Analysis of the Study Variables

In any scientific efforts, the researcher aims to establish whether a change in the independent variable is the exact cause of the observed change in the dependent variable. In this study, the lack of self control variable is measured and analyzed to assess whether its variation is the exact cause of bullying. Interpretation of this is for instance, when a student has a high self control, the corresponding likelihood to being a bully is diminished. Hence, self control is established in this study as the independent variable while bullying is the dependent variable (Bullying depends on the degree of self control). To establish the relationship between the variables, the researcher in this study relied on the analysis of statistical data obtained in other observational studies in regard to the role of self control in bullying. The general theory of crime postulated by Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) asserts that a correlation exist between these two variables, that is, low self control is the genesis and main source of deviant behaviors and especially bullying for this study.

Analyzing the Independent Variable
Self control as used in this study is dependent on a variety of factors one, the monitoring of deviant behaviors by parents during the childs developmental stages secondly, socio-economic status such as those related to poverty dynamics and belonging to a minority group such as the Hispanics. There is an increased likelihood that supportive monitoring and correction of deviance behaviors when one was young may improve self control. In this study therefore, there are factors and characteristics that are related to self control that would be measured alongside the primary self control and their relation to bullying analyzed. In this study, a questionnaire was developed in line with Grasmick et al (1993) who  had developed a 24 item (questions) scale that would be used to assess the level of low self control in a respondent. The 24 items in the scale are based on the six dimensions of low self control namely impulsiveness, risk seeking, preference for physical activities, preference for simple tasks, volatile temper and self-centeredness.  Generally a high score in this scale would indicate the respondent to have low self control and therefore likely to be deviant and a bully as expressed by the argument. In all the respondents studied, the aim was to establish their rating on the test after which their deviance characteristics would be assessed.

Analyzing the Dependent Variable
The assertion in this study is that low self control produces deviant behavior and especially bullying in schools. Of importance here would be to establish methods and modalities that can be used to measure bullying using self control as the independent variable. Once the respondents had been tested on their self control, the next step was to subject them to a measure of deviance tool. To measure the respondents deviance behavior, the researcher applied his own well structured close ended questions that required the respondent to answer to questions that are included in part (b) of the questionnaire. The researcher then analyzed data from the two sections of the questionnaires to establish the following ideas which would be used to back the low self control versus bullying correlation.

To establish how many respondents had low self control using the 24 items. (For this study, the 24 items were weighted in a four point Likert scale). For every item, a respondent would score 1-4. Hence, the weight for 1 question would be (432110) and the total weight was (24x10240) which was then converted to a percentage. A respondent who had a total score of 75 and above was regarded as having low self control while those who scored less than 25 considered as having high self control.

To establish how the individual respondents scored in their bullying test. In this test, five questions were used, weighted in Likert Scale and converted to a percentage. For the purpose of the study, a respondent who scored over 60 in this section was considered a bully.

To establish a correlation between (i) and (ii) above. If those who scored high in (i) scored high in (ii), then the study would effectively assert that respondents who had low self control were actually bullies and therefore support the hypothesis.

Control Variables
According to a controlled variable is a parameter other than the main independent variable that may influence the dependent variable. The two variables used in this study are co-relational. However, there are several factors identified in the study as having a significant influence on the dependent variable in addition to low self control.  Socio-demographic factors such as gender, socio-economic status, age and academic achievement are significantly related to bullying. Males are more likely to engage in bullying behavior than females and students from low income family have more possibilities to engage in school bullying. In the current research, gender, age, academic achievement, and parents income were used as control variables in order to examine the relationship between low self control and bullies. The response given by the respondents could have partially been influenced by these factors.


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