Child Abuse

Child abuse can be described as failure andor doing something that may result in harming or exposing the child to the risk of being harmed. Child abuse can take different forms which include physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Child neglect is also considered as another form of child abuse. By learning and understanding the prevalent forms of child abuse, one can be able to intervene, prevent and aid in breaking the cycle of abuse.

Types of child Abuse
Physical abuse involves infliction of physical injuries to the child whether with intent or not. Such injuries are as a result of child beating, kicking, biting, and any other action that leaves the kid nursing physical injuries that may range from mere bruises to severe fractures. Extreme cases may result in death of the victims. Sexual abuse involves any activities by the childs parents, guardian, or caretaker that may be regarded as sexual assault to the kid. Such actions include rape, sodomy, fondling the childs genitals among other indecent actions. Issues of child pornography and exploitation through prostitution are also regarded as child sexual abuse. Emotional abuse involves a pattern of behavior that is detrimental to the childs psychological and emotional development. Emotional abuse may take the form of constant threats to the child, being too critical to the kind, withholding love, and being generally emotionally unsupportive to the kid. Lastly, child neglect involves failure to provide for the childs basic requirements in life.

The issue of child abuse is deeper than once thought, it takes more than mere bruises and fractured bones. Even though physical abuse is easily recognizable due to scars that it leaves behind, other forms are also prevalent. Emotional and sexual forms of child abuse are equally detrimental to the childs well-being and therefore need to be addressed with much vigilance just like the physical form of abuse. Child abuse is a serious concern and the victim usually suffers emotional and physical damage. It is therefore advisable to address the problem before it goes beyond control and have negative repercussions to the child.


Incarceration is an overused and misused form of discipline within the criminal justice system. Crimes involving murder, rape, child molestation, robbery, and kidnapping should have mandated periods of imprisonment.  Simpler crimes such as passing a bad check, shoplifting, and simple possession charges are causing the penal system to become less effective and overburdened.  Other avenues of retribution should be examined in order to protect the integrity and level of impact that the prison system so badly needs.
Each state has put into effect statutes and laws requiring convicted offenders to serve a specific amount of time in jail for certain offenses.  This is legislations way of putting a muzzle on society.  It creates the illusion of the problem having been solved.  Inmates are serving up to five years in prison for passing up to three bad checks, while another inmate could be serving less than two years for an involuntary manslaughter conviction.  The legislative branch has taken upon itself the task of making mountains out of mole hills for public approval, but society is paying for it in full every day.
The current prison system in the United States is in need of reconstruction.  States that have discontinued a parole or probation system should be allotted the necessary grant funding in order to rekindle the programs.  These programs should take on new provisions and guidelines.  Alternatives to serving time should be given to each state.  Research grant funding to study the use of work release programs, community based services, reporting centers, and other methods for alternative punishment should be made a top priority.  Prisons are becoming institutions for criminal higher learning.  The effectiveness and lessons that should be learned are being reduced to mere ink on paper.  Offenders are viewing their sentences as laughable due to the overcrowding problems.  These convicted offenders know that their stay in any jail or penitentiary will be short lived at best.

The Japanese Yakuza

The yazuka people hold one of the very dense histories on earth which has its traces and origin from the Tokugawa era.  The period of shogunate is a time when leyasu Tokugawa raised into power and fought towards the unification of Japan. The paper discusses and delves into the historical background of the yazuka, the structure of the yazuka, the different yazuka families, their activities, taboos and cultural practices such as yubizume as well as the relationships of the yazuka people with other citizens, law and their political influences. In conclusion, the paper touches upon the stretch of the yazuka people in other areas of the world such as the United States of America.

Yakuza is a Japanese name that refers to mafia or gangsters. It is actually a well organized Japanese gangster troop which is divided into two thousand families. These families are composed of approximate 100 thousand members. However, regardless of their infamous appearance and brutal nature, the police and even the community has no problem with them and accept their existence. Yamaguchi-gumi is the highest ranked yakuza family sumiyoshi-kai, toa-kai and inagawa-kai are the other families within the family.

Yakuza family history can be traced back to the time of Tokugawa Shogunate. During that time there was high unemployment crisis because of the economic and political instability. These issues left many of the samurai warriors without work hence nothing to cater for their families and themselves. Trading industries was their best option to survive, those who did not fit here ended up to thievery and other unworthy behavior to support their lives. They were called the ronin.

The Yazuka Families
Yakuza are almost beautiful as the Italian Mafias, they follow the familial system. However, the uniqueness within them is that these families are not necessary based on blood relationships, but adoption plays a key role in uniting them and bringing them together. Yakuza value the idea of bushido-the manner in which the samurai inculcate their way of living.  The connection that characterizes the yakuza families, in particular between the person in charge of the family and the devotee, is based on high levels of intelligence, respect and loyalty.

Yakuza family members are always noticeable because of the way they dress, the cars they drive and the tattoos they have all over their bodies. Something else to check is whether they have a missing fingure. In most cases they cut off their small fingers if they have some misunderstanding with a member of the family or a leader. They also get themselves involved in other crime related events such as illegal sale of drugs, smuggling, prostitution and many others.

The tide of society in Japan influences the fall or rise in strength of the Yakuza. It is estimated that a number of them rose from eighty thousand to hundred and ten members between 1945 and 1996. Same organizations usually claim that the Yakuza population is underestimated in a way by the Japanese police since the police rely on figures that are found in the confiscated membership records.

The activities and relationship of the yazuka people with the citizens and the law and their political influence
These groups were evolved under key figures like Toyama Mitsuru of 19th century to the current status. The Genyoka society was established by the son of samurai, Amur River society was established by Ryohei Uchida which is in other words referred to as the Black Dragons. Due to their history, they are very influential in labor unions, providing muscle to control labor unions, and providing unspecified services to the community for a diversity of gangland products in vice and smuggled goods. The accommodation acceptance of the Yakuza among the police, political parties, government, and underground societies is like an accepted life component in Japan. The groups are considered internationally as celebrities of crime.

As Japan became industrialized, the yakuza were not left behind but followed Japans deploying society. They started engaging themselves in the recruitment of laborers in the construction sector and also worked along the docksides. They advanced to the rickshaw business and still got themselves engaged. Sorta was one of their gambling events during that time since the police were busy dealing with bakuto-gangs.  Tekiya on the opposing side flowered and extended in view of the fact that most of their activities were not considered as  illegal  by the outside of society. Yakuza began to build up their attention and strategies for surviving and they began joining hands and establishing relationships with some political officials.

Yakuza began to lend hands to the system in order to get some favors from the government and still to minimize the harassment from the system. In around 1925, Japan had an emperor who proved to the rest of the world that he was better than the aristocrats. Thus, Japan initiated a civic vote in 1925.  Some years later the communist and socialist political parties were formed. At that time some of the officials that were under the emperor did not support democracy. Following the 1926 depression in economy in the world brought some tensions between Japan and the western world.

The western countries took an advantage of this weakness and found other underground organizations in Japan, they trained them on how to blackmail, assassinate, warfare and other things. As a result of this, the prime minister and numerous politicians were killed. The political wing of yakuza gave the arms and the support needed to accomplish these tasks.

After the Second World War the American army was not at ease with the Yakuza and they perceived them as potential threats to their security. They started to investigate their activities keenly. Due to the policy of rationing of food put in place by the American, the black market was the only option thus making these gangs very wealthy and influential.  Consequently, this triggered the emergence of another kind of Yakuza evolved-street hustlers. This group was mostly engaged in crime and black market. Their way of dressing changed as they were influenced by the American gangster movies. They started wearing white shirts, cropped hair and sun glasses.

They became more hardened and more violent, and firearms became the order of the business days. Due to the rapid increase in number of both the members and different groups, misunderstandings among the Yazuka groups began to be felt. It is believed that these conflicts were later resolved by a man known as Yoshio Kodama.

The main goals of Yakuza are to try and accommodate the misfits in the society. They may be abandoned children, the youth who have issues with schools, the refugees either coming from China or Korea. Then the leader of the group becomes their father and the rest of the members of the group become brothers and sisters. These groups do not provide social needs for an individual but other things like class, cash and power thus making one feel useful and of purpose. Technically there are no major requirements for one to fulfill in order to be a member. However, after one becomes member, high levels of obedience are required, especially to the authority figures.

Structure of the yazuka people and  Yubizume
Just like the Mafia, the yazuku group is powerfully structured in sort of a pyramid which is patriarch at the top and with some loyal underlings representing various different ranks. The Mafia kind of a hierarchy is relatively simple, where bosses known as capos rule and preside over the families with assistance drawn from underbosses known as consigliere (counselor). The next level in the hierarchy is composed of captains who usually run the crew of soldiers who all have basic associates.  The structure of the Yazuka is more intricate and simple. The most guiding principle in this set up is that the yazuka structure utilizes the oyabun-kobun kind of relationship where Oyabun is used to refer to the father roles.

The yakuza sees himself as Machi-yakko, the peoples rescuer and helper. Solving of disputes is done following the ranks, if the leader of that family is unable to solve the case, he hands it over to the local Yakuza leaders for help. The leader facilitates these services in exchange of a certain fee. If found guilty the punishment accorded to the offender is even worse than when it is handled by the police (Paul, 1998).  They can sometimes cutoff one of your fingures.   Yubizen is used to refer to a certain kind of punishment that is afflicted to offenders who commit crime. Yubizume is often a kind of amputation where the last joint of the little finger is cut off.  The structure of Yakuza is composed of two types, the clan and freelance Yakuza.

Freelancing Yakuza is a type of Yakuza which does not engage in serious crimes and they mostly exist to hustle together. They are generally referred as wanna bes Yakuza. This type has a hard time in surviving because the structure of their organization into clan type does not allow them to conduct businesses within the region. This also hardens their existence since they lack money for protection and sustainability of their members.

The clan Yakuza undermines them by exposing the crimes they commit to the police. If by any chance a leader of the freelance Yakuza becomes famous of whichever means and achievements the clan members kill him and hide the body never to be found. Clan Yakuza has some positive aspects to the freelance yakuza. If, for instance, there are some things that the clan yakuza wants to be affected and they do not want to be linked with it they offer a contract to the freelance yakuza and pay them. The freelance yakuza are in most cases used as escape goats, especially when crime is committed.

The clan is the second type of yakuza and is compared to the Sicilian mafias family. It is almost structured like a normal family in Japan. It has a hierarchal structure whose leader of the clan is referred as Oyabun which means father in English. Under this father there are brothers (kyodai) and his children (Wakashu). The members referred to as brothers and children are not blood relatives but adopted and in terms of ranks in the clan they are generally under him. It is a requirement that all the members under the father should respect him regardless of anything and whether he in return offers protection which they may need. Oyabun is enormous within that clan and what he declares is final.

All the members should obey his words without question or worry for their individual life. The leader is an adviser (Saiko-konmon) and on top of that he has a team of advocates, secretaries, and accountants. The childrens boss is referred as waka gashira. He is the second in command in that clan after the father. He is the one entitled to make sure that the orders given by the Oyabun are followed. These leaders of the children grow as the sub-gang grows and they might rise to being clan leaders.

Tatoos  Practices
The members of yakuza usually tattoo themselves all over their bodies. They have the clan badges over their bodies. The origin of these tattoos came from Bakuto. The bakutos tattooed a ring that was normally black around their arms each ring representing a crime they committed thus signified the strength of that particular bakuto. Making the tattoos is not easy and it was estimated that making one ring took them almost hundred hours. The rings showed that the individual was reluctant to be bound by the rules and norms of the society. For the yakuza it signifies clan affiliations.

The style came initially from the Bakuto. In any case if a gambler could not pay back anything they had borrowed then the victim was entitled to cut off the tip of the small finger. This was a punishment that was aimed at damaging the arm in a way that a person could not handle a sword as before. It was also meant to be a lesson to others that gambling is not authorized in Japan.

One becomes Yubitsume only when he cuts off one of his fingers and sends it to the Kumicho. This act symbolizes apology for an act of disobedience. This act can also be used to spare one of your children. The procedure is to take a very sharp item cut off the tip of the finger, wrap the piece cut in a paper and then send it to the kumicho and then ask for forgiveness. The more mistakes you make that require you to cut off the finger tips the more you will continue to advance in cutting the rest of the fingers remaining. If it is the first time you cut off the little fingertip thereafter it becomes the next little finger and so on. Because of that many yakuza members who have constantly involved themselves in crime are always noticeable by signal of having missing fingers.

Yazuka in United States
Despite being in Japan only, the Yazuka people have stretched their presence to occupy cities in the United States such as the Hawaii, Nevada, California and New York. Their presence in the United States has been felt as a harmed gang group. Their population in Hawaii cannot be underestimated as majority of them have been drawn to Hawaii due to its natural appeal for accommodating all sorts of people.

However, the existence of high levels of crime in this area has established and created attractive opportunities for the Yazuka people to settle in this area as opposed to the exquisite lush floras and beaches within the area.

One characteristic feature which makes the Yazuka people to cope in this area is the high flock of tourists from Asian countries and Japan who blend easily with them and remain submerged within these visiting groups. Obviously in order to gauge themselves with the tourists, the Yazuka people normally invest in high-priced expensive real estates, which is one of their major favorite enterprises.

Above all, the Yazuka people make use of the island state as one of their very major station, especially for crystal meth in transition headed to the American mainland and more specifically firearms and other weapons being transported back to Japan.  The Yazuka have also mingled with the local residents and especially the crime gangs in funneling and channeling tourists flocking from Asia into gambling parlors, bordellos and sex shows for the due exchange with kickbacks, especially with the locals.

In California, the Yazuka have also stretched their influence by establishing alliances with the Vietnamese gangs and the Koreans, and further more expanded their relationships with their traditional partners of the Chinese triads. Just like any other organized American gang group, the Yazuka flood to Las Vegas, where gambling is legal. Hookers and show girls are everywhere dense and plentiful in Las Vegas and the Yazuka people have been very instrumental steering and influencing tourists from Asia to establishments legally owned and possessed by Americans.

In New York the Yazuka people have also been sported within the city, where they have established loose alliances with the Native American Mafias. Despite the fact that cultural differences, especially language barriers, have posed quite a greater challenge in establishing tight and strong bonds with the natives, the two groups, the American Mafia and Yuzuka, have been able to corporate in especially illegal operations such as gambling.

The Exclusionary Rule

Exclusionary rule stems from the Fourth Amendment of United States constitutional laws that aim at protecting individuals from illegal evidence seizure by law enforcement officers. The rule was created in court thus it was not passed by legislature but by United States Supreme Court. It is a defense mechanism for citizens who are falsely accused of possessing illegal goods. The rule also protects the constitutional rights of offenders who think the method used to search for evidence was very much unreasonable and illegal. Some times police or law enforcers tend to have false evidence that they claim to have obtained from a particular suspect. Exclusionary law is used in such cases to protect individuals rights from seizure.

The rule states that no object that has been obtained illegally from an offender can be provided as evidence in criminal prosecution. It stipulates that a person cannot be his or her witness in any criminal case. Exclusionary law has been in use since 1900 and it was developed to eliminate loopholes that were present in the past rulings. Courts used to consider any evidence as much as it was relevant to criminal offence without considering the manner in which evidence was seized. This resulted to infringement of personal rights that was restored by exclusionary law. The law applies to all citizens and immigrants in United States.

Exclusionary rule is applied in evidence that is deemed to have been collected through search methods that are not authorized. A law enforcement officer is only allowed to search for evidence from a defendant once a court warrant has been issued.  Fourth Amendment interpretation states that a search without court warrant is considered to be unreasonable and in such a case exclusionary rule is applied. Judges are the only legal officers who have the capacity to issue warrants but only if they think evidence for wrong doing can be found easily.

A valid warrant must have date, time of search, location, reasons to prove that such evidence will be obtained in the indicated place and expectations of the search. Civil liberties of American citizens are very important and needs to be protected through exclusionary rule. The rule provides that evidence given by witnesses who used shocking processes cannot be admitted in court. The rule prevents laws enforcers from using their positions to harass innocent citizens or to violate their constitutional rights.

The rule does not apply in a parole revocation, civil case and grand jury hearing and this may be considered as one of the major limitation of exclusionary rule. It does not protect privacy rights of a third party and evidenced are suppressed only when the search is considered to have violated individuals constitutional rights.  The rule provides good policies that guards private life of an individual through court warrants issued by judges.

The use of technology to seizure evidence such as such as tape recording is not recognized in American legal systems. This is considered as infringement of individuals constitutional rights that is protected by exclusionary rule. The provisions  of the  rule  are friendly  to  human  life and  especially  for  those  individuals who treasure private life. It provides that a police should not use his or her capacity to search for evidence without court warrant. These provisions protect individual rights from unlawful search for evidence and thus the major reasons why I support the rule.

Crime Statistics in Thailand Imperative Improvements Required To Innovate and Modernize Criminal Justice Policy to Established Global Standards

If one seeks to learn about the occurrence and prevalence of crime in society, and to investigate the diverse factors that lead people to commit crimes, then one necessarily has to depend upon accurate crime data and statistics. The word crime is derived from the Latin word crimen, and means fault or accusation. Crime may simply be understood as an intentional act in violation of criminal law, which invites legal punishment. Only proper crime statistics can enable a meaningful codification and analysis of the data, and help in creating a sound criminal justice policy that may effectively seek to control crime. Criminal statistics have been succinctly defined as uniform data on offences or offenders expressed in numerical terms, derived by official agencies,  from their records, classified, tabulated, and analyzed to disclose the relationships between or among the classes of used data and published periodically according to a uniform plan (Sellin, 1971).

In Thailand, the Royal Thai Police is the main agency responsible at all times for the collection of crime data and the computation of the official statistics. Hence, it is the police that is the most important agency in Thailand that provides and interprets crime statistics to the public. However, such reports prepared by the police do not portray a correct picture of the actual number of crimes committed owing to both internal and external factors. The internal factors denote the police performance in leading to or allowing the crimes, and the external factors signify the other agencies or even the people themselves.

Therefore, the overall image of crime in Thai society, as depicted by the police, cannot be viewed as complete and trustworthy documents. More importantly, if the policy-makers employ the statistics or data offered by the police, without their careful analysis, it can cause the planning process to be hampered by the limitations of data. Any policy framed in this manner would hardly address and amend the root of the crime problems. Therefore, it is imperative that improvements be made in the collection of crime data.

This essay, therefore, attempts to do the following
Explain added and supplementary methods of collecting the data for crime statistics in Thailand
Clarify what the main problems and shortcomings of crime statistics are and
Present certain recommendations for tacking the problem and improving the crime statistics to the same level as in other advanced countries.
Finally, this essay will also try to answer the question whether crime statistics can continue to serve as the basis for the criminal justice policy, although they are known to be flawed.

General Contexts of Crime Statistics
The first crime statistics was published by the French government in 1827, and it has been used continually as the base for the policy-making process among administration justice until the present day (Treadwell, 2006). However, there are numerous criticisms about the inaccuracy and unreliable data of the crime statistics prepared in many countries, for example, within groups of academics, media, the public and especially among criminologists, who need the crime statistics as the base for their researches or studies. As Sumner (2004) says that Nothing can be more misleading than statistics (p. 469). When we hear about crime statistics, the important consequence issue seems to be the ways of collecting the data that is used in producing the crime statistics. Earlier, in England, or even in Thailand, only the police force was the main body that collected the crime data (Hale, et. Al., 2009). However, nowadays, several methods of collecting the data have been developed to enhance the reliability and validity of the statistics, and also try and record the maximum percentage of all the crimes that occur in the society. These better data-collection methods are crime victimization surveys, local surveys, and the self-report method. However, despite the developed countries, such as the USA or England, having systematic and modern data collection processes and superior technology, they still confront various obstructions and shortcomings in gathering the crime data. These hurdles stem from many reasons, for example, hidden crime, ineffective police resources, changes in counting rules or even the reporting behavior of the public (Maguire, 2007, p. 261). Hence, doubts have frequently been expressed over the desirability of using crime statistics, even though it is well known that that they are riddled with limitations and weaknesses. Therefore, in this essay, we will explain the shortcomings that obstruct the ways of gathering crime data, particularly in Thailand, which has undeveloped data collection methods, and present recommendations on how Thailand can apply the data collection strategies from the UK to cope with this problem.

Outdated Methodologies for Counting Crimes Why Do We Continue Using Them
There must be umpteen differences between Thailand and the UK in terms of culture, language, and the like. However, the ways to gather crime data in both these countries are essentially similar. Of course, matters remain far more advanced in the UK. Coleman and Moynihan (1996) state that the differences in the methods employed in counting crimes influence the different results that are obtained therefrom. It is obvious that the precise method of data collection will determine to a greater or lesser extent the data that is compiled using the method. Hence, one ought to evaluate the common methods, and adopt the best one  or combination -- for gathering of crime data. In this section, we will evaluate the usual methods of collection of the crime data and explain why they are used as the primary modes for collecting the crime data in both Thailand and the UK.  

Police-recorded Crime
In England, the official statistics come from the data that is collected by the police. This is because the police are the first institution that directly relates and confronts with the occurrence of crime. Therefore, if a crime occurs, people will report to the police at the first stage. The police are used as the main instrument to collect crime data, which might have been variously reported by the victims, either by coming to the police station, or by reporting the crime over the telephone or by the surveillance conducted by the police patrol. The data is conveyed annually to the public, as information from the British Crime Survey (BCS), and it explains by categorizing groups of offenses and showing the trends of crime (Maguire, 2007).

The crime data can benefit people in many ways. For example, it may help people in making decisions in their everyday lives (Hale, et. al.,  2009). Crime data is used by the private sector (security companies) or even as the basis for making a new policy for tacking crime. Nevertheless, there are numerous shortcomings in the data that is gathered by the police, and the only effect of it will be rendering the police force further complacent and ineffective. The cumulative impression that forms in the peoples minds will be thinking that the police can do nothing to solve their problems (Newburn, 2007). If people report a trouble spot to the police but find that it cannot prevent the occurrence of a crime there, then the people will be inclined to conclude that it is unnecessary, trivial and pointless to report things to the police.

Crime Victimization Surveys
As Maguire (2007, p. 272) points out that there is three or four times as much as the official records suggest. This is because of the lack or insufficiency of methods to measure the numbers of crime (Newburn, 2007). However, crime victimization surveys could be one of the efficient supplements for crime data that is collected by the police. This method aims to search for the dark figure , for example, domestic crimes, crimes among institutions, crimes against business (Maguire, 2007), which are not recorded by the police, by means of interviewing general household sample groups about their previous experiences of crimes  committed against them in a variety of crime cases (Hough and Maxfield, 2007). Even though the number of respondents is less than the number of people who report incidents to the police, this strategy can nevertheless anticipate the real amount of crime that might have been committed. Additionally, it is used as a tool for the assessment of the police performance, in finding out the proportion of crimes in society that the police can record. However, the method can only cover the sample groups, and not every house or community, because, as Maguire had remarked, extending crime victimization surveys would entail a substantial amount of money, and nowadays, an advanced technology can facilitate data collection at reduced costs (Hough and Maxfield, 2007).

Self-report Study
The main aim of self-report study is to advance the measures of crime areas and shape the number of crimes that occur in societies (Newburn, 2007). The survey uses a questionnaire to ask respondents about details of their previous delinquency behavior by focus on youth or minor offences, such as drinking, using drugs, theft or carrying weapons. Of course, it is possible to learn of many unreported crimes in this manner. This method also helps one to understand the offenders perspectives, notions and psychological tendencies, which cannot be found from other sources. However, there are limitations of this survey method too. For instance in the UK, it has been noted that the survey contains too many details and checklists. This confuses the respondents and in fact prevents an effective communication of crime data that might otherwise have been enabled.

The Shortcomings and Insufficiency of Crime Statistics in Thailand
As Bottomley and Pearse (1986, p. 1) have observed that, it is impossible to give any accurate or straightforward answers to the question of how much crime there is. It can easily be deduced from their writings that even the best methods involving the latest available technologies still prove inadequate in fully measuring all the crimes that occur, because of the dark figures or hidden crimes. Although, the methods were created to solve the problem, but each method still has certain innate strengths and weaknesses. This section will show the main shortcomings of crime statistics.

For example, the people do not report crime to the police because they believe that because of ineffective performance of the police. Similarly, the Office of Justice Affairs (2009) discovered that in Thailand, 69.2 percent of the victims did not report incidents to the police, because they thought that the police would not be able to help them. Several victims of crimes were also ashamed to report to the police if the crime had been committed within their own families (domestic violence). Victims are also often scared to report crimes, because the offender lived in the same house or areas.

Moreover, it is common for students in England  especially international students -- to sign contracts with mobile companies, falsely report theft of their mobile handsets, and then claim new mobile phones from the mobile handset companies. Such reports often get counted as property crimes that happened to the foreigners, even though they had been fraudulent claims.

One of the most common criticisms is failure to detect crime within institutions and companies, or white collar crime. This type of crime is really difficult to search, because it happens within the private sector and advance technology is often used by the criminal for his ends. Moreover, companies may not always advertise such crimes occurring within their precincts, in order to retain their goodwill and brand value in the market.

Likewise, crimes among schools are always known as hidden crimes. Crimes such as theft or assault cases within schools or drug crimes are known as victimless crimes, and these are not easy to discover. A change in counting rules can hugely impact the fluctuations of crime statistics. For instance, previously, some behaviors may not have been measured as crime earlier, but after changing the rules of counting, they may get labeled as crimes, and be counted. Hence, crime statistics are greatly influenced by decisions over what should be regarded as crimes, and which behaviors may pass unnoticed and unchecked. On the face of it, it would seem apparent that existing crime data must not adequately portray all the actual crimes that take place in society.      

Crime Statistics in Thailand A Contextual Study
A crime data base in Thailand is produced by four institutions, which are the Royal Thai Police, Office of the Attorney General, Courts of Justice and Department of Corrections (The Royal Thai Police, 2009). Each institution only reports and interprets the income data to the public. It is clear that this information arises from police data system as the main resource, which is collected by the reports from people. It, therefore, seems that the overall image of crime problems will have a discrepancy from the actual context. However, at present, the Office of Justice Affairs is attempting to expand the data-collection systems in order to make effective connections among elements of the criminal justice administration, and to develop people survey on crime. These developments seem to be changing the situation from simple reaction to proaction, but as mention above, Thailand still has a lot of problems that oppose the system from developing along the lines of other developed countries.

How Thailand Can Apply Better Practices Followed in UK
The first and the most important strategy that Thailand can apply from the UK is the development of crime data collection processes and an interpretation of crime statistics. In Thailand, the Royal Police interprets annually crime statistic by dividing it into five groups of offences, namely, violent crime crime against life and body property crime interesting crime and offences against state to the public. However, this information does not describe details of crime it shows only the number of crimes that happened in each month over the entire country, but does not analyze the crime trend. Hence, it is much different from the Home Office, which includes the comparison of crime trends and crime rates from previous year and since the year that the records were created. This provides greater details of crimes, such as stranger violence, trends in repeat victimization, reporting crime behavior, and so on.

An obligation to analyze the crime statistics in Thailand depends upon the specific agency that is related with the information. For instance, the Narcotics Suppression Bureau is responsible for collecting drug-crime data and producing drugs-crime trends, without any concern in violent crimes at all. The crime trend is, therefore, produced from scholars or criminologists who teach in the universities and also interpret them to the public. Thus, from these reasons, the first and the most important improvement necessary seems to be to increase the details of crime data. Thus, crime trends, crime rates, analyzed data or discussion rather than only an amount of crime cases that happened in each year ought to be included. This is because, in general, the public is less bothered about the number of crimes, as with the rise and fall of trend or an extent of crime.

Furthermore, the Thai police must follow the Home Offices Strategies, that is, they should participate with scholars and criminologists or employ them as a part of the process rather than relying only on police officers, administrative process and legislative factors (Gardner, nd). In addition, criminal justice agencies must work together to collect primary crime data (integration), and this can reduce conflict and complexity of an information.

Another important practice that Thailand can apply from the UK seems to be about crime victimization surveys method. Although, in financial year 2008-2009, the number of respondents of the survey in Thailand were twice more than in the UK, but if analyze and compare the method which quite similar in a pattern (in-depth interview), it is different in scope. For example, in Thailand, the interviewers do not distinguish respondents between reported and non-reported crime to the police. As Hale (2009, p. 48) states that the method aims to search crimes that were not reported to the police, then it adds to the confusion of data and also diverts the data from the truth. Moreover, the interviewers allow community leader or neighbors to participate and listen to the interviews. Certainly, sometimes this disturbance could damage an accuracy of the data, such as through biases, or respondents may be guided to give answers by anyone who participates in the interview.

Therefore, Thailand can utilize the UKs strategy to put more restriction and seriousness during the interview and should follow the UK in decreasing the respondents age for interview. During 2010, the Home Office has planned to include young people aged 10-15 in the survey (Home Office, 2009). This will make the data more broad-based, comprehensive, and representative.

Inadequacy of Continuing to Rely on Poor and Unrepresentative Crime Statistics
As already mentioned earlier, the crime statistics in Thailand are riddled with various pitfalls and shortcomings with regard to their accuracy and reliability. This begs the following question If the crime records are far from satisfactory, why do we need to continue using them as the basis for creating the criminal justice policy that is meant to suppress crime. Can such an approach solve the problems of crime in the optimal manner Will this not have an adverse impact on the resultant criminal justice policy that gets formed Is the useless policy waste the states fund At present, there are no policies or strategies to end this problem as we always hear crime is getting out of control (Maguire 2007) and we cannot reveal the full extent of crime. Thus, we must still to find the best answer to tacking this problem.

In my point of view, crime statistics can be used as rich information for making effective policies. The crime statistics that include police recorded data, victimization surveys or even self-report, have advantages and disadvantages in themselves, but they can promote each other to form an excellent data of crime incidents. Besides, each crime statistic represents the trends of crime problems of the entire country and also covers numerous offences groups and ages. It can be used as an indicator of changes and to gauge the variance with crimes that happened in the past from the current crime rate. Therefore, even imperfect data can still help the state to follow up the crime contexts, protect humans and property, and assess the expenditure information in criminal justice agencies that is due to for the next plan in the future.

For example, if we know an overall image of crime problems, then we can use the data as the base for the new policy in tackling the problems to a direct point, or by considering the main risk factors. This is including the time of occurrence, risk areas, high-risk groups or specific crime cases and it could be used as a preparation for the police officers in order to respond to the changes in the crime contexts. Moreover, beyond their use as the basis for policy, crime statistics can apply to form crime mapping and it seems to be the good quality and cheap data that is used by academics or criminologists to invent new perspectives and theories for developing the criminal justice process.  

However, although the crime statistics benefits in many ways, but before using them, it is necessary to analyze strictly the possibility of the statistics and using other sources to make a comparison between them. This is because the states data is sometimes untruth and very different from the real contexts. It could be that some groups seek to benefit from interpreting crime statistics in particular ways, such as by some institutions interpreting fictitious data or portraying themselves in the spotlight to the public, just because they want more funding  from the state (Maguire, 2007).

The Interpol, the international organization of police, releases the Statistique criminelles internationales, which has comprehensive information on crimes known to the police and the number of arrests made. However, the accuracy of even this global crime data is dependent on the methods of collection of crime data employed by the police of the member-countries of Interpol. Thai police can learn from the better practices being followed by the police of various other countries, especially UK, and this would lead to the compilation of qualitatively superior crime data.  

Finally, it need be stressed that the goal of policing and governance is peace, law and order and a better quality of life for its citizens. Mere material progress or urbanization does not result in a low crime rate in society. Indeed, the crime rate in various urbanized city clusters around the world is alarmingly high. The decisive factor associated with the frequency of crime in various societies is not cultural, racial or individual. It is degree of social stability. The more stable the social order, the less the crime. (Hurwitz and Christiansen, 1983). Therefore, the aim of better methods of collection of crime data is only to lead to a lesser incidence of crime and a safer society.    


Pre-trial diversion is a punitive approach where one evades trial in a court of law but is sent back to the community though under tight supervision until the law enforcement officials are contented that he or she has reformed. This mode or approach to punishment is mostly applied to perpetrators of minor offences. If one does not commit any crime during the period under which they are being monitored, then all the records incriminating them are destroyed or sealed. Pre trial diversion is common among the first time offenders and excludes the serious criminal offences. Programs offered under the pre-trial diversion try to rehabilitate the offenders by addressing the factors that are likely to trigger recidivism rates among criminals. They also address the needs of the victims of crime thus promoting harmony in the society. Offenders under this program are counseled by professionals and offered community service work to conduct under supervision. Drug related cases are addressed using the pre trial diversion and offenders are placed on drug free programs and may be required to engage in community service such as donating money to orphanages or hospitals. In most cases, the pre trial diversion has yielded positive results as people enrolled in them recorded lower recidivism rates. These programs also ensure that the costs used in the rehabilitation process through incarceration are reduced. The problem of prison overcrowding is also not magnified when this approach is embraced.

The major problem with the pre trial diversion programs emanates from their application rather than their intended objectives. These programs may be recommended in some instances that could have otherwise required other punitive measures leading to loss or wastage of human resources and money. The rehabilitative effect of these programs can also be compromised when they are applied to cases that are not likely to recur. The selection or determination of who requires the pre trial diversion may also ensure that people who need the services are deterred thus failing to rehabilitate them effectively as a society.

Another challenge associated with the pre-trial diversion is finances. Most of these programs are funded by Local County as well as client fees and the inadequate funds may affect their effectiveness. Inadequate staffing also affects their effectiveness.

Outline the U.S. Supreme Court cases that dealt with the constitutionality of the death penalty.
Coker v. Georgia of 1977 is where Coker escaped prison and when perpetrating other capital crimes raped a woman and was to be sentenced to death for rape. According to the US constitution this was deemed grossly disproportionate and excessive punishment. This case emphasizes that punishment within the US jurisdiction ought to match the offence committed. Rape in this case was not viewed grave or severe enough to warrant capital punishment. Rapists were viewed more lenient in the sense that unlike murderers they do not kill. The Furman V. Georgia 1972 case is also an example of how death penalty should not be introduced especially for rape cases which are not similar to the taking away of another persons life.

Roper v. Simmons case of 2005 exempts juveniles or those below 18-21 years depending on the state from being executed on grounds of their reasoning capacity. Application of death penalty is restricted to adults.

The Gregg v. Georgia 1976 involved the robbery with violence where two people lost their lives. The jury found Gregg guilty and argued that life imprisonment or death penalty could suffice as punishments but favored for death penalty. This case was however viewed unacceptable according to the constitution as it cited retribution and deterrence factors to justify death penalty.

The McCleskey v. Kemp 1987 case argued against racial discrimination in the application of death penalty citing the 14th and 8th amendments of the constitution.

In the Ring v. Arizona case of 2002 it was agreed that although it is against the 14th amendment, death penalty may be viewed as constitutional in the 8th amendment when the states applied the required procedural safeguards. (Cornell University Law School). This may have been established on the grounds that it would be of a greater good either to the individual or to the entire society.

The Witherspoon v. Illinois 1968 case saw jurors given a chance to adopt any stand regarding capital punishment. This way bias against or for death penalty would be eliminated and the voices of the people would also be respected as opposed to when a jury favors one stance. (Cornell University Law School). Religious backings to oppose death penalty should however not be very significant when defining capital punishment as cruel but the constitution should be applied.

In the Woodson v. North Carolina 1976 case, capital punishment is viewed as one where the chances of depriving off innocent peoples lives are possible. In this case Woodrow who was under the influence of alcohol was dragged into committing a robbery where two people were killed. Although Woodrow claimed to have done nothing wrong he and the three other were all condemned to death. According to the prevailing California laws they were guilty of first degree murder.

Compare and contrast the use of death penalty for juveniles.
Death penalty on juveniles is a topic that sparks varied viewpoints across the globe since time immemorial. The US Supreme Court in the Thompson v. Oklahoma 1988 ruled against the execution of any person who committed a crime below the age of 16 although nations were at liberty to extend the age limit. Varied viewpoints as to whether to impose death penalty on children below 16 or 17 years have been recorded. Opponents of death penalty for juveniles argue that due to their level or stage of development, children should not be held accountable for their misdeeds to the extent of imposing severe punishment such as death. They also argue against juvenile death penalty on the grounds of decency and the fact that minors have a chance and ample time to reform. In this respect, they ought to be rehabilitated through counseling and guidance rather than being condemned to death. Again, various research findings have revealed that the human brain continues to develop until teenage and opponents cite this against death penalty for the juveniles. Juveniles are also argued to be of less mental, planning and emotional capabilities and thus making an inappropriate group to be executed for crimes.  

Proponents of death penalty argue that people ought to be responsible for their actions and that the age factor should not play any role. They argue that if death penalty is applicable to adults it should also be applied to children who are found guilty of heinous crimes such as cold blood murder too. Death penalty is also favored for its deterrence and retributive justice effects. Its argued that since most juveniles convicted to die are guilty of heinous crimes such as murder, their victims would not feel contented with the justice system if the criminals were not severely punished. Another issue raised in favor of juvenile death penalty is the deterrence effect. The notion here is that the mere knowledge that a given misdeed attracts severe punishment as grave as death would impose fear and juveniles would not commit capital offences. The knowledge that they can commit crime and get aware with it due to their age may increase their criminality tendencies.

Understanding Motivation The Supervisors Perspective

Management of people in the organization has come a long way since the industrial revolution or even earlier when workers and the rest of the components of the human capital were managed under stressful conditions such as force, slavery and compulsion. Organizational subordinates especially the labor work force toil and perform tasks not for compensation or contract purposes, but for obedience and compliance with the rule of masters and slave drivers.

The emancipation of the labor force and abolition of slavery during the 19th century, which started the trend of providing people with dignity and just compensation in the work place, brought into the open the need for attention, care and change in the perspectives on how people in the organization should be considered insofar as the factor of production are concerned.  Further, the enactment of workers rights and benefits shifted the way people are managed and key organizational decision makers started to bring people to the workplace through the motivational process. This development paved the way for lawmakers and human resource (HR) practitioners to elevate the roles of employees and the entire human resources component to a level of partners in the production processes. Here, the basis for driving people to become productive is through understanding and aligning human resource management with the motivational process as theorized by Maslow.

The most overworked work in the lexicon of the manager Motivation
Motivation is a critical component in the work of the manager.  Encouraging people to work individually and as a team is a demanding job for the manager as he is expected to deliver results through effective people management.  Here, the aspect of motivation is a never-ending process and the deeper and more entrenched motivation  provided subordinates, the stronger and more lasting the motivation drives people at work. Already, theories and principles on how people can be driven to their new levels of accomplishments have been propounded, but the hierarchy of needs seem to have the more inspiring impact on subordinates as they are able to align their personal needs to the organizational needs as well. Here, the manager is in a never-ending continuum of bringing organization results through people motivation.

The key to motivation The individual and the organization
The emerging approach to effective human resource management is based on the aspect of developing human competence and its sustainability in the organization. Clearly, motivating the human capital amounts to motivating the entire organization system towards accomplishing its established objectives.Here, while the organization aims to generate revenues and funds as it s own global need for sustainability, the human component is at the same time is able to address its own need that is, the compensation and fringe benefits aspect. The mutuality of purposes and objectives for the individual and organization becomes a congruent and complementary task for both.

Two researchers have suggested that sensitivity theory can be used to identify individual differences reflecting basic motivational needs.

While people have identical set of needs based on Maslows hierarchy, they have varying choices and sensitivities to specific items of motivation.  Thus, people can have different approaches to achieving identical needs. For example, tasks can be accomplished through compensation while other may be motivated in terms of peer pressure or simple feeling of a sense of accomplishment. Thus, individual differences may likely mean different measures, approaches or valuation systems based on common needs. Here, it would appear that people have common basic needs but individual differences dictate distinct means of satisfaction of that need,

How to motivate.
Learning how to motivate others starts from the capability to motivate oneself to achieve goals and objectives effectively. Here, the aspect of role modeling can be a strong motivational drive to inspire subordinates to accomplish tasks without intense force. Leadership is not only different from management. It is more than management as leadership strives to transform an individual to his best and the organization to its efficacy.

Learning to motivate starts with the understanding the persona of the subordinate and striving to get to know their individual differences towards aligning and making them congruent to the organizational needs. Here, the need to clarify the subordinates role in achieving organizational objectives and providing him the tool to competently accomplish them is of paramount importance to the motivation process.            

If there is any clear-cut task first line supervisors must deal with, it is motivating officers or civilians under their immediate supervision.

Military and police units are among the more interesting organizations where motivation is both a responsibility and a challenge. Considering that the strategy of motivation is a soft sell measure to achieve goals without the fear and force of compliance, installing an engine of motivation in a person is to assist him accomplish his goals based on mutual needs.  First line supervisors therefore, being new entrants to the realm of strategic management are expected to be fully trained in handling people through the motivational approach. Here, the concept of military type of discipline takes a back seat to a new type of command  the command of motivation.      

Medicolegal Trace Evidence

Trace evidence is an important category of crime scene evidence in the sense that it is the most direct evidence related to the suspected criminal act. Owing to the great improvements made in medical science and technology over the past few decades, trace evidence or forensic evidence, as it is commonly referred to in legal parlance has assumed an increasing degree of importance and has often proved to be the deciding factor that leads to either a conviction or an acquittal.

In its most basic sense trace evidence entails all kinds of physical evidence found in the crime scene (anything that leaves a trace) as for example blood-stained clothes, hair samples, semen etc. etc. Often, trace evidence is very minute and delicate in nature and only trained forensic experts and detectives can obtain them from the scene of crime. For certain kinds of evidence like semen stains for example, it is as important to preserve the recovered evidence as it is to get them in the first place  because over time the sample may become impossible to analyse clearly owing to degeneration and contamination and hence crucial evidence may be lost. So, while the significance of trace evidence cannot be understated, it is also a fact that most modern jurisdictions spend vast sums of money in acquiring the proper technology, medical and forensic personnel, setting up laboratories and crime research divisions  so that information gained from this evidence is not wasted. Most courts across various jurisdictions around the world require trace evidence to be authentic and capable of independent corroboration because otherwise they are liable to be rejected as evidence. Thus whoever wishes to rely on information gleaned from trace evidence found on the scene of crime, has to meet the various standards set by courts regarding its admissibility. Hence unsurprisingly, crime research laboratories are now equipped with state of the art technology to conduct the most appropriate and accurate tests on samples retrieved from the crime scene, so that when they are presented as evidence in a court of law, they are not rejected on grounds of spuriousness or inconclusiveness. Some of the more popular and universally accepted tests are as follows Stereoscopic Microscopy, Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM), Ultraviolet Light Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEMEDX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Gas Chromatography  Mass Spectrometry (GCMS), Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography (PGC), Ion Chromatography (IC), and Microspectrophotometry. Certain kinds of trace evidence like questioned documents (i.e. samples necessary for handwriting analysis) are such an universal feature of most crime scenes that local police departments often have research divisions devoted entirely to that. Also in cases of trace evidence that seek to directly implicate the involvement of the accused in the crime, like fingerprints and blood stains etc. etc. it is of particular importance that the samples so obtained are compared with corresponding samples taken from the accuseds body at the earliest, so that a measure of corroboration may be achieved. In a nutshell, information gathered on close examination of trace evidence may help the investigation in any or all of the following ways
It establishes the areaterritorial extent of the crime scene.

It determines the physical attributes of the perpetrator(s).
It provides hints as to what weapon was used for the commission of the crime (in case of violent bodily crimes).

Supporting or endorsing witness statements i.e. checking them for consistency.

It helps to establish common links if there are more than one crime scene areas (for e.g. blood stains found at the scene of murder and those obtained at the place where the victims body was disposed off.)

Following Edmund Locards principle, which states that when there is contact between two or more items there is a always an exchange of the respective characteristics of each item, it can be said that whenever there is a crime, the criminal always leaves a trace or pattern behind, which is unique to him. Consequently, if investigators are able to discover these traces then there is a good chance that it will lead them in the direction of the offender. Of course, as has been mentioned before, a person must be tried by a competent court before he can be declared guilty of an offence  and for this the prosecution must prove inter alia that the trace evidence on hand conclusively determines the guilt of the accused.

Even if some trace evidence is admitted in a court of law, it does not ensure that it is a smooth run for the prosecution thereafter. Such evidence must be backed up by corroborative witness testimony and more importantly, it must stand the test of cross-examination by any expert appearing for the opposite side. If the defense is able to introduce even a small hint of ambiguity in the findings presented as evidence, then the prosecution will have a difficult time convincing a judge and jury of its veracity. However, on the other hand, if the prosecution can establish the authenticity of the trace sample and put forth any information that adversely connects the accused with that sample (as for e.g. a DNA match) then the chances of conviction of the latter increases correspondingly. In fact cases have sometimes been decided on the basis of strong, irrefutable and unimpeachable trace evidence submitted by the prosecution (which must be verified by an independent expert to the satisfaction of the court). For example, in State v. Todd, 6 P.3d 86 (Wash. Ct. App. Div. 3 2000), where the prosecution was able to show that circumstances were such that the accused had access to a moving object and that such an object had been used in the commission of the crime and subsequently the accuseds fingerprints were found on it  the Court ruled that the fingerprint analysis submitted as evidence was enough to convict the accused. Also, in another case involving the presentation of finger print evidence (People v. Hirsch, 280 A.D.2d 612, 720 N.Y.S.2d ), the court held that fingerprint evidence, although circumstantial in nature, is sufficient proof if it leads to a conclusion of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt and excludes every reasonable hypothesis of innocence.Analogously, in a case (People v. Sutherland, 223 Ill. 2d 187, 307 Ill. Dec. 524, 860 N.E.2d 178 (2006)) where an accused was tried, inter alia, for murder and aggravated sexual assault, and the accuseds pubic hair structure matched that of strands found on the victims body, the Court ruled that such evidence was enough to reasonably infer that the accused had committed such an assault (taking into consideration other evidence).

As is apparent from the above case-laws, when trace evidence proves conclusive it is a very compelling piece of evidence indeed. However, conviction depends on whether the Court-appointed independent expert corroborates the analysis of the State laboratories and where the expert has failed to reach a decisive conclusion and the prosecution has failed to clarify the latters doubts as to its veracity  then such evidence falls flat.

Another issue that is frequently raised when trace evidence is adduced in a trial, is whether the constitutional right of the accused to be protected from self-incrimination, under the Fourth and Fifth Amendments to the Constituion of the United States, had been safeguarded during the conduct of the entire investigation. Particularly in cases where a suspect is asked to give fingerprint samples, blood samples etc. etc. this question has arisen time and again in various courts. In Jones v. State, 277 Ga. 36, 586 S.E.2d 224 (2003) for instance, it was held by the Court that handwipings that revealed presence of gunshot residue were not an unconstitutional search or seizure, and expert testimony concerning results of tests did not violate constitutional privilege against self-incrimination. Evidence obtained improperly in this regard (i.e. without following due process norms) may be struck down by the Court. But it is generally sustained where a warrant has been obtained or, (as was held in State v. Campbell, (1968) 281 Minn 1, 161 NW2d 47) the accused himself had waived his Fifth Amendment right by consenting to samples being taken from his body, in which case he cannot claim violation of his constitutional rights at a subsequent stage. However, in a pioneering case, Schmerber v. California, 384 U.S. 757 (1966) 384 U.S. 757 (1966), by a majority opinion delivered by Justice William J. Brennan, Jr., the US Supreme Court held that the doctrine of self-incrimination applied only to compelled communications and testimony and that a blood test did not fall under any of the above categories. Also, as far as search and seizure operations under the Fourth Amendment provisions of the US Constitution are concerned it is now settled law that items recovered from a crime scene under a search warrant does not violate the accuseds rights under the Constitution and that such items can be used as evidence against the latter.

However, as is evident from the more recent case-laws mentioned above, the judicial weight of the opinion delivered in Schmerber has diluted greatly and Courts are now apprehensive of convicting a person based on evidence in the form of a blood sample alone, especially one that has been obtained without a warrant or informed consent.

Trace evidence has thus assumed an increasing amount of significance ever since courts have started recognizing the scientific minutae that accompanies any trace analysis, be it a ballistics report or a blood test analysis. Owing to the strict standards imposed by most courts, it must be handled by professional and literally treated with kid gloves so as not to tarnish the evidentiary value of the sample. In fact these kid gloves come in a variety of tools  like brushes, forceps, gloves, chemicals that reveal traces of blood etc. etc.  all of which enables the seasoned crime scene investigator to deduce various elements of the crime and recreate the entire chain of events.

Irrespective of whether it is in the form of hairs and fibers, glass, paints, firearms and explosives, blood and other bodily fluids, bitemarks, arson debris, footprints etc. etc.  crime scene investigators have to take the utmost care to obtain and preserve it in materially the same form as it was found in the crime scene.

Criminology Writing Sample High-Tech Crime

The evolution of technology, both from the standpoint of victims and criminals, has truly revolutionized the fields of criminology and the legal infrastructure necessary to respond to the use of technological tools to commit criminal acts.  For the most part, to be sure, the crimes remain fundamentally the same.  Theft, for example, is now accomplished through fiber optic cables rather than through a physical breaking and entering.  There are also new types of crime such as identity theft.  This paper will discuss the definition of high-tech-crime, the three main types of high-tech crime, and the complications involved in creating an effective criminological approach to high-tech crime.

As an initial matter, it is quite important to note that high-tech crime is complicated by the fact that it knows no boundaries and that a variety of different technologies are being utilized to commit criminal offenses.  The scope of this type of criminal activity is extraordinarily broad and this is reflected in a Department of Justice definition that defines computer crime as any violations of criminal law that involve a knowledge of computer technology for their perpetration, investigation, or prosecution.  High tech-crime includes traditional crimes committed through the use of computers, an increasing number of crimes being committed through the use of the internet, and new technology-specific crimes.

There are three main types of high-tech crimes.  The first type of crime is essentially a criminal offense against a computer in which a computer is the object of the crime.  A typical crime in this case is a theft of software through high-tech means and methods.  The offenders may be seeking profits or trade secrets and the perpetrators may be competitors or disgruntled employees.  The second type of crime is when the computer is the subject rather than the object of a crime more specifically, in this type of case, the criminal activity involves such things as worms, viruses, and distributed denial of service attacks.  In this type of high-tech crime, many studies have suggested that the offenders are often motivated by some type of ill-will or mischievousness rather than financial gains. Many of the offenders have been juveniles testing out their hacking and other computer related skills.  While the offender motive is often not financial gain, the victims frequently suffer significant financial losses as a consequence. The third type of crime is when a computer is used as an instrument to carry out the crime.  This typically involves crimes such as an identity theft, copyright infringement, the illegal collection and distribution of pornography, and wire fraud.  The offenders here may be motivated by financial considerations or by personal desires that are legally prohibited similarly, the victims may range from innocent people whose identities have been stolen to sexually abused children and major record companies whose copyrights have been infringed.  What emerges from even the most superficial examination is an extraordinarily broad range of technologies used to commit a broad range of crimes.

Pursuing high-tech criminals is complicated by a number of factors.  First, law enforcement tends to be restricted by national boundaries whereas criminals are not when they are using technological methods.  Second, law enforcement seems to be behind the technological curve more specifically, they are constantly trying to catch up to the criminals technologically.  Finally, as law enforcement attempts to establish a present in cyberspace, many privacy concerns have been raised.  There are fears that the police are unable to keep up with high-tech criminals and when they do there are privacy concerns raised.  These fears need to be harmonized if high-tech crimes are to be better identified and prosecuted.

In the final analysis, the rise and the success of many high-tech crimes has forced a reassessment and a refinement of many criminological and legal models.  This is because the very nature of many high-tech crimes does not conform to existing models and paradigms.  Rather than being afraid of technology, however, the emphasis should be on the incorporation of technology in order to serve criminology goals and functions.