Criminological Theory

Criminology is defined as the scientific study of human behavior in terms of crime commitment, criminals and its particular corrective measures.  This study also includes the research on how a society responds to certain crimes and their prevention. The process may cover on the study of how crime is committed and whether it is by psychological or hereditary causes not forgetting the efficiency with which punishment is administered and its success.

Many sociologists have broadly researched on the sources and definitions of crime at different levels in which case most of them have only been able to view it as a pathological state rather than normalcy.  It is in most cases referred to as abnormal because it interferes with the normal running of programs of an institution or a culture.   On the contrary, Durkheim, after his research resolved that crime is normal which many social scientists have contemptuously acknowledged.  Durkheim argued that crime serves to correct the nature of existing tension or crisis in the society. Further, he stated that too much levels of authority is bound to bring problems thus emphasizing that crime was necessary hence a normality (Cohn, Wright, 1998).  It is disputed that crime is normal because most criminals work under the influence of an external force, for example drugs, mental health, lack of basic needs and unhealthy relationships.  This is however controllable through the security authorities and responsible citizenry.

Combating crime in cities
     Policies that can be developed in order to address crime in particular neighborhoods of a given city are discussed here. Crime rate in cities is rampant and can be tamed by either redesigning of the  residential areas to promote safety, law enforcement, improving the security strategies as well as appropriate town planning implementation (Cohn, Wright, 1998). This kind of development strategies may be achieved through the involvement of the townurban planners, security officers and the town engineers.

The changes on physical design are vital. There is a need to educate the society about the identification and management strategies of crime. Thus community based approach of taming crime. Some physical design creations that can be implemented include the closure of pedestrian tunnels and to open up some hidden place to residents.  The construction of security fences and improved security gates is also applicable.

Generally, to control crime in residential areas its important to consider the physical changes like improvement of targeted points image, enforcing law at danger sports, increasing the surveillance opportunities and restricting access to the areas. Implementing changes on management through, making alterations on ownership property, the widening or duties by residents, and engaging community policing is necessary too (Cohn, Wright, 1998).

In conclusion Crime according to Durkheim is normal while this is disputable depending on the sources and causes of crime. Prevention of crime encompasses the general involvement of citizens, an experts security system set up and keeping a keen eye on the behavioral changes and levels of tension among the society by the management. Keep the resident busy or occupied since idleness is a source of crime.


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