DNA Evidence Evidentiary Sources and Confirmation

From a forensic or investigative perspective, it is preferable to seize different types of trace evidence in the first instance because it can provide a broader investigatory framework, because it can answer more questions than DNA evidence alone, and because DNA evidence is effectively a derivative of certain types of trace evidence.

First, trace evidence can provide an investigatory framework whereas DNA evidence is mainly used for purposes of confirmation.  Trace evidence, for example, can be used to establish or otherwise reconstruct how a crime or other event happened.  It therefore functions as a tool of construction from which theories and other clues may be pursued and tested.  It is true that DNA evidence may be used as part of a DNA profile this type of process, however is much narrower in scope and application than what can be accomplished through the seizure of trace evidence.

Second, forensic examiners and investigators can answer more questions through the seizure of trace evidence than they can with DNA evidence.  To be sure, a DNA sample without more may very well be such a slim seizure of evidence that investigators are never able to link it to the crime because of a lack of supporting evidence upon which to reconstruct events.  It is true that some trace evidence is not admissible in courts of law as independent pieces of evidence, and that it sometimes offered as a type of corroborating rather than direct proof, but that does not diminish its significance in the building the case so that it may reach a court of law in the first place.  

Finally, DNA evidence is essentially a derivative of trace evidence more particularly, it is through the collection of certain types of trace evidence that DNA may be seized.  The confirmation function performed by DNA evidence is therefore dependent on some underlying trace evidence.  In the final analysis, it is far wiser and more preferable to seize and properly preserve as much trace evidence as possible.

Responsibility during Chemical or Biological Attack

It is always necessary that as a disaster management organization, we must always be prepared to act in case there is a disaster that has hit one of our areas. This means that all the persons who are working in this and various other departments must be fully aware of what they are supposed to incase a disaster strikes one of our regions of observation. There are therefore different departments which happen to have different duties. All the officers or personnel who are in these departments should be aware of these duties and they should act as soon as possible in case a disaster strikes.

The very first department that should act in case a disaster strikes is the police officers department. In case there is a disaster, the police officers should be the very first people that should arrive at the area where the disaster have struck. It is obvious that when a disaster strikes, people who were not involved will like to come and see. They make huge crowds around the area that has been struck. This makes the work of all the other people who would like to rescue the victims difficult because of lot of obstruction. The work of the police officer is therefore to keep off the crowd and give the rescue team time and space to work.

In addition, there are some other cases mostly in bomb attack where the terrorists may explode a small bomb so that they can attract people and then explode the second one which has greater effect. If there is such a gathering, this may have a very serious effect on the community. The police officers are also responsible for ensuring that the scene of crime is not interfered with so that dusting can be done and all the other activities that are necessary to trace the cause of the crime.

Another department that is involved in disaster management process is the investigators department. These are the people who visit the area which has been struck by the disaster and determine the main cause of the disaster. In case of a crime scene, these are the people who usually collect the evidence, interview all the witnesses and are involved and decide the measure to take.

Then there is the Hazmat department which comprises of the decontamination experts and also the material disposal experts. In case of a biological or chemical attack, there is a possibility that the effect of the bomb or the chemicals that has been used will be felt all through and will continue to affect the area. There is therefore a need to decontaminate the area so that it can be safe for human beings. These are the people who are involved in this activity of decontaminating the area. In case there are some toxic substances at the crime scene, they are the ones responsible for ensuring that these substances are disposed properly.

Some of the materials that are found on the crime scene in case of a chemical attack are very toxic while others are very dangerous to handle. This calls for an explosive ordinance disposal team. This is a team of experts who are fully trained on handling explosives. They are able to detect any substance that may still be harmful to the rescue team. They wipe out all the dangerous substances that are found in the area that the disaster struck.

These are all the people that should be involved in case a disaster hits an area. They should report to the area where the disaster has struck the soonest they can as this is the only way that they will be able to prevent more loss. The very first group that should arrive is the police officers, then the investigators and lastly the Hazmat and the explosive ordnance disposal teams to ensure that the place has no more dangerous substances. However, all the teams may work together at the same time to prevent more loss of life and property that may be experienced out of delay.

Disaster Management

There are times when a nation will have some disasters affecting our societies. When such happens, it is necessary that the disaster is addressed as soon as possible. The reason is that this would in some cases reduce the loss that will be experienced. The loss is in form of life, property or high expenses in terms of food, operation cost and rescue operations. When such an incident takes place, the very first person that responds to a disaster are the police officers. These are the people who rescue the people that have been affected by the disaster first. They are the ones who inform all the other departments that are responsible for disaster management.

It therefore means that if the management of the local police officers is poor, they may not be able to respond to disaster quickly as it may be required. This consequently results to a lot of losses in terms of life, property and so on. These are some of the losses that would have been avoided incase the management was good. Due to mismanagement that may be there in this department, it means that all the other activities that will be involved to contain a disaster will be belated. If the management is poor, it will take a longer period of time to inform all the other departments which are involved and this means that there will be more loss experienced.

There is an advantage if the local police officers happen to be familiar with the community. There will be a very good community policing which means that some of those manmade disasters such as terrorism may be known before they take place. In addition, if there is a prediction of the occurrence of a disaster in an area such as a hurricane, the officers that are familiar with the community knows the area that is densely populated and which would take a lot of time to evacuate and therefore inform them and act on them first.

Where violent and nonviolent crimes occur

Victimization by criminals is one of the most horrific experiences an individual may ever come across. Whether an individual faces violent or non violent crimes, the aftermaths are almost similar. Though both demand punishment, violent crimes should be critically looked into as compared to non violent crimes. It is usually hard to generalize violent crimes. It is very hard to predict the occurrence of a crime whether violent or nonviolent. Everybody is prone to crimes. Crimes occur all the time. This paper will look at some of the places where violent as well as nonviolent crimes mostly occur.

Violent and nonviolent crimes are mostly seen to occur at leisure oriented joints where alcohol and other related substances are served. Violent occurring in such places usually takes place at the end of the week when a lot of people are out of work. Property crimes also associated with leisure oriented joints take place during the weekends. Some of the common places where violent crimes occur include ATM centers, night clubs, and other stores where it is easier for criminals to attack. Most violent crimes have been noted to occur between mid and late night.

Some of the violent crimes that occur often include armed robberies, murder and manslaughter, rape, property theft, and many others. Most of the violent crimes committed are done by people whom the victim may know very well. According to Shaw and Meek (n.d.), murder, one of the most serious violent crimes may take place at the victims place of residence or at public places. Murders are usually committed when the places of residence or the streets are deserted. Rape is the form of violent crime that takes place at the victims place of residence.

Reiss (1993), notes that kidnapping does not regard the presence of other people it takes place even in the most crowded public places. In car jacking cases, the person or people present in a vehicle may be kidnapped along with the vehicle. These people may then be dropped off in remote places after a brutal victimization episode or even killed in extreme cases. Armed robberies also tend to use the same strategy. They may occur in broad daylight or at night either in cities or at the place of residence. Armed robberies mostly occur in situations where the victims are helpless.

Shaw and Meek (n.d.), states that the other form of crime, the nonviolent one, include cases such as burglary, car theft, pick pocketing, drug dealing, fraudulence, and other simple thefts. Shop lifting, one of the non violent crimes, takes place in the streets and residential areas mostly at late night when there is no one on sight. Theft of cars and car properties takes place in garages and parking places. All kinds of non violent crimes that involve property are mostly associated with breakage. Drug dealing often take place in residential areas which tend to provide privacy. Crowded places such as in buses, marketplaces, trains and other public places offer a very conducive environment for pick picketers. Mostly, the victims are unaware of any criminal activities going on. Fraudulence occurs when a person asks for exorbitant amount of money for a simple service heshe wants to offer. A very good example is the case where a person is asked to pay a huge amount of money to be taken to a particular place heshe does not know. A tourist for example may end up paying a lot of money to be taken to a place a very short distance from the airport.

Residential areas are very prone to both violent and non violent crimes. Crimes targeted to residential areas occur mostly when the perpetrators realize that houses are deserted or only one or a few members are present. These types of crimes are characterized as nonviolent because no harm is inflicted on the victim.

As this paper have described, violent and nonviolent crime occur in all places. They also take place at all times. Some of the common places where violent and nonviolent crimes occur include entertainment joints, marketplaces, residential areas and the streets. Robberies, rape, kidnap, are examples of violent crimes whereas fraudulence, pick pocketing, and drug dealing are some of the nonviolent crimes that exist.
Residential areas are potential targets for both violent and nonviolent crimes. Car theft a nonviolent crime mostly occurs in garages and parking lots.

Crime Analysis and Criminal Intelligence Comparison and Contrast

Crime analysis and criminal intelligence analysis have several diverse definitions around the world. However, the definition commonly used in crime analysis basically implies that it is a set of methodical, investigative processes aimed at supplying pertinent and timely information in relation to trend correlations and crime patterns to assist the administrative and operational staff in setting up the utilization of resources for suppressing and preventing  criminal activities, increasing the clearance of cases and apprehensions, and assisting the investigative process. Criminal intelligence analysis, on the other hand, is generally defined as the recognition and supplying of understanding into the connection between crime data and other probable significant information with the intention to facilitate the judicial and police practices. Accordingly, the fundamental activity of criminal intelligence analysis is to assist functional task by evaluating crime, to offer well-timed information of constraints, and to assist decision makers, policy makers, and law enforcers in handling any uncertainty more efficiently.  

Criminal intelligence analysis is basically divided into strategic and tactical analysis, while crime analysis is divided into administrative, strategic, and tactical analysis. In criminal intelligence, tactical analysis is intended to accomplish a particular law enforcement effect that has immediate benefits. Strategic analysis in criminal intelligence analysis, on the other hand, is designed to adjust to an evolving standard of management and thus, the advantages are achieved over a longer period. Like criminal intelligence analysis, the strategic analysis in crime analysis is involved with functional approaches and searches for solutions to constant difficulties and the benefits are realized over a longer period. The tactical analysis of crime analysis takes care of critical criminal offenses and aims for immediate answers, which is likewise somewhat the same as that of the criminal intelligence analysis. Finally, the administrative analysis, which is absent in criminal intelligence analysis, entails long term projects, including tasks that provide law enforcement, geographic and economic information to citizen groups, city council, and police management.

Athlete Associates with Criminal Activity



1.1 Preamble
An analysis of the emergent issues regarding athlete involvement in crime is important in helping the key stakeholders to devise and implement sustainable intervention measures. Indeed, athletes play a critical mentoring role in the society. It is therefore imperative to evaluate the various issues surrounding their involvement with criminals and crime. Viable solutions to this will not only reduce incidences of crime and enhance societal cohesion, but will also promote inculcation of vital values and virtues in the young generation.

1.2 Background Information
Involvement in criminal activities by athletes is a growing problem that has increasingly raised significant public concerns. This is especially because of the recognition that most perpetrators are youths who are supposedly considered role models by the young generation. This has been attributed to by various factors that range from economic to environmental and behavioral. In his review, Herr (2009) indicates that the increasing involvement of athletes in crime is a reflection of the entire American society. Notably, crime rates have soared in the recent past and the involvement of the athletes is just an indication of the failure of the criminal justice system to prevent crime. Indeed, the prevalence of crime amongst athletes is posited to emerge once in every two days. In his report, Fisher (1995) notes that domestic violence is often the most pronounced with sexual assault reportedly being the second most experienced athlete crime. Further, drug abuse and violence have also been cited to be common crimes committed by the athletes.

Comparative studies indicate that athletes tend to be more aggressive than the rest of the population. This according to experts is contributed by the fact that they are taught aggression at a very tender age. This is further compounded by the inculcation of a must win attitude. Of great reference however are the huge salaries and the expensive scholarships that the athletes have access to. These tend to boost their ego and make them feel more special than the rest of the population. Cox (2007) also points out that athletes that share a close relationship with the criminals also tend to assume the criminal behavior. In this regard, it is posited that some of the athletes convicted of crimes like trafficking tend to associate closely with criminals charged with substance use and abuse. In addition, the moral decay and increased involvement in crime by the athletes has also been attributed to their close relationship with politicians. In such cases, the politicians act as their sponsors and as a result expose them to the dirty tricks employed in politics. With time, these athletes tend to assume similar behaviors like some of the politicians.

This scenario is also contributed to by the differential treatment that they are accorded by the media and the court system. In this regard, Keller (2007) indicates that the criminal justice system has the tendency to extend leniency to celebrities, rich citizens and other famous personalities. Further, the huge financial resources that these personalities have allow them to employ the services of very competent attorneys. In some cases, Staffo (2001) asserts that they tend to buy the victims with the financial resources which in turn influences the latter to drop the charges against them.

In addition, the criminal justice system tends to treat professional athletes differently from the youths. In this regard, Merten (2008) cites that the professionals who are mainly adults are given a harsher treatment than the youth. This makes the youth athletes persist in crime as their punishment is lighter. In order to curb athlete crime, studies indicate that the youth athlete engaging in crime need to be accorded similar treatment by the criminal justice system as their professional counterparts.  More so, the media portrays them as super heroes and in some instances fail to provide factual information to the public. Concealment of past mistakes encourages the athletes to continue engaging in criminal activities. However, in some instances, the media has been implicated for targeting the athletes because of their high profile position in the society. In this regard, it is posited that the media in some cases infringes on the privacy of the athletes by being overly involved in their private lives.

Further, Kim and Parlow (2009) point out that the superb talents that the athletes have protects them against the negative implications associated with their undesirable behavior. It is posited that pro athletes have a great economic influence that is often prioritized by their sponsors above integrity. In this respect, Rocha (2007) asserts that the respective teams that pro athletes belong to accord them preferential treatment too. This is due to the fact that they are usually considered invaluable assets whose loss can culminate into far reaching financial implications. To ensure that the athletes do not change their minds about playing for these teams, the teams do not punish them when they make mistakes or they give them minor punishments.

Apart from the media and the courts, Lawrence (2005) blames the entire public for the involvement of teen athletes in crime. In this regard it is contended that the public often perceives pro athletes as their role models and accords them preferential treatment. As such, they are usually exempted from crucial societal rules that mold behavior and instill values. As such, the young athletes grow up knowing that they are special and above the law. This encourages them to participate in crime that in some instances, they are not punished at all. In their study, Berry and Smith (2000) lament that the young athletes lack mentors who can guide their behavior accordingly. In this regard, it is argued that the coaches and professional athletes that interact with the lack desirable ideals and values. In fact, they are largely blamed for encouraging criminal behavior amongst the minors.

The institutions of higher learning have also been blamed for failing to take appropriate actions against the athletes that engage in crime (Blaudchun, 1996 Feezell, 2004). The public has in many instances raised various concerns regarding the young athletes from reputable higher learning institutions who engage in crime. In such cases, their talents are given preference over their academic performance and their morality. Thus respective colleges tolerate their sickening behavior in exchange for extra curricular excellence.

Jacobs (2002) cites that the athletes who engage in criminal activities always grapple with various challenges. To begin with, the media exposure that they get impacts negatively on their wellbeing. In this respect, it is worth acknowledging that the athletes are just like any other humans and lead normal lives like the middle class Americans. Thus they face similar life challenges like other Americans and experience work related pressure like other professionals do. In addition, they are expected to maintain a positive public image. Thus the media exposure when they engage in crime tends to be very humiliating and has the capacity to alter their reputation. In some cases, they are suspended from their career by respective oversight boards. This makes it difficult for them to earn a living, considering the fact that athletics is their source of income. In instances when the crimes are severe, studies indicate that such athletes are expelled from their teams.

Involvement in crime also has negative economic impacts on the wellbeing of the athletes. Presently, effective legal representation in America is very expensive and as such, the affected athlete spends millions in fines and other legal fees. The effects on their financial wellbeing trickle down to the families and friends that they support.

1.3 Problem Statement
The rising involvement of athletes in crime has culminated into various concerns that highlight the weaknesses of the present systems in dealing with societal ills. While some studies indicate that the current rates of athlete involvement in crime are entirely perpetuated by the differential treatment that the media accords them, public surveys ascertain that the athletes actually involve themselves in criminal activities. As indicated earlier, the society has dismally failed in intervening accordingly in this menace. Of great reference in this regard are the criminal justice system and the media that are responsible for providing vital benchmarks regarding behavioral development of this segment of the population.

Psychological studies contend that behavioral development is significantly influenced by the physical and social environment of an individual. Notably, criminal behavior that the athletes engage in stems from the wavering conditions of their social and physical environment. There involvement in crime has been attributed to their relationship with criminals too.  Statistics indicate that crimes like substance use and abuse are directly influenced by athlete involvement with criminals. From a theoretical viewpoint, social deviance is contributed to by various social economic, cultural and environmental factors. Basically, the social learning theory postulates that crime can be learnt through observation and imitation. This is further reinforced by peer pressure and social conditions. It is in this consideration that it is argued that the current behavioral constraints being portrayed by athletes through involvement in crime are partly attributed to their association with criminals.

1.4 Justification of Study
The rate and severity of athlete crime has increased significantly in the recent past. This has in turn had far reaching implications on the children and adults who look up to the athletes as role models. It can not be disputed that the influence of the athletes on the young generation is significant. Since the young generation tends to imitate and emulate what they perceive desirable, it is clear that the involvement of athletes in crime needs to be reviewed. In addition, the loss of income and the subsequent impacts on the standard of living of their families and friends needs to be addressed. In this regard it should be appreciated that increased productivity is critical to economic prosperity of the nation and therefore should not be compromised with avoidable crime.

It has been cited that the involvement of the athletes with criminals is a contributory factor to the athlete involvement in crime. There is an urgent need to review this relationship and ensure that intervention measures are undertaken in a timely manner. This requires increased partnerships and collaboration between all stakeholders. In order to achieve this, it is imperative to review the contribution of each stakeholder to the current state of affairs. This would provide a sustainable basement upon which precise future interventions can be devised, implemented and enforced accordingly.

1.5 Theoretical Underpinning

1.5.1 The Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura believed that aggressive behaviors that are conventional to criminals are basically learned through behavior modeling. In his review, he argued that behavioral constraints are not inherited, rather they are learned. Learning according to him takes place through the media, observation or from the social environment (Allen  Santrock, 1993). In addition, he argues that aggression tends to yield reinforcements that are manifested through reduction of tension, getting financial rewards, gaining praise from peers andor building ones self esteem. His experiment with children ascertained that aggression is encouraged by the adult environment and the media. He further indicates that the stages of imitation or behavior modeling are successive in nature.

The first component is attention.  In this, the individual attends to the vital features of the behavior being imitated. For instance, an individual needs to attend to the activities of the aggressor before she can be able to reproduce similar activities through behavior. With regard to aggression in athletes, it can be posited that athletes that involve with criminals attend to the criminal activities. Thus they are exposed to the various tactics employed by the criminals. The following component is retention and is characterized by coding the relative information in long term memory. This enables the individual to retrieve the information with ease.
Then, motor reproduction gives the individual a chance to learn and posses the vital skills required in reproduction of the activities of the aggressor. At this juncture, Craig (2000) notes that the learner needs to have the physical capacity in order to reproduce the aggression accordingly. Arguably, the physical fitness of the athletes enables them to reproduce the learnt aggression with ease.

Finally enforcements or motivation is a process through which the learner anticipates some form of reward for the earned activity. At this point in time, Russell (1991) postulates that the competition context provides the athletes with the required motivation or reward. In particular, he indicates that the chanting of the crowd not only increases aggression but also rewards the violent athletes emotionally.  Notably, the degree of hostility in the athletes tends to increase with the level of noise made by the crowds during competitions. In addition, Brown (1998) points out that the violent players are also rewarded by the teams whenever they dominate the game. Rewards in this respect also take the form of praise from the public, media and other influential authorities.

Further, this theory postulates that environmental experiences also contribute to learning of violent behavior. In this regard, Tuckler and Parks (2001) posit that the individuals that reside in areas where crime is prevalent tend to engage in criminal activities more than their counterparts who reside in low crime regions.
This presumption is complemented by the social disorganization theory that ascertains that neighborhoods that are characterized by a culture of conflicts, insufficient social organizations andor moral decay contribute significantly to criminal behavior. This contention supports the presumption that athletes who spend time with the criminals tend to assume the criminal behavior. This is due to the fact that they get accustomed to the criminal environment and therefore behave in the same way as criminals.

1.6 Objectives of the Study
This study was guided by the following objectives
To identify the contributory factors to athlete involvement in crime
To determine the frequency of athlete association with criminals
To evaluate the relationship between athlete association with crime and their involvement in criminal activities
To determine the influence of social and economic factors to athlete crime



2.1 Explaining Athletes Involvement in Crime
High profile crimes involving prominent athletes like Michael Beasley, Reggie Williams, Marion Jones and Charles Barkley among others have contributed significantly to the current debate about the involvement of athletes in crime. Numerous studies of which Fox and Hellman (1995) are represented attribute this to the inherent aggression and other interpersonal behavioral constraints that characterize sporting. In his review, Lapchick (2001) posits that athletes that spend their time with criminals tend to assume their behavior and take up criminal activities too.  Drug use and abuse has been implicated as one of the common crimes that athlete criminals get from the rest of the criminals. In his comparative review regarding the characteristics of criminals that are exhibited by athletes, Messner (2002) ascertained that the behavioral similarity between the two segments of the population is significant. The study found out that some characteristics of athletes can indeed drive them to commit violent crime.

In this regard, it is worth acknowledging that most games require that athletes use force in order to attain the acceptable level of dominance in a game. They are often taught to employ force in conflict resolution. The situation is further perpetuated by the positive comments that they get from their fans when they employ force in order to win the game. The fact that use of force is one of the fundamentals of competence and therefore winning the game makes it inevitable for them to use more benign approaches in resolution of conflicts. In other words, aggression in games is often legitimized and perceived elemental in successful athletics. In other cases, Brown and Benedict (2000) posit that the nature of the sports and games that the athletes play is violent. For instance, hockey is a game that violence has been considered fundamental.

Notably, reinforcement of domination has been cited as one of the common characteristics of individuals apprehended for crimes such as rape. In his research, Kurek (1997) shows that male games and sports basically represent a rape culture. In addition, the fact that the aggressive behavior is rewarded by the teams encourages the athletes to practice it more often. Typically, the spectators also greatly encourage the players to use violence in games. Their chanting and encouragement during the manifestation of violence by the players encourages the latter to exhibit an increased hostility against their opponents. In his study regarding the relationship between aggression and crime, Staffo (2001) found out that aggression tends to desensitize the athletes of violence and relative activities. As such, they in some cases engage in violence unknowingly.

Further, Brodsky and ONeal (1993) indicate that the culture of alcohol consumption is encouraged by some sports and teams. Indeed alcohol consumption during sporting events has been cited as one of the factors that contribute to crime. Usually, alcohol is consumed as a form of celebration and is encouraged by both the players and the teams. At this juncture, it can not be disputed that alcohol consumption has contributed to aggression and ultimate crime.  Medical studies ascertain that alcohol consumption is related to personality disorders that contribute to violence and crime. In his review, Shutler (1998) cites that drunk driving is one of the commonest offenses that involve athletes. For instance, Donte Stallworth an NPL player pleaded guilty for killing a pedestrian in June 2009. The reason for this was that he was driving drunk in Florida.

Apparently, he settled with the family of the victim and was only given a month in jail, eight years of probation and two years of house arrest. The same charges were pressed on Charles Barkley, an NBA star who pleaded guilty to drunken driving and running a red light in March 2009. Notably, drug use and abuse has been identified as one of the common characteristic of criminals (Goldberg, Elliot, MacKinnon, Moe, Kuehl, Nohre  Lockwood, 2003). Usually, they employ drugs to enable them deal with the atrocities related to the criminal activities that they engage in.

Further, Henson and Stone (1999) posit that the personality disorders exhibited by most of the athletes contribute to their engagement in crime. In their analysis of common behavioral constraints and the relationship of the same with crime, they show that athletes tend to assume an inflated sense of self and pride driven arrogance that decrease their acceptance and appreciation of the current authoritative structures. Thus such disorders lead them to engage in crime and believe that they are above the law. Similar personality constraints have also been exhibited by criminals. A classic example in this respect is narcissism that is characterized by feelings of rage, pride, grandiose fantasies and depression. Likewise, anger, pride and greed have been identified as some of the reasons that influence the criminals to engage in unacceptable social behavior.

This is complemented by Adler and Adler (1999) who indicated that in some instances, athlete crime is racially perpetuated. This is based upon the assertions that Blacks tend to have high levels of testosterone hormone that increases their degree of aggression and therefore participation in crime. This is compounded by the increasing percentage of Blacks in athletics that reportedly experience high incidences of crime such as hockey and baseball. Furthermore, it is indicated that the personality disorders like pride and anger that are exhibited by the athletes are also contributed to by racial attitudes. In his survey, Coakley (2004) found out that the Black American law enforcers are seldom considered competent by the White offenders. This is because of the negative racial attitudes that such offenders have towards the minorities.

In his review, Coakley (2007) indicates that persons who are masculine tend to be more aggressive than their counterparts. This assumption is based upon a study carried out by Cox (2007) in state prisons. According to this, a significant percentage of the prison population was found to be physically fit at the time of imprisonment. This conception is further ascertained by studies whose findings indicated that the physically fit engage in criminal activities because of their higher IQ. Conversely Manning (2005) indicates that persons with a lower IQ tend to be more active in sports. In this, they are overly exposed to aggression that makes them assume criminal behavior. Fox and Hellman (1995) complement this assertion by indicating that the non elite athletes tend to be self centered and very proud as compared to the elite athletes. The arrogance makes them to belittle other persons including law enforcers and the relative rules and values. This is further compounded by the huge amounts of money that they get and the preferential treatment that they are accorded by their teams and learning institutions.

The social environment that the athletes are brought up in has also been associated with their criminal behavior. In particular, Weiss (1999) indicates that the pro athletes who grow up in unstable families, low family or parent involvement, low socio economic standards, lack of daily resources and bad peer groups are always at a higher risk of engaging in delinquency, just like the rest of the vulnerable population. Usually, such behavior is extended to adulthood. Thus the affected athletes fail to mend their ways even after they get huge amounts of financial resources. On the contrary, the society expects them to align their behavior to that of role models and celebrities. Failure to meet these expectations results to a negative perception by the media and the entire public.

Merten (2008) attributes the involvement of athletes in crime to the rising crimes that are being experienced by the society. Emergent research indicates that the increased instances of crimes are contributed to by rough family situations that have reduced parent involvement in matters of child discipline. In this respect, Keller (2007) indicates that critical family bonds are slowly being torn apart by technological distractions like televisions, video games and the internet. In addition, Lawrence (2005) points out that increased economic difficulties are making parents to spend more time working and less time supervising their children. As a result, children tend to engage in crime at an earlier age. Development of deviant behavior at this age also makes it difficult for the child to adhere to the traditional social values. According to Berry and Smith (2000), a significant percentage of pro athletes belong to this segment of the population.

Various researches have in the past advocated the idea that the athletes do not engage in crime, rather their role model status is manipulated by the media that accords them unnecessary public attention on the premise that they are role models. However Goldberg (1995) refutes this contention and indicates that in fact the present scenario is an over implication. According to his study, he found out that athletes engage in aggressive behavior and engage in crime that is in most instances not reported by the media. This according to Tapper and Taylor (2006) explains why most athletes that are apprehended for crime tend to have a history of criminal incidences that have not been reported in the past.

2.2 Incidences of Athlete Involvement in Crime
Since historical times, athletes have always been associated with violent crimes. In the recent past, the nature and diversity of the crimes committed by prominent athletes has increased significantly. To begin with, Lubker, Visek, Geer and Watson (1998) cite that most athletes have been apprehended for carrying guns illegally. Recent trends indicate that they posses guns and carry the same in social places.  Whenever they get drunk or experience violent incidences, the athletes use the guns and in most cases pose insecurity both to themselves and the general public. Plaxico Buress who is considered a New York giant is one of the stars who were sentenced to jail for two years for possessing a gun. Apparently, he accidentally shot himself at a night club in New York. Further, Tank Johnson also got into trouble with the law after the law enforcement officers raided his home and recovered six guns, two ounces of marijuana and 550 rounds of ammunition. Finally, Cleveland Cavaliers was arrested by the police in Maryland for carrying a concealed gun. Follow up studies indicate that the athletes carry guns for security proposes (Murray, 2009). In particular, they fear for themselves, their money and for their homes. This assumption is based on the recognition that most of them are often targeted by the criminals because of their financial resources.

Herr (2009) ascertains that former pro athletes are also increasingly participating in robbery and violence. This is attributed to the desperate situation that they get in whenever they loose their resources. A classic example in this regard is O.J. Simpson who was charged with armed robbery, kidnapping and other related offenses in a casino hotel room in Las Vegas. He was sentenced nine to thirty three years in prison. Maurice Claret the former star of Ohio State was also sentenced in jail for seven and a half years after being found guilty of aggravated crime. In addition, he was also found guilty of carrying a concealed weapon in public (Mydans, 1994).

Further, Washington (2009) cites that some pro athletes have also been convicted for fighting with dogs.  An NFL star Michael Vick was sentenced to prison for eighteen months for killing and fighting dogs. As a result, the star lost millions of dollars in lost salary and employed a significant percentage of his fortune in legal fees and fines.  With regard to this case, studies indicate that the star could have gotten a fair charge if the public outrage could not have been so much pronounced. Initially, Qyntel Woods had also been indicted in 2005 for similar charges although he pleaded guilty for animal abuse. Finally, LeShon Johnson, who is also an NFL player served a five year term in jail for dog fighting.

In some instances, Staffo (2001) indicates that pro athletes are implicated by their teams for involvement in off field criminal behavior. A typical example in this regard is Adam Jones who has been suspended twice by his team for involvement in criminal behavior outside the field. In particular, Cox (2007) reports that the star was involved in a shooting at a strip club. Braylon Edward will also probably face disciplinary action for punching LeBron James outside a night club. In particular, it is posited that both the league and the New York Jets team will probably enforce disciplinary action against him.

Another common crime that the stars are usually apprehended for is domestic violence. The current trends affirm the preposition that athletes are usually very aggressive and this makes it difficult for them to handle affairs with the opposite sex in a sustainable anger. Shawne Merriman, a San Diego Chargers star has been arrested in the past for battering and imprisoning his girlfriend. In addition, Brett Myers, a baseball pro was arrested and charged for allegedly hitting his wife during an argument. However, the charges were later dropped because the wife did not want him prosecuted. In 2001, Jason Kidd was also charged for spouse abuse after his wife reported to the police that she had been hit during an argument with him over their young son. Latter, Manning (2005) indicates that the two divorced after Kidd had taken a restraining order against her. He paid 200 for the damages caused.

Closely associated with domestic violence are rape cases. In this regard, Washington (2009) ascertains that the increasing rates of involvement of pro athletes in rapes have raised various concerns on a global scale. In 2009, David Megget a former NFL running back was charged with rape and is currently serving a jail sentence. Interestingly, this charge was carried out when he had been out on bond for another sexual assault charge. Merten (2008) indicates that this was arrived a after the case had involved the Supreme Court. Another such athlete is Denzel McDougald of Eastmoor Academy who was charged with rape and later let out on a bond of 100,000.

Gambling is another crime that the pro athletes have been convicted for in the recent past. In this regard McMahon (2009) indicate that gambling is an illegal behavior that the athletes often get addicted to. Art Schlichter is an NFL star that has been convicted for the crime for more than ten times. Currently, he is still serving a fifteen year jail term in Ohio Prison. According to McMahon (2009), Antoine Walker was recently arrested for having gambling debts in Las Vegas Casinos. Further, Farmer Barkley was also convicted in 2007 but settled his 400000 debt accordingly.

In their survey, Bray, Jones and Owen (2009) indicated that athletes also get in legal problems for skipping child support. This often happens when they have multiple children with various women. As a rest, they find it difficult to provide sufficient parenting for all the children. This situation is well exemplified by Travis Hensry who supposedly has nine children that are borne of different mothers. The situation is further compounded by the fact that the children are closely spaced. In particular, Bray et al (2009) ascertain that they are hardly four months apart. According to recent reports, Henry is unable to afford 170000 that is estimated for the support of the children per year. Evander Holyfield, a renowned boxing champion has also been implicated in the past for child support charges that almost saw him loose his home that is worth 500000. In addition, he has also grappled with numerous failed business ventures and two divorces.

According to Sage (1998), a small but significant percentage of pro athlete have been convicted for using and abusing drugs, irrespective of the fact that their bodies are their sole sources of livelihoods.  A classic example in this respect is Josh Hamilton who has been charged for abusing coke in the past. In addition, Chris Anderson was also suspended for two years after being convicted for doing drugs. According to studies, he lost an estimated three and a half million dollars in a year. Further, a football star Ricky Williams was suspended for one year in 2006 for failing a drug test because of use of marijuana. Further, Michael Phelps, an Olympic star lost his Kelloggs endorsement deal after being caught smoking bhang. Likewise, Perry (2009) indicates that he lost any form of support from USA swimming. Earlier on, Darryl Strawberry who is a common baseball star had various problems with the law that saw him serve eleven months in prison and probation in 2003 for being found in possession of cocaine.

Statistics also indicate that athletes not only use drugs, but they are also usually convicted of engaging in commercial deals involving drugs (Tuckler  Parks, 2001). This ascertains the initial presumption that athletes who get involved with criminals tend to engage in criminal activities too. In his review Coakley (2004) cites Jamal Lewis who was imprisoned for four months for employing his cellular phone in trying to initiate a drug deal. A more explicit example is presented by Bob Probert, a popular fighter who was imprisoned for ninety days for smuggling cocaine from Canada to US. Earlier on in 1996, Shutler (1996) indicates that Darryl Henley, a former LA Rams star was convicted of drug trafficking and imprisoned for forty one years.

The involvement of athletes in crime on field is a factor that has raised numerous ethical and professional concerns. An example of such an instance is exemplified by the basketball fight between Detroit Pistons and Indiana Pacers. This was initiated by one man who threw a paper cup at a player. Immediately after the cup hit the player, he ran to the stand and broke into a fight with the man. This led to a fight between the players and the fans that culminated in cancellation of the game. The Vikings Love Boat case has also raised various concerns regarding the professional ethics of the players. In this, a couple of players from Minnesota Vikings Football decided to host a party on a boat. Notably, the party involved gambling, women and alcohol. All members in the boat including the athletes were arrested by law enforces and charged with lewd, disorderly and indecent conduct.

In some cases, players have exhibited a high degree of violence even after the game is over. In this respect, Cox (2007) cites Albert Haynesworth who stomped an injured opponent with his cleats. This made the injury even worse and the player had to be stitched after being helped off the pitch. As a result, Albert was given a suspension from five games, during which he did not receive any pay. This marked the longest suspension period that NFL had ever given its player.

Finally, McMahon (2004) indicates that some pro athletes involve themselves in killing. According to studies, Ray Carruth who formerly belonged to Carolina Panthers was imprisoned for close to nineteen years in 2001 after being involved in shooting his girlfriend. In the same year, Ray Lewis pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor and testified against his co defendants in a street fight case that led to death of two men in a bid to avoid murder charges. Further, studies cited Mike Danton, a former NHL player that was accorded a full parole after being sentenced for seven and a half years in prison for a murder-for-hire plot in 2004. The prosecutors contended that the target of this conspiracy was David Frost, who was his agent. However, Danton maintained that the target was actually his father. Ugueth Urbina was also imprisoned for fourteen years for attempted murder after he tried killing five workers that were employed on his family ranch. Most recently, in 2009 Donte Stallworth a Cleveland Browns player pleaded guilty to manslaughter influenced by drunk driving.

From the preceding analysis, it is certain that pro athletes have continuously been involved in criminal activities. The have been attributed to numerous factors that are social, behavioral and economic in nature. Notably, their alarming contribution to crimes calls for urgent intervention measures to counter the situation.



3.1 Introduction
Numerous criminological, sociological and psychological authors have undertaken extensive research in the past in a bid to determine the relationship between the involvement of athletes with criminals and their actual engagement in crime. A survey of literature has generated various assumptions in this respect. The purpose of this chapter is to review the various researches that have been undertaken and analyze the constituent data in order to discern the relationship between athletes involvement with criminals and their engagement in crime.

3.2 Review of Research
In his research, Manning (2005) found out that peer influence is a main factor that contributed to athlete involvement in crime. This study was conducted on a section of adolescents in New York. He employed a sample of seventy one adolescents who participated actively in sports. A significant 98 of this affirmed to have committed a crime either on field or off field. The most cited reason for this was peer pressure followed by aggression and alcohol abuse. The most common crimes committed according to this study were theft and violence. The study also indicated that the athlete males tend to engage in crime more frequently than their female counterparts. The limitation of this study was that it was confined to one institution. Nevertheless, Young (1997) points out that it should be appreciated that the youth tend to portray similar behavior. Therefore the findings can still be applied to other learning institutions especially considering the fact that youth athletes comprise a significant percentage of the athlete population in USA.

Another research conducted by Koven (2002) primarily sought to determine the range of behavioral disorders that influenced the involvement of athletes in crime. Findings implicated alcohol use and abuse, gambling and substance use and abuse as key contributors to addictive and disorderly behavior exhibited by college athletes. It employed a sample size of 185 athletes in an urban school in Philadelphia. Of these 152 affirmed that alcohol had influenced them to participate in violent activities. In addition, 130 of the total population ascertained that they had involved themselves in gambling and betting during competitions. This had in turn influenced them to engage in violence at the end of the competitions.  The study concluded that addictive behaviors contribute a great deal to involvement in crime. It recommended that intervention measures need to be directed at timely prevention of addictive behaviors amongst the youth. However, this study was limited by the fact that the questionnaire employed in the research had not been accredited by the relevant authorities. Nonetheless, its questions were valid and collected vital data that was fundamental in analysis of the issue at hand.

A relative study conducted across the southern States of USA regarding the attributes of criminals indicated that most of them tend to have addictive and compulsive behaviors. In particular, findings indicated that criminals tend to be more aggressive and exhibit high degrees of violence. Further, 86 of the participants were reported to be drug addicts (Raney  Bryant, 2006). This study employed a diverse population that was derived from different social and economic backgrounds. Notably, this was in a bid to eliminate the assumptions associated with crime.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association also conducted a study regarding patterns of substance use amongst college athletes and the relationship of the same with involvement in crime. Findings indicated that alcohol is the most commonly abused drug although amphetamine and steroid are also increasingly being used by athletes (NCAA, 2005). The study found out that athletes get the drugs from criminal gangs. Thus it can be posited that the involvement of college athletes with criminals contributes to their involvement in crime.

In his comparative research to determine the causes of involvement of college students in crime, McCrory (2007) found out that most students who involved in crime had a poor economic background. He employed a sample of eighty five students from three different college teams. Using purposive sampling, the study ensured that half of the participants came from poor economic backgrounds. Findings showed that athletes from poor economic backgrounds exhibited more risky behaviors than their counterparts. A multivariate analysis indicated that such athletes were thrice more likely to engage in criminal activities than their counterparts from economically rich backgrounds. This according to the study was contributed to by the social environment and the economic challenges that the athletes faced.

Also, Murcia, Gimeno and Coll (2007) conducted a research to determine the behavior of athletes when they are in a group context. Their study employed a sample of four college teams and was conducted over a period of two successive years. Findings indicated that when in a group, athletes tend to exhibit more violence, deviance and aggression when approached than when they are approached as individuals.

Implications of this study were that group environments are very influential and make the innocent athletes to engage in crime. The study concluded that any intervention measures to counter the scenario need to be all inclusive in nature. With regard to association of athletes with criminals, it can be deduced that athletes can be easily manipulated by the criminal behavior of common criminals. This becomes even trickier to address the issue when a significant number of the athletes in a team associate with criminals.

A relative research was conducted by Hardin and Sampsell (2007) and sought to determine the reasons behind increased sexual assault cases by athletes. It employed data generated by electronic sources and it entirely focused on college students. Findings indicated that the segregation of athletes in a same sex group encouraged them to engage in sex crimes such as gang rape. This was because of the influence of peer pressure. The study recommended that college athletes who are convicted of sex crimes need to be given a harsher punishment in order to deter them from involving in the crimes again. Thus there is need to review the current punishment that the athletes are accorded. However, this study was limited by its sole utilization of electronic data. Usually, credibility of such data is compromised by inherent flaws in related reports.
Nevertheless, the study covered a large geographical area and findings have a global application. In his research that sought to find out the causes of crime involving athletes, Perry (2009) found out that the
heroic attitude that deviant stars are accorded influences their team mates to engage in the same. This study employed observation of the level of influence that deviant behavior of the pro athletes had on upcoming champions. He ascertained that young athletes usually emulate the pro athletes and take up most of their behavior. The findings were partially employed in explaining the criminal record within NFL. Apparently, some of the stars admired the violent and criminal behavior of the former stars. The study recommended that counter measures should encourage autonomous thinking.

Current trends indicate that there is an increase in crimes that are perpetuated by athletes. From the analysis, it is certain that various environmental, social and economic factors contribute to the inherent behavioral constraints. In particular, abuse of alcohol and drugs has been identified as one of the key influencing factors that make the athletes engage in crime. Of great reference however are the environmental and economic factors that undermine effective behavioral development of the athletes. Indeed, the hostile environment that is characterized by criminal activities has a significant impact on the behavioral development of athletes. This is further compounded by the lack of vital role models that the young champions need to emulate. Notably, this has led to a vicious circle of criminal activities within the sports sphere. The association of the upcoming athletes with their deviant seniors has compromised the efforts towards eliminating athlete crime. Likewise, the association of athletes with criminals such as drug dealers contributes to the involvement of the same in criminal activities. This reflects that implications of the social learning theory that attributes criminal behavior to various environmental, social and economic factors.



4.1 Introduction
The principle aim of this study was to determine whether the involvement of athletes with criminals contributed to their involvement in criminal activities. To do this, it employed a survey methodology that gathered information from athletes regarding the influence of the criminal environment on their behavior. A self administered interview schedule was employed in data collection. Self administration of the interview enhanced the quality of the data and ensured correct interpretation of the questions.

4.2 Sampling Procedure
The sample of the research consisted of this Universitys athlete team (100) and post graduate sports students pursuing criminology regardless of whether they belonged to the college team or not (100). Because the interest in athlete crime is introduced to the criminology students at an undergraduate level, there lacked evidence that suggested possible differences in perception of athlete crime for both samples. The sample had a total of 200 participants. This was necessary in order to capture the varied views of the participants. The choice of the sample employed purposive and later random sampling. Purposive sampling ensured that the views of the athletes are captured in the study. In addition, it aimed at authenticating the data collected by employing persons that are well versed with the dynamics of athlete crime. Then simple random sampling sought to eliminate bias and prejudice by according the entire population and equal chance to participate in the survey.

4.3 The Interview Schedule
The interview schedule was administered by ten interviewees over a period of three months. These underwent a comprehensive training for one week before proceeding to the field. It was necessary to review the interview schedule with them in order to ensure efficient collection of data. This ensured that the interviewees had sufficient time to collect as much information as possible. The long period was also influenced by the frequent participation of the college team in external competitions that left minimal time for data collected. The interview schedule comprised of questions that directed the interviewee during data collection. These were in line with the objectives of the study and they included factors influencing athlete involvement in crime, frequency of athlete involvement with criminals, effect of the relationship between athletes and criminals and finally, the implications of the social and economic environment to the behavior of athletes.

The factors influencing athlete involvement in crime were categorized into four main groups. The first group was environmental factors that comprised of the aggressive nature of the game and the nature of the rules employed in playing the game. The second group comprised of social factors that entailed influence from politicians, the public and the media. Economic factors were in the third group and constituted the poor economic background of the athletes. Finally, the behavioral factors included the behavioral constraints that the athletes assume after continued interaction with the social, environmental and economic factors. Before responding to this variable, the interviewees were expected to clearly explain to the respondents the constituents of the various groups of factors and how they affect the involvement of athletes in criminal activities. Also, probing was encouraged in order to collect more relative information.

With regard to the frequency of the involvement of athletes with criminals, the respondents were expected to answer as either always, frequent, less frequent or never. Always in this respect meant that they involved themselves with any type of criminals at least once every week, frequent meant they involved themselves with the criminals at least once every month, less frequent implied that the athletes involved themselves with criminals at least once every three months and never meant that they did not involve themselves with the criminals at all. Involvement with criminals according to this study was defined as any association with any form of illegal gang, person or group including their very team that assumed criminal activities.

The effect of their involvement with the criminal gangs was an open ended question that expected the respondents to explain the implications of their involvement with criminals. However, during coding, the reasons were grouped in to criminal behavior and non criminal behavior. Finally, the respondents were expected to explain how the social and economic environment contributed to their involvement in criminal activities. Again, this was also an open ended question although the findings were grouped in to criminal and non criminal influences.

4.4 Variables
The hypothesis comprised of both the dependent and independent variable. The dependent variable was the involvement of athletes with criminals and the independent variables were the implications of this involvement and other causes of athlete involvement in crime.

4.5 Limitations of the Survey
There were various limitations of this survey that had the capacity to compromise the quality of the findings. To begin with, the sample employed the convenient college age population that was not representative of the entire athlete population. In this regard, it is worth noting that the concerns of the youth athletes are quite different from those of the professional athletes. In addition, statistics indicate that professional athletes commit more severe crimes than the youth. Thus it can be presumed that the two segments of the population engage in crime for different reasons. However, considering the fact that they have similar experiences, the results can be generalized.

Further, there were more men than women in the sample. This could have skewed the results that were related to causes of crime. Generally, it is certain that male athletes engage in more crime than the female athletes. However, emergent concerns such as the use of steroid are increasingly involving women athletes.  It would therefore be imperative for future research in this respect to use a more diverse sample that would be more representative of the athletes.

5.1 Results
With regard to the factors that contributed to athlete involvement in crime, 62 of the population contended that behavioral constraints were responsible for the involvement of athletes in crime. This was followed by the environmental factors which were supported by 24 of the population. 10 of the population believed that the social factors influenced the athletes to engage in illegal activities. Finally, 6 of the population blamed economic reasons for the involvement of athletes in crime.

Regarding the frequency of involvement in criminal activities, this study found out that 74 of the athlete population always involved itself with criminals. 15 of the respondents contended that they involved with the illegal persons frequently. 8 believed that they involved with the criminals less frequently. Sadly, only 3 of the athletes contended that they never involved themselves with the criminals at any time and in any way. A significant 84 of the population affirmed that their association with criminals influenced them to involve in criminal activities. Only 16 of the population believed that the activities that they engaged in after involving themselves with criminals were not illegal.

With respect to the influence of the socio and economic environment to their involvement in crime, 53 of the population believed that negative aspects of the social and economic environment influenced them to engage in criminal activities. However, the remaining 47 believed that the social and economic environment did not influence them in any way to engage in crime.

5.2 Discussion
Notably, behavioral constraints can be largely blamed for the increased involvement of athletes in criminal activities. These findings complement the theoretical conception that indicated that criminal behavior can be easily learned in a social environment. Remarkably the interplay between economic, social and environmental facets of the athletes life increases their vulnerability to criminal activities. This implies that the athletes can also be easily manipulated by their immediate environment to engage in crime. Notably, environmental factors that can be considered inevitable also influence the athletes. As indicated in the literature review, most of the sports require the employment of aggression and force. This is instilled in the players at a tender age and it contributes significantly to their competence.  However, in order to avoid detrimental effects, the athletes need to be more resistant to other social and economic aspects that can be easily controlled.

Unlike the previous studies that had ascertained that the athletes seldom engage in criminal activities, this studies found out that a significant percentage of the athlete population involved in illegal activities. These ranged from gambling, theft, violence and drug use and abuse to sexual offenses and physical assault. In most cases, they did this in groups and were seldom convicted for them. From their viewpoint, they considered the activities very minor. However, it should be appreciated that these tend to escalate and become more pronounced with time (Chandler, Johnson  Caroll, 1999 Paccagnella  Grove, 1997). Intervention measures in this regard need to be directed at preventing involvement in such activities.

The study found out that the association of the athletes with criminals influenced their involvement in crime. This finding complements previous findings in the literature review and theoretical construct that indicated that disorganized environments contributed a great deal to development of defiant behavior. Contrary to the expectations of the researcher, 47 of the population believed that social and economic factors did not contribute significantly to the involvement of the athletes in crime. Thus it can be ascertained that the media reports that are presented to the public are not just an over involvement in their private life but an actual revelation of their engagement in criminal activities.



6.1 Introduction
In the current society, both professional and college athletes play a vital role of representing their respective institutions and offering mentoring services to the society respectively. Their involvement in crime has led to their punishment by their leagues and the criminal justice system as well as increased publicity. Various factors have been suggested to be causes of their increased involvement in crime. Evaluating the relationship between their association with criminals and their involvement in crime has yielded various concerns.

6.2 Conclusion
The discipline, social status and public appearance of athletes are predicated by their active involvement in athletics. Their involvement in illegal activities has had far reaching implications on the society that they represent. This has been contributed to by their association with criminals. It should be appreciated that the current holistic environment is characterized by an increase in crime and the implications of this are being reflected through athlete crime. Coupled with the nature of the athletics that requires them to employ a significant degree of aggression, this has increased their vulnerability to involvement in crime. Of great concern in this respect however is the fact that the athletes assume criminal behavior from their association with criminals.

From the study, it can be ascertained that the factors leading to athlete involvement with criminals are intricate and augmenting in nature. Indeed, the social, environmental, economic and behavioral factors interplay to influence the athletes. This has further been compounded by the decreased autonomy that the athletes portray especially regarding decision making. The review of research affirms that group environments tend to influence the decision making of the athletes. Since it is certain that the behavioral constraints are entirely learned from the social environment, effective ameliorative measures need to be directed at improving the overall environment of these individuals. Notably, this requires collaboration between major stakeholders.

Interest of Justice versus the Need for Finality

I believe that the federal courthouse ought to be opened up for other prisoners as well. The issue of punishment for prisoners in the country through the different penal codes stipulated in the law has never ceased to elicit mixed reactions  some quite bitter  from different people across the countrys states. And the very fact that each of these states has its own jurisdiction and so the power to punish law offenders in its own way different from the federal government adds to the controversy regarding the justification of this separation and isolation of prisoners. Of even more concern is the justification behind sentencing criminals to execution particularly putting into consideration the kind, nature, and extent of the evidence upon which such sentences are based (Bergman, 2008). It follows, therefore, that there has to be a clear demarcation between the need for a final court ruling and the interest of justice. This essay critically explores the correlation between these intricate issues with a view to establishing where this demarcation, if any, ought to be, and how it will impact the administration of justice both at the state and federal levels.

The Federal Courthouse
The fact that the federal courthouse has continued to be closed to offenders of different crimes is responsible for both increases in the number of habeas petitions as well as the undue and unjustified delay of determining cases on many law offenders (Cole, 2006). This issue has been made even more complicated considering the fact that the government has introduced the antiterrorism law in the constitution which in a way gives law enforcement officers the right to continually detain or hold under custody suspected terrorists without undergoing trial in a court of law for a rather longer period of time. Before the passing and adoption of this controversial law, there were enough cases pending before state courts all waiting for a proper time to be heard. Yet the federal courthouse could not as much as admit any such detainees to speed up the process.

It is illegal and against the law to continually hold a suspect in custody for too long without subjecting himher to any form of trial because as long as ones guilt has not been established or ascertained by a court of law, then every suspect ought to be treated as innocent (Cole, 2006). As such, it is wrong to hold an innocent citizen. Although it has been argued by the law enforcement agents that the reason behind the holding of people in custody for a longer period of time is to give way for investigations to proceed, or to ensure that law offenders whose cases relate to serious matters of national security are prevented from either fleeing or causing further harm to people or threat to security, this reason has never been good enough as in certain instances even such prisoners have been denied trial at the federal courthouse (Cole, 2006). Instead, what have come to be the norm are the continued and protracted legal battles in the form of habeas petitions  with different people challenging the legality of the continued holding of suspects without trial.

Short-Circuited Justice the Need for a Federal Review
The fact that there is a federal review of the cases that have been heard in other state courts and either determined or awaiting a ruling is proof enough that there is a tendency for justice to be denied where it is due. The insistence of only one review is never close to the need that some of these prisoners, especially those on death row, want to have. These people have suffered long enough in the hands of the law enforcement agencies and yet they know so well that they are not guilty even if rulings were made to that effect. They are so desperate for a review of their cases if that can be possible, but even more desirable is the possibility to do away with this short-circuiting by allowing the federal courthouse to hear and determine the cases (Cole, 2006).

This will not only reduce the huge burden on the federal courts regarding the innumerable habeas petitions but will also ensure that only those suspects deserving a given punishment indeed get it. When it comes to the prisoner on death row, their psychological and physical suffering is great as they await the implementation of their sentence as per the ruling of a state court (Cole, 2006). This suffering would be alleviated if their cases would be heard by the federal court. Their suffering aside, the issue of allowing for the review of only certain special cases or those requiring a particularly special attention is contrary to the rule of law in this country as is entrenched in the constitution. This is especially so because there is nothing as a special case in any law of this country. Therefore, unless the specialty of certain cases over others is clearly explained, it is not right to have continued hearing of cases on that basis. In fact, all cases are supposed to be treated with the same degree of urgency and priority unless stated otherwise.

Then there has to be a clear order to be followed when the federal courthouse has to review some of these cases. It ought not to be just a matter of the court exercising its mandate in discharging justice but there has to be an understanding of the underlying issues in a case before it is referred to the court. This is because everyone will consider hisher case as very important and will feel discriminated if it is not granted a hearing or a review at the federal courthouse.

There has been the nagging issue of habeas petitions which, no matter how many times they are presented before a court of law challenging the supposed continued unlawful withholding a given suspect, the outcome is almost always certain  no success. If the chances of success of these petitions are as negligible as they are, and yet the chances that a suspect will not get the right and deserved justice are also very minimal, wont it be only wise that entire legal procedures around such issues of petition and miscarriage of justice be overhauled and better ones  that is from the point of view of the prisoners suspects themselves  instituted to take their place For the law is only the law if it is capable of arbitrating between any two contending sides in a manner that is just. Where is the justice in the state courts when there are so many appeals Or how can there be justice at the federal courthouse when there is justice to those who file habeas appeals To this end, I believe that the course of justice ought to be given preminence over other legal formalities like the need for a final ruling. The federal courthouse ought to be opened up for all cases.

Criminology for the Society

In my quest of being the best that I can be in my chosen field of expertise, integrity, honor, and service have always been the guiding principles that served as my basis in every decision that I have been faced with.  Having graduated from the Dubai Police College in UAE in 1999 with a degree in Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice, and after spending 13 years in the service that it has earned me the rank of Major, these principles still form the very foundation of my reason for choosing this profession.

However, being aware of the necessity of constantly bettering ones self for the benefit of the society that one has chosen of serving, I furthered my education in police methods by finishing my Masters Degree in Criminal Sciences and General Security from the Police Academy, College of Higher Education, Ministry of the Interior, in Egypt in 2003.  Without a doubt, this had benefited me with added competence in my areas of specialization, namely in crimes of money, crimes of passion, and maritime crimes.  Worth noting is the field of maritime crime, since I came from a nation whose small area is accentuated by a relatively long coastline, making apprehensions of violators in this field a very challenging endeavor.  Because of my dedication on these fields, I have received numerous promotions and commendations from my superiors, where as of the present, I am assigned to the Branch Office of Planning and Studies of the General Command of the Abu Dhabi Police Department, with the primary responsibility of staffing the police academy, create and supervise training programs, and establish optimal standards for our police officers.

Primarily because of the unfortunate reality that criminal minds change and adapt accordingly with the advancements in technology, especially with the dawning of the computer age, the Abu Dhabi Police has developed a strategy that hopes to combat this prevalence by instilling among its members the necessary technicalacademic trainings from the best universities in the world.  With this, I was fortunate to having been nominated of the distinction of furthering my skills in modern criminal investigation using scientific methods in collecting forensic evidences from the field, with hopes of eventually adding this to the existing base knowledge which will further improve our young officers skills in evidence gathering from the onset of their police education.

Being successful in my pursuit of furthering my education will certainly improve not only my skills, but as well as the competence of our entire nations police force, as this will allow me to learn from the premier university that specializes in my own filed of expertise.  Likewise, this will result in our having a more stable and peaceful national internal security, which can only result in gaining further economic successes for the good of the citizens.  It is my personal mission to disseminate whatever added knowledge I may attain from learning from an esteemed academic institution, back to my colleagues in Abu Dhabi for the advancement of the general crime preventive capabilities of my countrys police force.

The choice of applying to the University of South Florida for my doctorate degree comes only logically, as this institution possesses of a distinguished reputation of being included in the elite company of the best universities offering the aforementioned course.  I likewise believe that I can be a progressive contributor to the diversity of the student populace, especially with the profession that I had chosen, and in the societal make-up that is prevalent in almost all modern and dynamic societies.  It is my utmost aspiration, then, that I be given the opportunity to further my knowledge and a chance to be of further service to the society whose only aspiration is to live in peace and in harmony.  

Family Law

Family law addresses important issues directly affecting the family dynamic.   A childless couple is representative of a form of family whether or not the couple is married or unwed.  When there is a break in the family structure, topics of divorce, marital property, custody, visitation, and child support are raised.  An individuals past behaviors can prove to be one of the many determining factors concerning familial law arguments.  This paper will address the constant deciding factors with regard to how a court generally rules.  Exceptions to the norm will be examined in contrast to the aforementioned generalizations.  Family is a simple comfort until subjected to the courtroom.

There is much excitement and anticipation when a couple exchanges the vows that create the bond of matrimony.  Another wave of excitement is validated when a child is born to a couple.  Children are born to both married and unmarried couples equally within society today, and this has become an acceptable form of a family unit.  A breakdown in the family dynamic is the end result for many reasons.  Divorce and custody cases are common in family courts as well as cases requiring a judicial disposition on the issues of child support, visitation, and the division of marital property and its distribution.  Family court dockets are often flooded with individuals seeking clarification and closure.
When a couple marries, the words till death do us part are exchanged during traditional wedding nuptials.  Sadly, this is not always the case.  Spouses and couples decide daily to seek out the dissolution of marriage for various reasons.  It is common in divorce cases, excluding a no-fault divorce, that a court must determine the proper division of all marital property.  Marital property refers to all property acquired throughout the legal boundaries of the marriage.  A court then decides how to assign the property.  This action is referred to the Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act (UMDA).  The other form of legal division of marital property is equitable distribution.
An important key point and provision allowed in the UMDA provides that all marital property be split fifty-fifty between each spouse despite how it was possessed.  This method of property distribution is not often favored, but rather separate property division through equitable distribution is a more likely choice.

Equitable distribution is a more fair and flexible means to divide the property of a marriage.  Separate property is determined by how it emerged. It is usually excluded in all phases of equitable distribution.  This type of property is commonly gained via an inheritance, gift, legal agreement between spouses, or compensation for personal injury.  The process of distribution in a divorce proceeding is based on many considerations.  The financial position of each party is weighed heavily due in part to past standards of living, custody of children if children are involved, and offerings made by both spouses.  If the wife were primarily a homemaker, then she is still viewed as having made an ample contribution to the marriage.  Similar factors included are the age and health of each spouse and the value of the property in question.  Another important issue considered during the process of equitable distribution involves any outstanding debts held by one or both spouses during the course of the marriage.  Although equitable distribution takes a little longer, it is clearly fairer than the UMDAs provision allowing a fifty-fifty split of all property.
The second dispute seen frequently in the family court system involves questions surrounding custody and the decision making factor.  Custody decisions are primarily based on information provided to the court through several accredited sources.  These sources include but are not limited to counsel for either the mother or father, a guardian et litem appointed to protect the best interest of the child(ren), counselors, school officials, and sometimes family and friends.  The mother has generally been granted custody of any child in the past, but this practice is quickly becoming the rule of yesteryear.  Mothers are most looked upon to provide the necessary nurturing and caregiving needed to help the child overcome the trauma of the separation and divorce of the parents during and after the fact.  The father has been viewed in the past as not having the necessary time to devote to the rearing of the child.  Fathers were usually the breadwinners of the household which required many hours to be spent away from home, unavailability to attend school functions, and the need to employ outside caregivers for the child in his absence.  For these reasons, a father was typically deemed unfit as the primary custodian of a child.  The family court still holds firm in striving to do what is in the best interest of any child involved in a custody dispute, however the past criterion used to render this decision has changed to include the wishes of the child.
The parents past and present conduct allows the family court to draw a more founded conclusion concerning the fitness of a parent.  Topics involving domestic violence, any sexual misconduct records, abuse and neglect of a child, and drug and alcohol addictions are some of the most urgent matters addressed .  Mothers and fathers have a very different list of pros and cons whereby custody matters lie.  Mothers tend to become more easily burned out due to the demands of undertaking the role of both parents in the absence of the father.  Mothers have become more self-reliant financially requiring employment outside of the home.  This quickly dismisses the past role as a stay-at-home mom.  Peer relations and romantic interests have caused areas of concern as the childs needs are often overlooked in order for the mother to reignite a once lost social life.  Fathers are now recognized as wanting to take on a more active role in the parenting process.  Many fathers are employed and have returned to school for additional training and skills as a means to better financially support the child.  The mental health of the father has been noted to be more stable in essence providing a more stable and structured environment.  Mothers and fathers are both given fair opportunity within the court to verify why he or she is more adept to meet the physical, emotional, and financial needs of a child.  During past decades it has become apparent that the Tender Years Doctrine is outdated much of the time.  Fathers are standing up for their rights recurrently, while the mothers are giving way to standing down.
The third and final matter to be discussed is that of visitation and child support.  This is an ongoing theme in the family court system and is rarely decided with just a few appearances.  In this focus, the child is sometimes allowed to voice his or her wishes as to what kind of visitation is desired.  Visitation can be worked out between the parents without mediation in some occurrences, but the final approval and disposition must always be endorsed by the family court.  It is a misconstrued belief that in order for the non-custodial parent to receive visitation, then he or she must be current on all child support payments.  These two issues are separate and not correlated in any way.  Visitation meets the emotional needs of a child while child support meets the financial needs of the child.
When a non-custodial parent has failed to meet the child support ruling of a court, the custodial parent will sometimes try to with-hold visitations with the child until the debt is paid.  This is neither legal nor is it emotionally productive for the child.  Visitations are intended to strengthen the parental relationship.

According to Gold, visitations provide a positive correlation between a childs self-esteem and a good father mother-child relationship.  Unfortunately, with-holding visitations from a parent who has fallen behind in paying child support, is usually done so out of retaliation and anger.  This becomes an argument between the parents whereby trapping the child in the crossfire.
Rare instances permit the parents to create a child support agreement to be submitted and approved by a family court, but ultimately the child support order is handed down by the presiding court with jurisdiction.  A state agency has been fashioned to handle issues of child support.  Each state employs a Bureau or Division of Child Support Enforcement (DCSE).  This agency is bound to uphold all court orders of support, but it also has the legal ability to bequeath administrative orders of support based on information collected from either parental party.  The DCSE is able to implement specific methods for establishing a regular receipt of support.  The agency can locate an absent parent, initiate a wage withhold, intercept any federal and state tax refunds, place liens on personal property, revoke a business or driver license, impose jail terms for continued non-payment, and establish support orders administratively as well as within the family court.  The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 has denoted the power of establishing paternity through the DCSE as a means of instituting a support order.  An absent parent who refuses to pay support may find it more difficult to hide from the obligation.  The Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA) was established to follow and find parents who flee the state boundaries in order to evade making payments.  Employers are now mandated to screen new hires through a process that checks for outstanding child support debt.  If it is found that a new hire owes back child support payments, a wage withhold can be imposed sequentially to begin collecting the court ordered payments.
The family court is over burdened with issues that seem intrusive into ones personal life, however these courts are needed to remedy issues that require mediation and resolve. Divorce not only legally voids a contract of marriage, but when children are involved, it also breaches a family dynamic. Material property is amicably divided to satisfy the needs and rights of the disputing parties. Visitation and support are obligations and responsibilities held by both parents. They are not legal tools to be used to torment and harass one another. Custody is always sought for the best interest of the child, although what may be in the best interest of the child today can change tomorrow as financial, physical, and mental circumstances may also vary.  Consequently, ones list of priorities may change as well.  Nothing is guaranteed to last forever.

Multicultural Issues in Criminal Justice

Some people are lucky to carry the fond childhood memories of watching the characters of Spanky and Alfalfa from the age old re-runs of The Little Rascals.  This television program was also called Our Gang in later airings. The group of pre-pubescent boys were led by the deep thinking Spanky, and they were easily amused by his high-strung counterpart named Alfalfa.  Within their gang of friends, there existed an inner group called the He-man women haters club.    Hollywood has allowed us to believe that the only crimes ever committed by this group of   youngsters were playing hooky from school, stealing a crme puff pastry from a local bakery, and an occasional breaking of a window with a ball.  Unfortunately, the gangs in existence in present day America are neither mild mannered nor are they as superficial.  Some gangs are here one day and gone tomorrow without ever having been noticed, but there has been a recent trend in the emergence of a more serious group of gangs throughout the United States.  These groups are predominantly of Asian and Latino decent, and they have proven to be dominating the criminal justice system as well as the communities in which they live.
A gang is a group of people who act in unison for criminal purposes or in order to instill fear and intimidation into prospective victims.  Asian and Latino gangs have migrated into the United States since the late 1960s for the purpose of newfound freedom and opportunity.  Amidst the relocation process, adapting to the new surroundings became frustrating and overwhelming to many of the newcomers.  Instead of opting to plunge forward with the determination to succeed, many chose to create their own path.  This carved path has led to self-destruction and community havoc.
Asian and Latino gangs share many commonalities.  Both groups thrive on financial gain through the trafficking and sale of illegal drugs.  These drugs are brought into the United States by means of their own members from Canada, Mexico, and from ships docking from overseas.  The illegal business of drug trafficking is quite organized.  Criminal enterprise is not just achieved by means of drugs, but it is also done through prostitution, auto theft, gambling, identity theft, and counterfeiting money.  Money laundering is a common item on the agenda for financial success and survival within the confines of gang life.  The only goal of each gang is to be the one who controls everything.  This includes territories such as neighborhoods and housing projects, but also includes the unwritten kickbacks from local smaller legitimate businesses that are forced to pay these gangs to avoid retaliation.
Gang members are easily characterized by the colors worn, tattoos, and signs made by hand gesturing.  Both Asian and Latino gangs possess little if any respect for authority in any form.  They often speak of living shortened lives or foresee prison as a future home.  Many own an entourage of firearms and weaponry for personal protection, but what is really being sheltered is the fragile ego of the individual.  Members from either gang are strongly at odds over territorial space.  These street battles have a tendency to erupt into bloody acts of violence with each gang defending future alleged positions.
Recruitment and acceptance into either a Latino or Asian gang is not a simple process.  Persons aspiring to join the ranks of one of these clusters often do so because of the following reasons  struggle to adapt make a living alternative form of family, protection, socio and economic stress, and intimidation.  Joining a gang is a matter of personal choice despite poorly stated allegations indicating otherwise.  Females are joining these criminal affiliations at an alarming rate.  Their male counterparts make no effort to provide them an easier naturalization process into the group.  Each female is either beaten by members of the gang in order to prove her ability to fight back, or she is gang raped by the male members of the gang in order for her to prove her loyalty and undying dedication to the group.  Males wishing to enlist in as a member of the band of hooligans must prove his loyalty and dedication by either being beaten in or by randomly selecting an innocent bystander and committing murder.  Once someone has joined the ranks of the crew, it is virtually impossible to ever resign.
As was stated briefly before, groups of gangs function almost like miniature enterprises.  These groups hold elections to appoint leaders in different jurisdictions of occupancy.  They hold regular meetings to keep all members abreast of the coming events or of events that have previously transpired.  Rules are written so that everyone is aware of what is expected and what will not be tolerated under any circumstances.  The latter is most redundant since these are groups of individuals who lack the simple integrity required to hold a job and be self sufficient.  
Communities and towns are apprehensive and anxious over the growing number of unfavorable people.  Families are fearful for their personal safety as for those in their immediate family units.  Crime rates begin to soar because gang members do not generally hold legitimate employment and must compensate for their financial needs and desires.  Asian gangs, however will most often target members of their own ethnicity for criminal behavior.  The reason behind this is simply because Asian people rarely bother to report any criminal behavior to the police.  Husbands and wives sit back in disgust as they watch their home and property value plummet due to the neighborhood value dropping like a bowling ball out of the sky.  Community members become upset when they find their personal property vandalized and their property stolen.  Neighborhood watches are organized in an attempt to combat against a neighborhood takeover at the hands of the Asian and Latino gangs.  Memberships to the community service organizations is small due to the level of intimidation imposed neighborhood residents by resident gang members.  An unspoken bias is prevalent in many communities affected by gang presence due to the visible demise of the district.  This bias has been known to erupt into all out racism and discrimination, which in turn creates a very hostile living environment and increases the level of threat to public safety.
Racial issues are not only existent in the communities in which townspeople and gang members live, but they are also alive and well within the gangs themselves.  Asian gangs are designated as an ethnic gang.  They carry deep resentment towards other races due in part to being largely outnumbered.  Their immigration into the United States held great promise for triumph and a new beginning.  Unfortunately, obstacles such as language barriers have made these chances for achievement less than attainable.  Gangs appear to thrive where there is suburban and decay in communications.
Inhabited localities continue to be impacted by groups of gangs of many kinds.  Latino gangs are more visible while the Asian gangs have preferred to remain more secluded.  These street gangs go by various names.  The chart below lists the names, approximate population number, and number of areas occupied in the United States (National Gang Intelligence Center in 2009).

At the present time, there are seven Latino Prison gangs in the United States.  These gangs perform business and keep constant connections with the satellite branches of other gangs from the inside.
The criminal justice system has taken quite a beating over trying to find a positive and productive way in combating the recent rise in criminal gang related activity.  New disciplinary training for staffs of correctional facilities, juvenile detention centers, and members of law enforcement have been formulated in order to be better prepared and protected.  Police officers are being educated in other languages so that communication can be more effective when responding to a call.  Special gang task forces are being headed, community policing, and community seminars and education are also being incorporated as a preventative measure as well as to better equip law enforcement in the job of protecting and serving the community. Criminal behavior among gang members has grown increasingly dangerous.  Drug trafficking is one of the major illegal behaviors cited, but homicides, murder, auto thefts, and extortion are just a few of the activities surrounding gang behavior.  Gang members do not seem threatened by deportation or going to jail.  Gang members view going to jail as being adorned with a badge of honor.  Many Latino gangs are covertly tied to the Mexican Mafia prison gang.  Suffice it to say, when a gang member is sent to jail it becomes somewhat of a family reunion.  The adult criminal justice system in Phoenix, Arizona encompasses Latino gang members accounting for 59 of males and 41 of females. The jails and prisons in the United States are becoming overrun with convicted gang members.

The criminal justice system has also encountered yet another obstacle when dealing with gang related criminal activity.  Witnesses to criminal gang behavior are being intimidated and threatened to keep quiet and not to testify.  It is a citizens duty to uphold the law and to cooperate with police officials when investigating a crime.  When a gang member or members take it upon themselves to accost a witness in order to retain their freedom, then the courts need to push for a stiffer penalty for obstruction of justice.  Families of potential witnesses have also reported being intimidated as to discourage the witness from testifying in court.  A study was conducted in 1990 by the Victims Service Agency in New York, and the following was discovered  36 of victims and witnesses were threatened 57 of victims and witnesses were not threatened but they feared retaliation witnesses received harassing phone calls, witnesses had cars park outside of their homes preventing them from leaving their residence, property damage including bricks thrown through windows, fire bombs, and a home being set ablaze.
Juvenile gang offenders are entering into the juvenile criminal justice system as young as the age of six.  Programs have been implemented in the juvenile detention facilities in order to provide deprogramming to gang members.  USA Today reported that 40 of the juveniles currently being detained in juvenile detention facilities are in fact gang members.  They also added that there are over one million gang members being held in the United States prison system today whereby 80 of all crimes committed were by gang members or were gang related.  Juveniles are exposed to gang activity on a daily basis including in the school systems. Children see violence and victimizing every day.  Body searches for drugs and guns when entering a public school is a regular occurrence for students now.
Prison guards have been given a special list of disciplinary actions to be taken against juvenile offenders who are gang affiliated.  Juvenile offenders are to be segregated and locked down.  There is to be an immediate interruption of all outside communication such as a telephone privilege.  Each situation is managed on a case-by-case basis.  In the worst case scenario, the juvenile offender who simply cannot conform to life in the juvenile detention facility will ultimately be transferred to another facility.  This is due largely in part of the fact that 10.3 of juvenile offenders who are gang members have assaulted the prison staff.
The United States is in a very critical state of dilemma.  Illegal aliens are rushing over the borders with no idea or means to survive unless they join a gang as a last resort.  The economic drain that gang related crimes is putting on the taxpayers is astounding.  Unfortunately, there is likely more criminal behavior to come.  Gang members are joining at younger and younger ages.  The poor influence that juveniles are encountering from being exposed to gang life does nothing but encourage long-term delinquency.  Members of the community are stifled by the generalized fear and anxiety that they feel.  The United States needs tougher laws and the provisions that would allow those laws to be enforced to the fullest extent of the law.  Gang members, who are arrested, even if only on a misdemeanor offense, should not be afforded a low bail.  Bail should be set high enough to keep the gang member locked up.  Members of the community need to stand together and reclaim their neighborhoods.  Citizens should band together and support one another when a member of the community is called to testify against a charged gang member.

Community outreach programs should be inaugurated so that there are feasible outlets and opportunities for safety and answers.  The Asian and Latino gangs are proving to be nothing more than a parasite within the community.  The message needs to be sent out to these gang members letting them know that this kind of unadulterated, careless, anti-social, criminal behavior will not be tolerated here or anywhere in the United States.  Americans are a proud and a determined people.  Americans are a compromising people, too, but this is one issue that America simply cannot ignore any longer.