issues that are illegal now were legal in the earlier decades. Just the same, many issues that are legal now were illegal several decades ago. Values change from generation to generation and culture to culture. The criminal justice organizations are filled with a melting pot of both causing plenty of conflicts and disruptions among officers and personnel. Yet management is able to overcome these areas of difficulty through motivational strategies especially reinforcement behavior strategies, which are creating the way for communication and team building among organizations.

Methamphetamines and Amphetamines

Methamphetamines and amphetamines are collectively regarded as stimulant drugs with the capability of speeding up the central nervous system of the affected person(s). These drugs are prohibited in most countries including the United States. Despite such strict laws, these substances are produced on large scale by illegal chemical laboratories and distributed by existing cartels of drug traffickers and other interested parties (US Dept. of Justice, 2002).

In the United States and other parts of the world, methamphetamine and amphetamine abuse is on the rise and urgent counteractive measures need to be put in place. Statistics also reveal that the regular users comprise of people from all races, ages and various socioeconomic backgrounds. To worsen the situation, studies conducted by the National Drug Control Policy indicate that approximately 5 percent of the US population in the age bracket of 12 to 75 have at one point or another used these drugs. The statistics as at 2002 also revealed that the number of victims who seek medical attention had increased from 1 percent to 5.6. It is projected that this trend will be maintained for more years to come.  

Drug abuse in most cases leads to addiction andor extreme over dependence on the substance, which may in turn have severe negative effects on the general behavior and health of the victim. These negative effects of the drug may persist for several years even after the use of the drug has been discontinued. Methamphetamines and amphetamines are highly addictive drugs. In most cases however, the body develops a response mechanism that builds up a certain level of tolerance to the drugs. Chronic abusers of these drugs are usually forced by the prevailing circumstances to either increase or double their dosage so as to have a feel of the drugs effects. Doubling the dosage however has the overall effect of increasing the negative effects associated with the drug. If a habitual user suddenly quits the habit, some withdrawal symptoms such as hunger, extreme fatigue, depression and irritability may occur.

The primary objective of this essay is to discuss in broad the abuse of amphetamines and methamphetamines and their associated negative effects on the health and general behavior of the victims of their abuse.

Various salts and compounds of methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and amphetamine are jointly regarded as amphetamines because they exhibit similar chemical properties and effects on their abusers (US, Dept of Justice, 2002). Amphetamines usually come in powder form, capsules or tablets which may then be swallowed, inhaled or injected depending on individual preferences of the user. Some types and salts of amphetamines e.g. Dexedrine and Ritalin have been proven scientifically to treat certain symptoms of some conditions. Dosage of such salts should therefore be guided by a physician and closely monitored for tolerance and overdose effects.

Effects of Amphetamines
Just like any other drug, the general effects of amphetamines tend to vary from one victim to another, depending on individual psychology, health condition, physical size among other factors such as other drugs being used concurrently with amphetamines. Abuse of amphetamines has got several short term and long term effects. Some of the short term effects include increased rate of metabolism, hypertension and high blood pressure, increased heart rates, rapid breathing, feelings of excitement and exhilaration, increased mental alertness, hallucinations, and increased energy levels among other notable effects (Hedblorn, 1975).

The long term effects of the amphetamine drug include loss of appetite, drug addiction, heart failures due to irregular or rapid heart beats and weight loss. A victim may also develop amphetamine psychosis which is characterized by paranoia, hallucinations, anxiousness and panic, restlessness and irritability, aggressiveness, impulsive behavior, delirium, tolerance among other notable symptoms. These signs and symptoms typically fade away once the affected person quits the habit.

Methamphetamine is an odorless, white crystalline powder with a sour taste. The drug is highly soluble in water and other alcoholic drinks. Methamphetamines may also be puffed or smoked, snorted, orally ingested or injected. This drug was originally intended for medicinal uses such as nasal and bronchial decongestion when inhaled under prescription from a qualified physician. Currently in the US, methamphetamine is a drug approved for the treatment of exogenous obesity and ADHD condition. It may also be prescribed and recommended for the treatment of resistant depression and narcolepsy (Miller, 2009).

Methamphetamines drugs may be described as extremely powerful stimulants that can cause serious damages to ones central nervous system. The costs incurred in the laboratory manufacture of this drug are relatively low due to the availability of required ingredients. The widespread abuse of methamphetamine may be attributed to this factor.

Effects of Methamphetamines
Some of the effects of this drug are similar to those resulting from amphetamine abuse, except for its harmful impacts on the central nervous system. In general, the short term effects of this drug are said to last up to seven hours. Some of the effects include loss of appetite, increased activity, aggressiveness, increased blood pressure and heart rates, a misleading sense or feeling of well being, psychotic behavior, and violence (US Dept. of Health, 2002).

Some of the long- standing effects include neurological and cardiac damage, impaired learning and memory, total memory loss, addiction and tolerance. According to several research studies and findings, expectant mothers should not ingest any form or dosage of methamphetamines based on the facts that the drug may have severe negative impacts on the unborn child (Jeng, et al, 2005). It is therefore advisable not to prescribe such drugs to expectant women at any stage of their pregnancy since the drug is secreted in breast milk has the ability to penetrate the placenta. Newborns in such situations are born with mild cases of the withdrawal syndrome which often disappears with time (Winslow et al, 2007).

In the US, possession of any laboratory apparatus that could be used in the widespread production of these drugs was prohibited in 1983 and subsequently enacted the 1986 Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement Act in an effort to combat the widespread use of such drugs. Several challenges and drawbacks against the fight have been encountered over the years since most of the ingredients used in their production are readily available (US Dept. of Justice, 2002).

Despite the fact that the drug is prohibited under normal circumstances, the drug should only be taken under prescription from qualified medical practitioners. Rehabilitation centers should be put in place to help victims recover from the negative consequences of drug addiction and those arrested and convicted by the law should also be forwarded to such facilities for treatment, guidance, counseling and rehabilitation.

Impact of the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America on everyday police operations

The Fourth, Fifth and the Sixth Amendments of the American constitution are quite crucial in safeguarding the citizens against abuse of power by the government during investigations, seizing, arrests and court hearings. The Fourth Amendment on its side clearly dictates against the act of unreasonable searches and seizes by the police (Heffernan 23). It is evidently clear from this amendment that any search or seizing of on individual property should be legally qualified by a court warrant stating the sanctioned probable cause and its limits (FindLaw).

    The Fifth Amendment on the other side seeks to protect the American citizens against forced confessions during court proceedings (Roxas 17)). It is thus clear that the police are limited to respect the citizens right only to testify and give confessions at will. Police also unlike before the enactment of the Fifth Amendment cannot force a criminal to be witness against himherself (Roxas 19). It is thus clear from the Fifth Amendment that the police are not legally allowed to abuse their power to deprive criminals of their life and liberty as well as property. Such acts should follow the underlying due process of the law.

    The Sixth Amendment also has much impact on the police in their daily operations. First, it clearly dictates for speedy trial of criminals thus requiring the police to ensure fastness in reigning criminals to court (Gardner 22). The police are also required by this bill of rights to provide a notice of accusation to the convicted and ensure availability of favorable witnesses during the hearing. This amendment thus seeks not only to ensure first execution of justice to criminals but also ensures fairness and justice during the court hearings (Gardner 25).

    Therefore, all the three amendment basically functions to provide checks and balances on the abuse of power by the police both during the investigation and prosecution of criminals. All this ensures fairness of treatment and execution of equitable justice to criminals.


Prevention of crime through physical design is a set of design principles that are used to discourage crime. Generally, buildings and properties are designed to prevent damage from natural disasters and force of elements, but they should also be designed to prevent crime. This helps to create sense of security, well being among employees and tenants. When there is a good physical design, the environment in the workplace will discourage criminal behavior. To achieve this, there some concepts of defensible space like natural surveillance, design guidelines and cited strategies that need to be put in place.

Natural Surveillance
    According to Fennelly (2004) criminals do not like to be recognized so they choose places they can hide easily and escape. There are several ways to use natural surveillance in a workplace and this includes keeping all areas well lit especially in the building entrances. Eliminate hiding spots by trimming hedges, removing trees and fences that are creating hiding spots. Encourage low thorny edges around the windows because they do not obstruct view and they are not comfortable places to hide. Use of Closed Circuit Television in areas with no natural sight lines is very important therefore, it is good to put up monitors in public places so that criminals can be aware that they are being monitored.

Territorial Reinforcement
    This principle creates a clear distinction between public and private property. This is important because legitimate occupants or the workers of network operations have a sense of ownership and will be in a position to know and challenge intruders and therefore those people who do not belong will have a hard time to blend in. Receptionist should have clear sight lines to all entrances and also be able to call for help quickly without being noticed. Security signals should be clear in all entrance points and visitors should be provided with identification badges.

Natural Access Control
    This reduces chances for a crime to occur by clearly differentiating between public and private spaces. Reid (2005) found that, this can be done by use of single entrance and exit point, fencing around the windows with low thorny bushes, locking gates between front and back yard to do away with designs that encourage access to roof tops and upper levels and also to have proper lighting in all dark areas to avoid creating entrapments which are used by criminal to attack workers at network operations.
Informal Surveillance
    This is a casual observation of activities and people in public, by other people engaged in legal activities. Whether surveillance is coming from inside or outside building, the way to reduce crime is to increase eyes on the street. Placement of windows and doors especially on the ground floor is important to enable workers to observe crime on the street. If workers at network operations are willing to act when they observe an unruly behavior by reporting such behaviors to the authority or by intervening directly then informal surveillance can be used to decrease number of crimes taking place in the workplace.

Formal Surveillance
     It is a systematic supervision of the building by other people whose main objective is to maintain security. These people include the police, receptionists, or private security firms. Surveillance  can be in form of alarms, cameras, personal visits or overview. Advantage of using formal surveillance is that, chances of crime being noticed while taking place by the security personnel for them to intervene immediately are very high. Criminals avoid committing crime in an area they are aware it is under surveillance because they would not like to increase any chance of being caught.

     Good lighting is important because it allows people to see and to be seen. Well designed lighting system combined with other anti-crime measures can prevent crime from occurring. It also reduces opportunity for crime to occur and make working places to be safer at night for workers who like working late. Lighting should not be applied in areas which are deserted because workers will have an impression that those areas are safe and end up leading them to dangerous situations.

    According to Nadel (2004) overgrown vegetation, blinding corners and large projections can obstruct visibility along pedestrian routes. This may lead to creation of sites for committing crimes. Places that provide concealment decreases the effectiveness of surveillance measures hence leading to crime being committed without being noticed. Some workers of network operations at times prefer to have some privacy and therefore, they go to areas like garden or recreational walkways and mostly these areas are isolated. It is important to make sure that route through these areas are safe and do not create an opportunity for concealment.

    Small confined areas may be used by criminals to trap potential victims. These entrapment spots are selected by offenders as a site for robbery, assault or rape to the workers. Enclosed spaces should be eliminated in workplaces to reduce crime. Entrapment can be actual where by a space is defined by physical barriers inhibiting the targeted person to escape for example, an enclosed room or stairs down to a basement. On the other hand, entrapment can be perceptual where people feel trapped but there are no physical barriers. Areas that cause both physical and visual entrapments are tunnels, stairways, pedestrian bridges, foot path and streets. All enclosed areas should be modified to prevent workers at network operations from being trapped by criminals and be assaulted.

    These are physical elements of a building and their susceptibility to damage. Existence of damage also influences how easily a building can be broken into by offenders. A building should be publicly accessible and at the same time resist damage from any criminal activity. Building owner should make sure the walls, windows and doors are well fitted with materials that can resist damage and workers should use the all facilities of the building responsibly.

    Poorly maintained buildings shows signs of abandonment and lack of ownership. This may provide convenient locations for criminal activities. A place that is neglected can be a criminals hide out and can provide suitable environment for a crime to occur. Damaged buildings that are poorly maintained and they are not in use but have accessible spaces indicate lack of ownership. Criminals hide in this buildings and it becomes extremely dangerous for people living around such areas. These buildings should be maintained to prevent workers working in such building from being attacked by criminals.

Physical design in a work place is very important because it determines how an organization can prevent crime. As discussed above place of work should have surveillance which can either be formal or informal, this helps the workers at network operations to notice intruders in case they are captured on the surveillance cameras. When there is good lighting, buildings are well maintained, and efficient surveillance workers feel confident and safe in their working environment.

Police Supervision and Management

The current paper provides the detailed review of a peer-reviewed article. The article is devoted to the analysis of organizational and political trends and the impact on the crime control activities in South Korea. The paper explores the research question, methodology, hypotheses, and the results of the discussed research. Implications for police organizations are being discussed.

Police Supervision and Management
Joo, H.J.  Yoon, O.K. (2008). Social context of crime control A time-series analysis of the Korean case, 1973-2002. Crime Law Soc Change, 50 375-394.

The main issue
    Crime control is linked to the notion of crime. As such, crime control was always understood in the context of technical responses to various crime situations. The criminal justice system always worked to provide timely responses to crime and to restrain the growth of criminal activity at different organizational levels. However, professionals in crime studies tend to forget that crime and crime control are being influenced by a whole set of factors, and elements like economic conditions, social contexts, and political factors often mediate the effects of crime control on the crime situation. In their research, Joo and Yoon (2008) seek to close the existing research gaps and to analyze the relevance of social structural explanations in the context of the major control practices. The study is unique in a sense that it analyzes the role of these factors in crime practices for South Korea, which has followed a different path to democratization and has developed social and political structures different from western industrialized countries (Joo  Yoon 2008, p. 377).

Terms and definitions
    The authors define the criminal justice system as a governmental organization that seeks to fulfill its goal with the resources available to it (Joo  Yoon 2008, p. 379). The authors also provide the detailed discussion of the conflict perspective, which sheds the light on the relationships between crime and crime control and the factors that may mediate and influence these relationships. No other definitions or terms are being described and or discussed in the paper.

Research method
    Joo and Yoon (2008) chose three groups of predictor variables to measure economic conditions, organizational capacity, and political climates against crime control (including arrest, prosecution, and incarceration rates that served as dependent variables). The unemployment rate and the Gini index were used as the two basic indicators of how economic threats influence crime and crime control. Organizational capacity was interpreted in terms of per capita personnel at each stage of the criminal justice system (Joo  Yoon, 2008). Indicators of political repression included martial laws and emergency decrees (Joo  Yoon, 2008). The data were taken from the Analytical Report on Crime (Joo  Yoon, 2008). Time-series regressions were used for the analysis of the social contexts surrounding crime (Joo  Yoon, 2008).

    The study analyzed the impact of social structures and structural explanations, including economic and political climate and organizational capacity, on the major crime control practices in South Korea. The authors confirmed the link between the level of crime and the rates of various crime control activities. However, while the rates of prosecution were generally responsive to the levels of crime, no link was found between crime and the rates of incarceration. It is possible to assume that the levels of incarceration are influenced by factors other than crime rates, e.g. organizational capacity, economic conditions, and political climates (Joo  Yoon, 2008). The authors found the direct link between incarceration rates and unemployment rates (Joo  Yoon, 2008). The organizational capacity of courts to deal with the case workloads affected incarceration rates and case outcomes, regardless of the external and environmental changes and influences. Political repression was one of the factors affecting crime control actions (Joo  Yoon, 2008). The research has proved that earlier stages of crime control practices like arrest and prosecution are usually immune from the external political and economic pressures (Joo  Yoon, 2008).

Analysis and the lessons learnt
    The study performed by Joo and Yoon (2008) is interesting to the extent, which reveals the links and inconsistencies in non-western crime control environments. In distinction from American and other westernized crime control systems, that of South Korea is highly centralized and operates through a well-developed organizational hierarchy (Joo  Yoon, 2008). This, according to Joo and Yoon (2008), is the major factor of discrepancy between western and Asian forms of crime control, for tightly organized layers of the crime control system do not allow external forces to produce significant influences on its structure and crime control outcomes.

Women and Crime in Context

Feminist theory proposes that the interactions between patriarchal cultures and other factors such as the law can influence various aspects of womens lives. Parker and Reckdenwald (2008) have studied this theory in the context of inter-group differences amongst female criminals. They argue that it is difficult to apply many of the common theories of criminal behavior to female criminals because these theories have developed in the context of male criminal behavior. Evidence suggests that women commit crimes for very different reasons than men do. Whereas men may commit crimes of passion, or have a tendency towards career criminal behavior, women are more likely to commit crimes because of economic factors such as lack of adequate employment.

    Parker and Reckdenwald (2008) performed a study in which social structural variables such as economic stability, family dysfunction, and education and were studied in the context of female criminal behavior. First, they hypothesized that public patriarchy in terms of things such as economic marginalization would have a positive effect on female arrest rates. Put simply, women living on the economic margins of society are more likely to commit criminal acts whereas women in more stable economic situations are less likely to commit crimes. The second hypothesis states that women lower educational levels, living in lower income categories will be more likely to commit crimes. Finally, they hypothesized that private patriarchy in terms of marital status, and family dysfunction would have an influence on whether or not a woman committed a criminal act.

    The dependent variables in this study included the rates of violent crimes amongst women, and the rates of property crimes against women. Violent crimes include all armed crimes, rape, murder, assault and battery and child abuse. Property crimes include theft, forgery, fraud, vandalism and white collar crimes.  Dummy and control variables were created to substitute for missing arrest data, and for the number of police officers working in the rural and urban areas being measured during the year 2000-2001.

    The independent variables included the number of women that worked outside the home, the percentage of women who were married, and had children, unpaid family workers, of full time worker without adequate compensation or pay. They found that factors involving issues of public patriarchy such as employment and education had a significant influence on female crime levels. Economic disadvantage was the most significant of these factors with Parker and Reckdenwald (2008) finding a significant correlation between arrest rates, and the number of women living below the poverty line. Women living below the poverty line were more likely to commit, and to be arrested for property crimes than women living above the poverty line. This data supported both hypothesis one and hypothesis two. There were few significant results found for the influence of the private patriarchy on female crimes and arrest rates.

    This study has serious implications for the Criminal Justice field in terms of policy and research. Parker and Reckdenwalds (2008) results indicate that there are clear differences between why male offenders commit crimes, and why female offenders commit crimes. The implication of this is that in order to remedy the increasing number of women in Americas jails, professionals in Criminal Justice must also work with professionals in other fields such as Education and Human Services to remedy the conditions that cause women to commit crimes in the first place. Only by remedying the cause of female crime, and by adjusting our theoretical perspectives on why crimes occur, can we reduce the number of women who commit crimes. In conclusion, it can be stated that the main implication of this research study, is that the theoretical basis of the criminal justice field must be re-evaluated in terms of focusing upon why all criminals commit crimes, not just why male criminals commit crimes.

Explain the Major Goals of Performance Evaluations

Today in our world of technologies and competitions organizations and companies everywhere acknowledge that their  success is in the hands of their employees and that their people are the most important asset.  They know that the key to their success is to have the best employees from the best. 
That s why performance evaluation plays a great role in this process.  It helps to find out if the right people are in the right roles, what skills those roles require and what opportunities they are to offer for career development and progression to motivate and retain individuals getting the best out of their people.

One of the major goals of performance evaluations according to Schroeder and Lombardo is  to provide an accurate measure of what the employee is doing  (2006). This means that every position in the company and organization should have its detailed job description which will make the content and context of the job clear. So there should be performance standards and goals which are the basis from which the employee performance is measured(Western Kentucky University, 2004)  If there is a clear job description it is easier to measure the employee s performance   reflecting to hisher job description. 

Another goal of performance evaluations is   to help supervisor know his  subordinate (Schroeder, Lombardo, 2006). Performance appraisal is a good chance both for supervisor and subordinate to know each other better.  It s very important to have  meetings concerning performance evaluation. The performance 

appraisal meeting is aimed at having  constructive discussions on objective job-related behaviors, acknowledging what the employee is saying, asking open-ended questions, giving constructive feedback that will help the employee to get motivated and work even harder ( Western Kentucky University, 2004) .

Performance appraisal also helps to identify the strengths  and weaknesses of the employee (Schroeder, Lombardo 2006).  Most performance appraisals have rating  scales and each performance factor is rated on this scale. Rating indicates outstanding contributions, fully acceptable performance, general expectations etc  and the overall rating gives an account on the  employees overall pluses and minuses (Western Kentucky University,2004).

Another goal of performance evaluation is  to provide a plan for future improvement of employees (Schroeder, Lombardo 2006) Nearly everyone needs direction, everyone wants to know from the person he works for how he can do better, how he can improve himself at work. Regardless of where  an employee falls into ( whether  heshe is substandard,  below expectations, above expectations, excellent or meets expectations) he  needs  goals to reach in future. So making plans for future improvement is very important for every employee (cfd630).
 Performance appraisal is also good for providing look back (Schroeder, Lombardo, 2006). It helps both the employee and subordinate   to document

progress on previously indentified goals and objectives and to make any necessary adjustments, set new goals etc.(Western Kentucky University, 2004)

Finally Performance evaluation  helps  to get rid of the dead wood ( Schroeder, Lombardo, 2006) Performance evaluation is a chance  to review once again your  employee s job functions, objectives and goals, get rid of unnecessary ones and put new ones.
In other words performance evaluation is a tool that is used to  support, help  and motivate employees to perform in their best manner  for the sake and benefit of the company or organization.

Advances in Criminal Justice Technology

Onset and progression of 21st century has demanded employment of more advanced technologies in facilitating justice articulation in the society.  Criminal justice requires advanced technology to counter crime and criminals with greater efficiency at all levels. This publication provides an overview of technological improvements in resources deployment and further explores their advancements in criminal justice. Finally, it analyzes the information dispatch systems and recommends for further technological inventions for criminal justice to be more effective.  

Advances in Criminal Justice Technology

    Advances in criminal justice technology forms the most important factor for aiding the law enforcers as well as victim services providers in enhancing safety and giving critical lifesaving assistance to crime victims.  Scholars generally concur that availability of high technology equipments reduces the overall time employed in processing an offenders time, creating faster availability of various criminals details and providing real time notification about criminals (Edmund, 2007). This essay evaluates technological improvement in criminal justice with special reference to information and dispatch systems.  This publication further analyzes how this resource allocation benefits from the improvements.   

Overview of technology improvements in resources deployment
    According to Carol and Lydia (2006), technological advancements act as the key factor in facilitating effective resources deployment in the criminal justice units.  Since the onset of the 20th century, technology improvements have seen key revolutions that seek to effectively match the extended criminal outset.  Use of two way radio system and finger prints technology has been strongly employed to create effective counter crime efforts in the society.  However, Robin and Jenny (2008) explain that the 1960 Presidential Crime Commission indicated that the methods employed during this time were ineffective to counter the highly dynamic criminal technology used in the market.  Therefore, it was recommended that federal government fund the police agencies and automate their systems through computerization (William and Emily, 2007).  

Technological improvement has therefore remained a critical consideration in resources deployment in criminal justice.  Stefan (2007) indicates that these improvements fostered by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) have culminated to widespread use of computers and Information Technology in the police unit.  Notably, information technology facilitates centralization of the operations.  Other technologies such as concealed weapon detection technology and DNA testing have culminated to hefty resources channeling towards criminal justice agencies a consideration that Mears (2007) links to the reducing levels of crime in the nations. 

Advancing technology
Information Technology advances in criminal justice has remained critical in creating the needed change towards outdoing those in the market either through inherent development of mimicking those being used police.  In this case, Neyroud (2008) explains that it is possible to counter crime at different levels more easily.  However, this advancement has been criticized for its slow pace that often gives a large room for crime to take place undetected until it has occurred.

The DNA technology
DNA technology is a modernistic method employed in the criminal justice for precise detection of an individual through matching biological genetic information.  Though this technology is recently developed, its use has increasingly been assimilated in facilitating justice where physical evidence is not enough for judgment to be made. Following the critical role played by DNA in the determination of the high profile O.J Simpson case, it is increasingly being referred as the most important tool to bring justice in the society (Edmund, 2007). 

The Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) 
In their view, William and Emily (2007) indicate that criminals identification has remained very crucial in criminal justice.  AFIS therefore presents the criminal justice officers with an effective system of fast detecting a criminal by counterchecking the matches with those electronically stored in the department of justice database.  To further promote holistic capacity in tracing the criminal records, NIJ employs special exchange and responses that use matching algorithms.  

Concealed Weapons Detection technologies
Concealed weapons detection technology has come to be very critical in identifying individuals carrying weapons hidden in under their clothes. As a result, passive millimeter wave technology allows the criminal justice officers to search for weapons though natural emissions without the physical search (Neyroud, 2008).  Then, electromagnetic fluxgate magnetometers technology further facilitates identification of weapons through radiation reflected back to special detectors and them compares them with legal weapons database in the department of justice (Carol and Lydia, 2006 Robin and Jenny,2008).      
Information Dispatch Systems
Resource Allocation Benefits from these Systems. 
Mears (2007) explains that improvement in technology has been very critical in facilitating effective resources distribution in the criminal justice system.  To begin with, the new technology creates harmony in the United States criminal justice agencies as it is employed equally in the nation.  Besides, the advanced systems further facilitates availability of more conclusive information in determining which areas have more crime and therefore require more resources. In his view, Stefan (2007) indicates that the advancements are further crucial in establishing the trends of crime which anchor decisions on the areas that may require greater emphasis.

    This paper concludes by supporting the thesis statement, advances in criminal justice technology forms the most important factor for aiding the law enforcers as well as victim services provides in enhancing safety and giving critical lifesaving assistance to crime victims.  It came out from the analysis that technological advancements have greatly improved with time.  Advanced technology further came out to be highly advantageous in addressing the equally changing criminal technology.  Besides, it also strongly supports resources allocation in the criminal justice departments.  However, due to the fast changing technology, there is need for further research and studies to establish even more advanced technologies for greater efficiencies in criminal justice.

A Critical Evaluation of Methods of Data Collection and Analysis and Their Applicability For the Research Question, What are the Perspectives of People Who Engage in Bribery in Kenya, and What are the Effects of These Perspectives on the Police Interrogation and Prosecution Process

Bribery and general corruption is not a totally new phenomenon in Kenya, East Africa (Kagari 2006). Rather, it is a social vice that is so deeply entrenched in the Kenyan social fabric that it has become increasingly difficult for the authorities to route it out. Corrupt deals by both individuals as well as by corporations have in the recent past formed the backdrop of many court cases in the country as the countrys government grappled to deal with the vice in response to the mounting international pressure (Kagari 2006). For a long time, the nation of Kenya has been unable to achieve any significant development, both democratically and economically, owing to this state of affairs. Corruption is so much ingrained in the society that it is hard, virtually impossible, for anyone to get any form or government service without giving a bribe. According to the recent Transparent International reports on national bribery indicators, Kenya was ranked as one of the most corrupt states in the world. Within the country itself, the public sector was ranked among the top corruption affected sectors, with the police force and the immigration department being among the top five most corrupt institutions (Kagari 2006).

Rampant corruption has been blamed on a number of issues, each of which has different implications for the countrys social and economic wellbeing. However, some of the most common and perhaps most dire consequences of rampant corruption have been in the process of the police investigation, interrogation, and consequent prosecution of suspects. This is mainly because the police officers are the main players in the corruption game and as such, at least going by the perspectives of the people, it becomes very difficult for them to investigate matters concerning themselves or their employers (Kagari 2006). In order to have an understanding of this in a much better way, this paper is devoted to the critical analysis of some of the qualitative research methodologies that can be applied in coming up with the requisite information on the perspectives of the Kenyans who engage themselves in corrupt deeds, and how in turn these perspectives impact the process investigating crime, arresting the suspects, interrogating, and finally charging then before a court of law (Kagari 2006).

The paper strictly adheres to the qualitative analysis  the human behavior and the natural reasons that are responsible for this behavior (Charmaz 2006). It addresses the concepts in the methodologies that seek to find out the reasons behind actions (the why and how aspects) in addition to others like what, where, and when. In essence, this analysis is mainly focused on the specific, often small samples as opposed to large scale, generalized ones.  The research does not concern numerical values but with issues of morality, substance, and value of each of the methodologies chosen as ideal for gathering such information (Corbin  Strauss 2008). These methods are applying focus groups and visual methodology.
Focus Groups
In order to understand a lot more about the issue of bribery in the Kenyan context, it is ideal to engage the services of a focus group. As small a group as one consisting of four to five people is ideal. Then the total number of groups can be about five so that at the end of the exercise a total of 20 to 25 people will have given their perspectives. Focus groups will provide the relevant information regarding what they think about corruption and especially why they engage in the corruption themselves. The participants can be drawn from the police force and members of the public. As these are people who have taken part in corruption, the information they give can be taken to be very true and as such its authenticity and reliability can never be questionable (Hesse-Biber  Leavy 2004).

The information regarding corruption and graft is usually very hard to find its way into the society (Glaser 2002). Being a criminal offence in Kenya and so illegal, corruption usually thrives in the secrecy of the people who engage in it. As such, focus groups might be ideal to give such information. This notwithstanding, the issue of bribery in the country is so rampant that everyone is almost willing to talk about it without any duress. As such, the choice of a focus group as a method to gather such information is critically important because the focus group will not have to be enticed to speak or comment on the issue as would happen if the subject matter was highly sensitive in the Kenyan society (Kagari 2006). In fact, corruption is so rampant in the country that many Kenyans fail to distinguish between a corrupt action and a transparent one, unless someone points it out to them (Kagari 2006).

Advantages of Focus Groups
Focus groups boast a lot of advantages and are more beneficial compared to the other methods of collecting and analyzing data, especially with a view to understanding the perspectives of people who give bribes and on the impacts these perspectives have on police interrogation. The first advantage of focus groups is that they are fairly cheap to constitute andor assemble, and the entire process can be carried out rather quickly (Hesse-Biber  Leavy 2004). Because Kenya is a culturally diverse nation with about 42 different ethnic groupings, this method will greatly appeal to the majority of them as they are more or less free and so readily available for any such service. That aside, most Kenyans are very eager to see have their country developing and so will readily give information towards that cause. In essence, they would love to be part of the solution just as they are part of the problem. The focus groups are even more easily assembled if the participants are to drawn from members of the same social group or cultural background, or even the same profession (Hesse-Biber  Leavy 2004).

The other advantage of focus groups is that they are ideal for collecting some of the most reliable data on the subject of bribery that there can ever be. Reliability of data collected determines the authenticity of the results obtained from the research and subsequently the information and conclusions that will be made from it. Focus groups of the nature that is to be found in Kenya - that is people who are willing to speak out freely and without any coercion or duress - are capable of giving reliable responses. To add to this, the fact that the subject matter is a topical issue of great national interest will more than add to the willingness of the participants to take part in the group sessions (Hesse-Biber  Leavy 2004).

In addition to the reliable data, focus groups will offer the researchers the rare opportunity of getting the responses directly from the respondents mouths, thus limiting any probable loss of information (Silverman 2001). This adds not only a touch of originality to the responses given but also the participants are able to spur each other on to speak more freely and without any need for coercion but simply from the ways others speak. Courage is somewhat contagious.  This ability for people to build on what others have said in order to come up with their own opinions is critical to the quality of the final data collected as it is greatly enriched V.
Another advantage of this method is that it is ideal for the use across all social classes and across all cultural backgrounds (Willig 2001). The first issue to consider here, especially with regard to the Kenyan public, is that not every person is as learnt as is the case in the developed world. Therefore, given that literacy levels are very low especially in the rural areas, focus groups will be ideal in bridging the gap between the literate and the illiterate, thereby giving all people a chance to respond equally to the research topic at hand. The rare chance that is offered by this research methodology is allowing respondents to take part in the analysis process  makes it an even more advantageous method (Willig 2008).

This is particularly because it is easy to find out from the group members how they think, believe, or even imagine the response given will impact another issue, or its importance, and so forth. This is in itself data analysis (Willig 2001). During the analysis process itself, therefore, the analysts will already have some contributions from the data sources. Finally, the focus groups allow participants in the group to act as balances and checks for each others responses. This is achieved when during the group session, each member of the group is able to respond to the contributions of the other members critically, and this makes room for corrections, and subsequently there is an agreement by all participants on the most appropriate response or answer to an issue (Willig 2001). This adds more value to the entire process and authenticity to the data collected.
Disadvantages of Focus groups
In spite of the many advantages discussed above, focus groups are likely to be inappropriate as a source of information on such a critically important topic. This is because it has been associated with a few shortcomings which will stand in the way of the ability of the researchers to get the required feedback and in the right quality (Silverman 2001). The first disadvantage is that focus groups are fertile breeding grounds for group loafing which allows members of the group to engage in a game-like behavior that results in the information given out being simply the effort of one individual. In essence, the groups will not fully participate in the discussion but only some members will (Denzin  Lincoln 2000). At the end of the day, it will be the few participants only whose views will be taken when actually an entire group was supposed to have taken part. The outcome is that the data is not representative of the views of all the people but rather the views of the most active members. Consequently, the results will not be true, and the final analysis will also be grossly flawed (Silverman 1997).

The second disadvantage of focus groups is that the responses that come from the participants are never independent at all (Denzin  Lincoln 2000). This is more so if the participants are drawn from a sample that has people who are closely related or who associate with each other very closely like colleagues at the place of work, schoolmates, and so on. The tendency is that some members will influence the answers of others. The person leading the research group will also tend to influence decisions easily because as a leader, the respondents will natural tend to want to give responses that heshe agrees with. Unless the lead researcher deliberately takes on a guiding role, the outcome is likely to be skewed to favor one side (Flick 2009).

The Ethical Issues in this Methodology
The ethical considerations in the given methodology are to be given a higher priority as far as possible. This is because ethics is an issue that is so close to the hearts of people in any society and Kenyans are no exception. The ethical issues that are in play in this methodology involve whether or not the people will be wiling to give information of their own volition, or if there will be need for coercion or duress (Denzin  Lincoln 2000).

The truth is that there are likely to be some ethical issues and concerns raised. This is the risk of putting the participants at the threat of being targeted by the Kenyan police officers in the event the participants are made public. This is a matter requiring a lot of attention and that has to be addressed before anyone is made to participate. It is a method that will likely jeopardize all the efforts put into the entire process. Then there is the issue requiring participants to identify themselves. It is highly risky as the outcome might be that the police will sooner or later get wind of the matter and literally go hunting for them. Otherwise, it is ethically and morally an acceptable methodology (Silverman 2001).

Visual Methodology
This is another method that can be used for gathering information about the peoples views concerning bribery and corruption. Visual research methods entail employing the use of different visual devices such as cameras, video recorders, television cameras, among others. The main principle behind the use of this method of data collection is that there is always documented evidence which, unless maliciously damaged or accidentally lost, will remain unaffected by any changes (Radley, Hodgetts  Cullen 2005).

In this method, the researchers can possible try as much as possible to take video footage andor photographs of the main players in the bribery game. In the case of Kenya, there are likely to be the police officers themselves, and the court officials. The researchers can also target the people seeking services in public health facilities like passports and identity cards, as well as those seeking help to get lost documents, lost loved ones, or even those whose loved ones are victims of crime and so need police help (Radley, Hodgetts  Cullen 2005).

Advantages of Visual Methodology
Visual methodology is an ideal method for a number of reasons. The first one is that it will provide a foolproof evidence of the data that was collected and as such, it will double up as an ideal method for data storage. One of the most common disadvantages of most research methods is that they often cannot be relied on to give data which can be store for as long as the researchers might love to. Visual methodology transcends this limitation. Another advantage is that the method offers the flexibility for the researchers to move wherever they want and to target the people they want (Rose 2001).

Disadvantages of Visual Methodology
The first disadvantage is that the method is socially unacceptable as it tramples on moral values. Secondly, it is very costly in terms of equipment, travel costs, and traveling costs. The method is also risk as the researchers are constantly exposed to the danger of being victimized by those recorded on the visual devices (Radley, Hodgetts  Cullen 2005).

Moral and Ethical Issues of Concern
This methodology comes in for a lot off criticism for its being grossly in breach of the ethical values of the people in the country. In the gathering of such data, it will be impossible to actually get any information unless the researchers operate as undercover agents andor as spies. This is made worse considering the fact that the police are targeted for the greater part of the investigation. This will complicate matters further as it is morally and even legally unacceptable for any person to stalk others in a way that is aimed to extract information from the person without hisher permission (Gillies et al. 2005).

What is at stake here is the reputation of the people who will be caught on the glaring cameras of the researchers and then used somewhere for some analysis. As such, this is a humiliating and antisocial behavior. In Kenya, the communities live together harmoniously and even the law offenders are accommodated in society and shown mercy. Such acts as these that portray any person in the negative light will likely grossly trample on their moral values and will be opposed (Reavey  Johnson 2007).

Collecting information on bribery and corruption in a country that has a high tolerance for the vice is very difficult. The selection of the samples sizes and the method of collecting and analyzing the data is therefore a very critical consideration which must be given priority over anything else. The methodology selected will determine the success rate of the entire research. In this critical analysis of the possible research methods, these two which have been considered may not necessarily be the best. Instead, each methodology will be applied on the weight of its own suitability, adaptability, and its level of appeal and acceptance in the Kenyan society.

On the basis of these considerations and those discussed in the critical analysis earlier in this paper, the choice between visual methodology and focus groups has to be made. The benefits of focus groups far exceed those of visual methods. In addition to that, the limitations of focus groups are fewer and can easily be resolved or overcome compared to those of visual methods. Thus, focus groups would be a better method of gathering information on the perspectives of the people who engage bin bribery and how these perspectives impact on the process of interrogation of suspects by the police force in Kenya, East Africa. The most important factor that makes focus groups the most ideal for this work is that it is an ethical method and will receive the required response from the people.

Crime Labs in the State of Virginia

In the State of Virginia, there are several crime labs operated by 3 primary entities  the State of Virginia, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Drug Enforcement Agency.  With Virginia bordering Washington D.C., there are additional crime labs servicing the District of Columbia and the Department of Homeland Security.  Each of these entities has certain specialties in various regions throughout the state of Virginia and all accredited by the ASCLDLAB (American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors  Laboratory Accreditation Board,2004).

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (the FBI) is headquartered in Quantico, Virginia.  There are two crime labs for the FBI in Virginia, both located at Quantico  the FBI Laboratory and the FBI Digital Evidence Laboratory.  There is a multitude of services that the FBI Laboratory provides including Forensic Analysis (cryptology and documents), Forensic Science (crime scene, counterterrorism research, and facial imaging, Scientific Analysis (DNA, trace evidence, and firearmstool marks), and Operational Response (explosives, imaging, and hazardous material).  While the FBI generally supports the Federal government, the Laboratory supports Federal, State, and Local government law enforcement agencies (Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d.).  The Digital Evidence Laboratory primarily conducts computer forensic analysis, including analysis of digital audio, video, and images (Federal Bureau of Investigation,2007).

    The State of Virginia has four regional labs in the Department of Forensic Science (the DFS) Central, Eastern, Northern and Western, the largest of which is the Central lab.   The Central lab provides the most services including all of the following
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Breath Alcohol Certification
Controlled Substances
Firearms  Tool marks
Forensic Biology
Forensic Toxicology (including DUI  DUID)
Latent Prints
Photo Processing
Questioned Documents
Trace Evidence (including alcoholic beverages  GSR) (State of Virginia,2005-2010)
The Eastern, Northern, and Western primarily support only Controlled Substances, Firearms  Tool marks, Forensic Biology, Forensic Toxicology, Latent Prints, Questioned Documents, and
Trace Evidence.  The DFS supports a large base of customers including the state courts, the medical examiners office, the Sheriffs office, as well as local law enforcement agencies (State of Virginia, 2005-2010).

     In Lorton, Virginia, where this author is from, there are three labs.  The DEA Digital Evidence Lab, the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department Forensic Biology and Trace Evidence Units, and private entity The Bode Technology Group.  The Bode Technology Group specializes in DNA testing and analysis and does work for Federal, State, and Local law enforcement agencies, as well as other laboratories in need of assistance (Bode Technology Group,2010)..  The DEA Digital Evidence Lab examines forensic evidence in the form of digital information.  For example, this Lab extracts information from seized computers, smart phones, and other forms of media to gather evidence and solve crimes.  This lab is primarily used by the DEA itself. (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, n.d.).  Lastly in Lorton, the DC Metros Lab conducts analysis on fine hairs and fibers (District of Columbia Forensic Biology Section,n.d.) primarily for local law enforcement offices.

    As mentioned previously, all labs in this paper are accredited by ASCLDLAB.  Being in the state of Virginia, and in terms of crime labs, this author found that one of the benefits is that the state is near enough to Washington D.C. for the labs service many of the Federal governments law enforcement agencies, as well as state and local agencies.  This means that the labs work a wide variety of investigations and there are vast resources available in the area of Forensic Science.

Understanding Organization Behavior

There is a need for peace in the area that we may be living in so that we can be able to go on with our daily duties. However, it is a usual case in the human society that people are not able to live constantly at peace, because there is always somebody willing to harm others or to disturb them for their own personal gains. This calls for the existence of the criminal justice system. It has the main duty of protecting the population from criminal offences and maintaining the public order. Therefore, there is a need for an efficient criminal justice system which can be realized through the use of efficient agencies. To achieve this, there are some elements that the people who are working in the criminal justice system should possess so that they can ensure that they are doing their work efficiently. In addition to this, there are some other elements which the agencies should possess to ensure that there is efficient execution of duties (Davis  Newstrom 1998).

Some of the most important elements that are associated with the organizational behavior that should be demonstrated in a criminal justice agency as to ensure efficient work are the ones that concern management. The manager is a person who determines what other employees in the organization do. It is, therefore, necessary to have an efficient management system to provide the efficient service in the criminal justice system. Among the major elements that the management should possess is being objective concerning the vision of the organization (Cunningham, 1990).

Just like any other organization, the criminal justice agency should have a vision, a mission, values and philosophies. It is the duty of the management to ensure that the goals of the organizations are achieved. It is also the duty of the management to ensure that the vision of the organization is kept and that there is an effort by the workers to achieve it. I believe that all the criminal justice systems agencies should have a philosophy that is directed towards the service of the community. It is, therefore, the responsibility of the management to ensure that this philosophy is upheld all the time by all the people that are attached to the organization (Oldham,  Hackman, 2002).

When all these elements are upheld and at the same time an effort is made to try and achieve them, a good organization culture will emerge within the company. This is what defines the organization. If a company has some set goals, objectives, visions, achievable missions and practical philosophies, it will be obvious that it will have a good organization culture. This is something that is very crucial for any criminal justice agency and it is the key factor that defines the credibility of the organization in the community. The organizations culture is therefore an important aspect or rather an important element in any agency and more so to the criminal justice agency which are very important to the community (Cunningham, 1990).

The organizations culture is known to determine the type of communication that exists in an agency. Since the criminal justice system is all about dealing with the community and making sure that the community is running a happy, peaceful and smooth life, it involves a lot of communication and therefore this is a crucial element in this type of agency. The organizations culture also determines the leadership systems that will be practices in the organization. This is also a crucial aspect in this organization because, for one to be able to lead others, they must be able to lead themselves and act as examples. These are very important bearing in mind that with the current development in technology in the whole world, the criminal activities are also changing and therefore there is a need to have developing criminal justice agencies so that they can be able to contain the changing environment (Golembiewski, 2001).

Another element that is important in a criminal justice agency is the final outcome. This is usually dictated by the performance of the workers. It is necessary to ensure that those people who work at the criminal justice agency are satisfied with their job. This is the only way that they will be able to give their best. Most of the issues that are dealt with by the criminal justice agencies are issues which require devotion of time and energy. It is therefore necessary to ensure that all those people who are working there are satisfied with their job so that they give their best (Koch, 2006.

To achieve this, there is a need to ensure that the workers are given room for personal development in terms of careers. For example, in the case of the law enforcement officers, they should be given time and opportunities to study. This would make them devote more time to the service for the community and feel satisfied with the process. If they are satisfied, they will be able to do their duties diligently. In addition, they should be rewarded for best performance as this would motivate them to work more and in the process improve their performance (Davis  Newstrom, 1998).

In conclusion, the organizational behavior happens to cover practically most of the aspects of an organization, such as human team, behavior, leadership and the organization culture and therefore, the most important elements will have to deal with all these aspects.  Such important organizational behavior elements are the output elements, such as performance, career development, the organizational culture, and the organizational management which ensures that the organizations vision, mission, goals and values are upheld. If these elements are not looked at well in the organization, they may result to a criminal justice system that is inefficient. This is a system that hardly achieves its goals. A system that does serve the community that it is supposed to serve (Koch, 2006.)

Recidivism and corrections

This is not the first time that Carl will serve a prison sentence. He has been arrested for the second time for the crime of robbery with violence. Two years ago, he was released from prison due to the same crime, after serving a seventeen years sentence. Carls parents are in shock wondering why their son repeated the same crime. One would think that the term he had served in prison would rehabilitate him into a better person once his term ends. Carl is not alone, as there are many other ex-prisoners who are convicted of the same crimes they had committed previously. This kind of behavior, where persons are re-arrested because of repeating the same crime or behavior is known as recidivism. This essay will discuss recidivism in relation to jail and community based sanctions based on the Oregon corrections department research. 

What is recidivism
Recidivism is derived from the Latin word recidvus which means recurring. It is a situation where a person repeats a behavior considered undesirable as a result of experiencing negative consequences of that particular behavior. In other terms, it is referred to the percentage of former prisoners who are arrested (Henslin, 2008). It is also defined as the situation whereby Offenders reoffend after they return to the community (Song  Lieb, 1993).

Recidivism is commonly used in relation to criminal acts and abuse of substances. When scientific literature states something like recidivism of sexual offenders, it means the occurrence in which the criminals are seized performing more sexual crimes after release from prison (Levenson  Morin, 2000).

There exists a grand relationship between psychopathy and criminal recidivism. Psychopathy is defined as the inability of a person to learn from mistakes performed before. The people who have this kind of disorder are satisfied every time they perform the antisocial behavior. In addition, lack of remorse for their actions helps them to gain satisfaction (Hare, 1995). For any type of re-offending to be counted as recidivism, a lot of voluntary disclosure, arrest or conviction is required. Therefore, the real recidivism rate often differs from the actual reported rates (Hare, 1995).

        Recidivism rates the Oregon review
 A research was conducted by the Oregon Department of corrections in the year 2001 in Oregon, America. The research involved all offenders between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2001 who were receiving their first sanction. This was as a result of parole and felony probation violation. The next twelve months that followed involved following the offenders after the first sanction so as to establish whether there was any recidivism. The study involved over ten thousand offenders, and the results were gotten and brought into book (Martin, 2003).

Types of recidivism
 The Oregon research was based on the types of recidivism. The first type was that based on reconviction rates, which depended on the felony crime conviction within the study year. This indicator was used to measure criminal behavior involvement which led to conviction. When offenders who had committed similar crimes were grouped together, the rate of reconviction was seen to be higher in a jail sanction compared to community alternative sanctions (Martin, 2003).

 The next type of recidivism was based on violating supervision conditions. This indicator was used to measure the offenders compliance with the supervision conditions. The results indicated that longer jail periods and shorter ones have the same result as far as recidivism is concerned. There was no clear indication of future compliance when jail or community sanctions were used (Martin, 2003).

 Thirdly, re-arrest was the other type of recidivism used. It based its study on the arrests that year and found out that community sanctions were effective in reducing re-arrest and that longer prison terms did not reduce recidivism more than shorter ones (Martin, 2003).

  The results of the research showed that the jail sanctions had a higher rate of recidivism than the community sanctions. This is regardless of whether the offender had a long or a short term incarceration period. According to the research, the community based sanctions was the best compared to the incarceration type of punishment (Martin, 2002).

Reasons for recidivism
Generally, several circumstances lead to recidivism occurrence.  An individual may have experienced circumstances which contributed to his incarceration. The individuals may be affected by occurrences which happened during their stay in the prison cells. Also, they can be affected by either the long term or short term period they are released from prison (Visher, 2003).   

Once an individual is released from jail, it becomes difficult for him or her to adjust to life outside prison. This is because a lot of readjustments need to be made by the ex- prisoner in the outside world. They have to reunite back with their families and go back to places which are full of risks so as to seek a formal identification. This is because once they are out of prison, they have an unpleasing work history and they have to deal with their criminal record.

Many of the prisoners come out of prison with a very positive outlook towards life only to get disappointed by the turn of events outside prison. This results to the ex-prisoner looking for ways of justification, and he or she ends up going back to his or her undesirable behavior (Visher, 2003).

                Effects of recidivism
 A study conducted in the United States showed that recidivism is associated with several problems. One reason is because billions of dollars have been used for the upkeep of the offenders, only to have those individuals re-offend after their release. Furthermore, there is a great risk posed to the general public which includes fear and a negative perception towards the correctional systems because of the high recidivism rates that occur among violent offenders. The perception of most Americans and other people elsewhere is that there exists much inefficiency in the incarceration process as it results to high recidivism rates (Martin, 2003).

Choice of sanction in reducing recidivism
In choosing the sanction to be used for punishment, the role of a professional judgment is important. Several of the differences that are associated with the type of sanction chosen are as a result of the professional judgment on the type of sanctions to be used and those which should be avoided. Some jurisdictions employ several sanctions, while others do not. Actually, some smaller countries lack alternatives to the jail sanction. A countrys choice on a particular sanction can depend more on the resources that it has than the choice it has in choosing the type of sanction. Generally, based on the facts gotten from Oregon, community based sanctions are effective in reducing incarceration, and are a good investment to the safety of the public (Martin, 2003).

Recidivism and Incarceration
  Discussing the effect of jail sentences in relation to recidivism is a crucial issue especially to those who are concerned with the safety of the public and cutting the cost-effectiveness of incarcerating the convicted offenders. There exist different opinions between those who advocate for long sentences and those who prefer short sentences in relation to recidivism rates (Song  Lieb, 1993).

Comparison of the longer and shorter prison sentences
 It is argued that longer incarceration periods reduce crimes rates as the offender will be incapacitated. This means that the offender, after the incarceration period will never re-offend the public. Theories that support longer sentences show that punishment causes guilt, fear and an emotional effect which makes the individual to avoid any kind of offence (Martin, 2003).
 Secondly, the released offenders would be discouraged from committing more crimes as a result of longer periods of incarceration. This situation was referred to as specific deterrence. This is because the offenders would fear that age would catch up with them and thus they would need to readjust their lives (Martin, 2003).

  Thirdly, general deterrence is the situation where potential offenders are discouraged from committing crimes due to the awareness of penalties. A longer sentence would also compel the offenders to avoid a new offense as they would realize that it would cost them all the benefits associated with freedom and their earnings (Song  Lieb, 1993).

  Those who advocated for shorter sentences discuss that the duration of punishment is not as important as its certainty in discouraging the offenders from reoffending. Secondly, several offenders commit crimes as a result of physical addictions. They require training on their occupation and to be given treatment programs. However, they do not get this as they are subjected to incarceration. Lastly, prison is considered as a school which makes criminals more sophisticated and entrenched (SongLieb 1993).

Effects of incarceration in relation to recidivism
Positive effects
  A review by Cusson and Pinsonneault suggests that incarceration has positive effects on the offender in relation to reducing the recidivism rates. It shows that imprisonment wears down the drive for criminal acts .This is because it makes the criminal fear punishment and the effect of previous convictions. Also, the offender will be afraid of the difficulties associated with coping with the punishment for a new crime. According to them, the offenders usually have social, psychological and physical problems which can be diagnosed during their stay in prison. If they are treated, it would be unlikely for the offenders to commit the same crime (Song  Lieb 1993).

Negative effects 
Clemmer argues that during the period of imprisonment, the inmates learn antisocial behaviors from the other prisoners. Therefore, the longer the period of imprisonment, the higher the chance of the offender to learn evil habits in prison, thus the greater the likelihood of re-offending. Based on a study conducted by Orsagh and Chen, when a person is removed from the society, his or her social bonds are weakened as a result of the jail term. This results into the offender having an increased propensity to reoffend after release (Song  Lieb 1993).  

Recidivism and community based sanctions
 Community based corrections have been perceived as a legitimate option than incarceration in local jails or state prisons. Community based sanctions are preferred, not because of their advantages to incarceration but because they are less expensive. A lot of pressure is imposed to community based sanctions to ensure that there is reduced recidivism. This pressure results to the community sanction not being fully effective in reducing the recidivism rates. However, community based sanctions are considered to be more effective than jail sanctions as far as reduction of recidivism is concerned (Martin, 2003).

How community based sanctions are effective than the jail term
 The Oregon Department of corrections showed a review of how effective community based sanctions are in reducing recidivism rates. Some of the community based sanctions include community service and work crews, day reporting centers, electronic monitoring and house arrest. The department reviewed the effectiveness of the community based sanctions and how well they reduced recidivism and protected the public. It sought to review the effects of the community sanctions compared to jail sanctions in Oregon (Martin, 2003).

According to the research conducted, treatment and rehabilitation will have better results than surveillance and enforcement. Therefore, community based sanctions accompanied with appropriate treatment are more effective in reducing recidivism than the jail sanctions. Even if the community based sanctions are not accompanied by treatment, they still produce better results than the jail sanctions as far as the reduction of recidivism is concerned (Martin,2003).

So as to reduce recidivism, rehabilitation and treatment is viewed to be more effective than surveillance and enforcement. Better results are seen once treatment is used with the community based sanctions, as the recidivism rate reduces with ten percent. Alternative sanctions are always good compared to jail terms as they are less expensive in their delivery. Both brief and long periods of imprisonment have the same effect in relation to recidivism in that they increase the rates of recidivism. The electronic home detention has a great value in that it reduces costs and treatment services can easily be administered (Martin, 2003).

Who is to blame, the offenders or the governing systems
 An assumption is made with an argument that a correction needs to be made to the individual offender. Others argue that the criminogenic environment is caused by the existing social and political systems. When argued this way, crime increase is seen as a measure of the societys failure and not only the offense of the individual.

Recidivism is therefore viewed as an indicator of inefficiencies in the society and not only the defects of the individual offender. When it is assumed that an offender needs correcting, it may be incorrect in some instances. Some criminal activities in a number of offenders are caused by correctable defects, which include illiteracy, family problems and lack of skills for employment. Others are caused by curiosity and peer pressure (Maltz, 1984).

In conclusion, the political and social systems in any society should contribute to reducing the recidivism rates. This is highly dependent on the professional judgment that a certain state decides to employ so as to come up with the type of sanction to be used in punishing offenders in any country. Very accurate steps should be taken to rehabilitate the offenders once they have been released from the correctional facilities so as to reduce the risk of recidivism. The ex-offenders should be encouraged to join groups which will help them to readjust to the society. All in all, the best sanctions to be used by any country are the community based sanctions as it has been proved by research.

Right to Work Laws Liberty, Prosperity, and Quality of Life

This article looks into the different state laws and other legislations that have been passed over the decades with regards to the guidelines to be adhered to as far as employment and wages are concerned within the United States.  Specifically, it focused on answering the question as to whether or not such state laws and legislations violate the right of an individual to freedom of choice. 

    According to the article, one of the economic dimensions of individual liberty is the right to sell ones labor services without attenuationthat is, without limits on the terms of the agreement (Vedder 2010, p. 171).  With the implementation of various state laws and legislations since the 1930s beginning with the Davis-Bacon Act and the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, many have viewed these statutes and legislations to impede the freedom of employees in the United States with the restrictions and limitations provided on the amount of wages an employee receives with regards to the amount of hours worked.  The ability of an individual to be hired is also narrowed down based on his or her membership in a particular union, since the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 mandated that all individuals must be a member of a particular union for them to be hired (Vedder 2010).

    Over the years, efforts have been made in order to restore some form of freedom to individuals when it comes to their exercising their right to freedom of choice on whether they would want to become a part of a union, as well as not making this a requirement for them to receive employment.  At the present, 22 states in the country have been classified as right-to-work states, where individuals can be hired regardless on their membership to a particular union.  As a result, these 22 states have seen a rise in population due to migration.  In 2008, these right-to-work states saw a 40 increase in their population growth brought about by the migration of individuals seeking employment from states that still make it a requirement to be part of a union to be hired as an employee.  On top of this, right-to-work states have also reported lower unemployment rates as compared to non-right-to-work states as well as higher economic growth rate per capita experienced by right-to-work states compared to non-right-to-work states (Vedder 2010).

    In the United States, none is more important to the general public than their ability to exercise their right to choose.  From the type of religion that they practice to selecting the next president of the country, Americans practice this freedom each and every single day.

    It is common knowledge that while individuals may apply for a particular position in a certain company, it does not guarantee that they would be immediately hired.  Naturally, there are a number of things that must be taken into consideration such as their years of experience, the manner on how they answer the interview questions, and other credentials.  All of these things are carefully taken into consideration to make sure that the successful candidate for the position is able to fulfill the responsibilities of the job being applied for.

    The presence of certain states that require that a candidate for a particular position in a company to be part of a particular union to be even considered for the position being applied for is indeed a violation of the freedom of choice on the part of the prospective applicant.  While it is indeed the right of the American people to assemble and form an organization based on their beliefs and principles, joining these unions must remain to be a matter of choice on other individuals.  Prospective employees must not be pressured into joining a particular union just so that they would be able to land a job and to begin to establish themselves in the career path that they have selected. 

    Based on the information provided in the article, it is not surprising to see the negative effects these legislations mandating the membership to a particular union has on the growth of the economy of these states.  Because of this mandate, companies eventually compromise on selecting lesser qualified individuals for certain job positions on the grounds that the more qualified ones are not members of the union that is recognized in the company.  On top of this, many of the otherwise qualified candidates that do not wish to become a member of any labor union would migrate to other states where becoming a member in a labor union is a matter of choice and not a pre-requisite.  Not only is there depletion in competent workforce that is present in these non-right-to-work states.  This would also result to the slow economic growth of the state due to the favoring of membership in a particular labor union as opposed to the skills, experience and qualifications of the candidate.

    The United States has been considered as the Land of the Free.  Part of this freedom includes the right of an employee to choose whether or not he or she would want to be part of a particular labor union.  In closing, non-right-to-work states must be open to learn from the growth and quality of life experienced by individuals living in right-to-work states on the benefits of making membership to labor unions optional rather than mandatory, specifically in terms of economic growth and prosperity.


1. What should law enforcement agents do when the state law is in conflict with a federal law that has been based on treaties with Native Americans signed by federal government

Drafters of American constitution noted that laws that govern the states may one day contradict the constitution. For the constitution to be supreme, they drafted Article IV, which is also called the Supremacy Clause. Case law also elaborates that whenever state laws contradict the federal law, federal law always prevail. To add on, the Supreme Court is the only court that binds state laws and guides them when it comes to interpreting federal law and federal constitution. Minor cases where state laws can prevail occur when it comes to matters concerning labor laws. Moreover, individual states drafts laws that apply to their own employees and whenever both the state and federal law address the same matter, an employee is at liberty to choose which law benefits him the most (Jackson, 659). Since all states are sovereign, with own government and constitution, they have the authority to make laws. But those laws must not supersede federal constitution, statutes and international treaties authorized by the federal senate.

            In America, tribal governments play an important role in politics. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in a case involving Cherokee Nation v Georgia (1831) that tribal governments are neither states nor foreign state. However, they are nations with authority to exercise sovereign power. Since tribal governments have powers to draft their own laws, some of them may preempt the state or the federal law. In such a situation, the congress posses plenary power over the natives affairs Lone Wolf v Hitchcock, 187 U.S.553 (1903) which are directed towards regulating tribal powers. Whenever conflict arises, authorities make use of federal interpretations to solve the case. For example, after the 1968 Civil Rights movement, the federal government passed a statute which required the tribal governments to adopt several bills of rights as well as adhere to other regulations. Limitations provided for in the Indian Civil Rights Act are statutory and not constitutional. People whose Indian rights have been violated can not challenge the matter through a federal civil suit (Anderson, 127). Therefore, he or she can only challenge the case in a tribal court. To add on, the development of tribal economic activities has been a major discussion in federal Indian policy. Several Acts provide for the development of Indian economic projects, for example, mining, mortgage and establishment of companies. 

2. How can officers who are on the front lines win respect and cooperation on native Americans when they asked to enforce something that goes against the treaty rights of the Indians

           According to the U.S. law, all indigenous people living in America during the European colonization are referred to as Indians. Law enforcers are empowered by the constitution to ensure that all individuals adhere to the rule of the law. However, certain regulations may conflict or oppress certain groups of people in the society. Thus for people in authority to win the trust of Indians, the state can recognize the practice of a given group of Indians, even when the federal government fails to recognize it. In September 1993, a National Agenda aimed at solving disputes and improving working relations between the tribal, state and federal judicial system was held in New Mexico (Isaac, 29).  Reasons that can influence the state to recognize a particular group are varying.  First, the state court and legislature can investigate the level of Indian governmental influence over peoples way of life. Second, the state can examine the political control of a particular group across a given territory. Lastly, the extent to which a groups history extends can be considered by the state.

              Indian sovereign authority is also recognized by the federal law and thus given special authority to rule themselves. However, this authority must not conflict with federal law. Moreover, the federal law recognizes Indian tribes as domestic and dependent nations. Furthermore, this sovereign authority was meant to protect the Indian groups and was enacted by the congress. Tribal courts of the Indians which preside over matters concerning the Indians get their mandate from the federal law (William, 31). In essence, Native Americans can respect the authorities when they are given the authority to run their own institutions and exercise their own rights

              When treaty rights of the Indians are violated, tribal governments can enter into agreements with state governments and iron out the differences. Examples of agreements which have been documented include law enforcement agreement, tax agreement, gaming compacts, human service agreements etc. The legal status of Native Americans has a unique perception. First, they are American citizens who enjoy the same rights and privileges as other Americans. Second, natives are considered as a special group of people with individual governing tribes. Despite the fact that natives have equal rights as all Americans, they have special rights in hunting and fishing, gaming activities and water usage (Edling, 43). Several arguments have been brought forth to subject Native Americans to the fishing and hunting rights as those of other Americans. However, the state lacks authority to control the activities of individuals in Indian reservations.