Does the Marxist Perspective hold any Significance for Contemporary U.S. Society

The aim of this paper is to discuss whether the Marxist perspective holds any significance in the contemporary US society. It is important to understand that every new beginning comes from other beginnings end. Therefore the rise of the contemporary Marxist ideologies is as a result of the earlier perspectives that were pioneered by the earlier great philosophers like Karl Marx, Max Weber, Frediech Engels among others.

The Marxist perspective states that the causes of economic transgression are as a result of social conditions that empower the wealthy and the political heavy weights and which care less about the lower class members of the society (Quinney, 1977). This condition is what is referred to as capitalism.

The rise of contemporary Marxism is based on a modernization theory which states that the rise of modern spiritual, social and economic values in the 1960s and 1970s formed the basis of capitalist growth (Mielants, 2010).

Quinney (1977) argues that Marxist criminology, which is also known as radical criminology, was born as result of the historical state of affairs, among them the rise of the conflict theory in social science. The world is dynamic and change is inevitable, therefore the modern Marxist perspectives are an improvement of what was experienced in the early years. Furthermore, radical criminology is the cause of modern social, political and economic crimes.

Quinney (1977) further states that due to this, the gap between the rich and the poor has continued to widen and the rich have the means of getting lenient charges incase they are arraigned in court, unlike the lower class citizens.

The earlier Marxist views which were mainly capitalistic are the same witnessed in the contemporary US society. This can be witnessed in job creation sectors, distribution of wealth and the way law and justice is applied. The Marxist perspectives do hold significance and relevance in the modern US society.

Boquiren (2008) observes that the Marxist perspective on the economic crisis that rocked the US in 2008 was as a result of the inherent nature of capitalism. In addition, he says that there was a surplus of goods and services in the market due to capitalism, which arose as a result of competition between different players. He further states that the root cause was not purely economic but politicoeconomic factors.

The negative effects of the Marxist perspectives will be felt for many generations to come, the poor will remain poor and the rich will continue to thrive, the judicial system will continue to favor the wealthy and oppress the less fortunate, the political powers will remain in the hands of the tycoons and they will call the shots as the less fortunate watch from a distance.

Getting rid of private enterprise and introducing collectivism is the only way out of this.  This will ensure that there is equal distribution of wealth among the rich and poor. Liberating of the nation from capitalism will also create an equal platform for both political and social interactions. However, it is not easy to do away with capitalism since wealth and power is controlled and protected by a few rich.

Bail in US Court System

Bail is the property offered to a court in persuasion of releasing a suspect. In this case the suspect is released from jail. Bail is issued with the mandate of the suspect being introduced again to trial. There are times when the bail money is given back to the suspect. This happens when the suspect follows all the procedures laid down by court. This happens even if the suspect is found guilty. A bond on the other hand is not refundable. Granting bail is a norm is some countries while in others it is not common. There are times when bail can not be offered. When it is suspected that the person will not turn up for trial, bail may be denied.

It can therefore be seen that bail is not a racist concept. Everyone is liable for a bail depending on the prevailing conditions. In circumstances when a court is in fear of the suspect not appearing for trial, bail may not be granted. Bail is offered depending on the crime committed and the prevailing conditions in court. This is applicable to everyone without considering skin color or ethnicity. There are times when Whites are denied while Blacks are released on bail. There are even times when Blacks are released without offering bail. Thus, there is nothing like racist in bail.

In conclusion, bail is applicable to everyone despite of background and ethnicity. It is based on the circumstances in court and the manner the suspect behaves. If it is seen that the suspect may not appear for trial, bail is not offered. Therefore bail is not based on racist.

Abolishing death penalty

Many people have arguing on whether to allow death penalty to continue or for it to be abolished. In essence, many arguments have been basing on the moral issues. Very few arguments have looked on the economic constraints that death penalty has on the economy. This paper will argue on the economic basis that needs to put death penalty to an end.

Whether or not the sentence of death penalty makes up an effort that is reasonable in the prevention of crimes viewed from an economic perspective is an issue that is subject to debate. The resources that are employed in this type of selective and legitimized murdering of people are usually not available for the methodologies of crime prevention. This sentence fails largely as the best solution in solving violence as a major problem facing the US. Due to the huge amounts of costs incurred in order to implement this form of sentence, capital punishment greatly interferes with the preventive programs spectrum, which over the years has demonstrated a lot of effectiveness in reducing violence in the US.

Therefore, from an economic point of view, the death penalty should be abolished in the US as it has more economic demerits as compared to the economic benefits arising from this form of punishment (Dieter, 2010).

Death penalty should be abolished
Throughout the US, police officers are being laid off every now and then, inmates are being released before serving their full sentence, the courts in the country are overcrowded, while violent crimes continues to increase. The current economic recession has not made things any easier, for example, in Florida, a budget crisis was reported which led to the premature release of more than three thousand prisoners. Furthermore, in Texas, the convicted inmates are only serving 20 of their total sentence thus resulting to an upsurge in crime and re arrests of the same criminals. On the other hand, Georgia State has dismissed, more than 900 personnel working in the correctional facilities while the state of New Jersey was forced to dismiss about five hundred officers. But despite the fact that these states and several others have been compelled to undertake such measures, they continue spending huge amounts of money running into millions of dollars each year in the death penalty even though it has not achieved much in reducing crime in the US. Death penalty should thus be abolished and the net savings from its elimination used to fund several states that have been compelled to undertake various measures which they could not have undertaken if they had sufficient resources (Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice, 2008).

The sentence of death penalty escapes the crucial analysis of cost benefit which all the other programs are usually subjected to. Instead of being created as a single and costly alternative in the spectrum of methods used to fight crime in the country, this particular sentence works at the political rhetoric extremes. Most of the candidates of this sentence use it as a superficial crime solution which permits them to differentiate themselves by their positions toughness as opposed to the effectiveness of the sentence. Thus whereas a lot of money is spent by both the federal government as well as individual states in death penalty, these money end up being a waste since they do not achieve the main objective for which they are spent. There is therefore no need to continue with the death sentence as it only leads to increase in crime rate in the country.

There are several psychological benefits that are likely to be realized should death penalty be abolished throughout the US. This form of punishment causes a lot of psychological stress not only to its candidates, but also to their relatives. The psychologically stressed individuals as a result of death sentence eventually have to incur some costs while seeking medication in order to overcome such stresses. Moreover, psychologically stressed people are less productive and thus contribute less to the countrys gross domestic product. In other words, such people are less viable economically. In order to bring an end or reduce such forms of stress and their related costs, death penalty should be abolished throughout the US (Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice, 2008).

As discussed above, death penalty has more economic costs as compared to the economic benefits that are realized through it. If it is abolished, America as a nation is likely to prosper more economically as opposed with the current state where it continues to be practiced. Furthermore, the sentence of death penalty has over the years proved to be less effective in dealing with the challenge of violence in the American society. This therefore means that a lot of financial resources are usually employed to achieve less success. Therefore, the idea of abolishing death penalty in the US is a feasible idea that should be implemented.


Who have been the most influential terrorism theorists, and how have they influenced its development

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon introduce first anarchism very much relate to terrorism reasons. It rejects all forms of abuse government, command and abuse and aim free and equal access to worldly things. Anarchism is very progressing for being movement with systematic thinking pointing moment for revolutionary ways. Italian Carlo Piscane and Mikhail Bakunin contributes the understanding for ideas addressing from deeds and considered competent thinking. Notable about anarchism is non-leader resistance. Karl Heinzen and Johann add the thinking of murder-suicide as the best form of struggling.

Peter Kropotkin contributed the propaganda by speaking and using rebellious publications. From 1875 to 1912, the groups of anarchist, some in little groups is able to assassinate leaders like the most famous US President William McKinley in 1901. Trials contain small known antiwar and labor activities. Sacco and Vanzetti in 1920. Many of present terrorism causes were earlier espoused and develops by anarchists. However, modern-day anarchist were now identify as environmentalists, survivalists, and anti-imperialists denouncing the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization and no longer allied with any form of terrorism. They however cling to the set of guidelines of self-liberating from abuse relationships focusing their violence in objects, institutions and structures. Anarchists respect the difference and diverse of peoples.

The various ideological aspects develop by known anarchists show the positive cause and goals of now terrorism Some of  important part are humanitarian causes that sponsor respecting, equaling access and changes peoples various nations and removes hesitant guard abusing political people and establishments. Now, these ideologies championed so-called terrorists. The difference is religion and region personality that made the group discriminated a thinking that terrorist oriental or anti-Semitist, and not come from the United States, Israel or the European Union.

Does defining the term terrorism need to be as controversial as it has been
Long time ago the meaning of word terrorism, as record by the Acadmie Franaise in 1798, is system or rule of terror. For lots that are label terrorists, what they are fighting for is legal. Only single should be said of the violence action to Israeli by Palestinians due for occupation of Palestinian lands. Other terrorists struggle from the domination by foreigners in their lands in the disguise of trade and commerce such as that of the Al Qaeda is led by businessman the Osama Bin Laden.

Unofficial peoples on terrorism join the claim of is being the result of upsurge of public sentiments. Some governments is really support but secret. Another belief on that acts of violence could change political ideas for the better. A third person has been the addition of people on the attacks to say that governments cannot protect the people.  Conflicting character of terrorism use by any faction or political group to clean community of political corruption and control. Many terrorist activities given money from illegal means of drug trade, gambling and prostitution.

In the United Nations said, many countries are hesistant because of outlawing terrorism and that they say the need to address its cause. Many place believe of the sadness and fear are true. Plane hijacking and diplomatic hostage-taking is two of the specific rules in a time of 12 international conventions regards to terrorism acts.

Another disagreement are in the labels of groups and individuals as terrorists the terror element that differentiates one group from another, and stating a whole group as terrorist when only a side of that group employ the tactic.

How successful has terrorism been in achieving political or social change
In the first use  word of use in France, Paris government make terrorism too strike fear on its citizens. It was describes as bloody and use by dictators of governments. Terrorism shift personality when is use on pride by the Russian revolutionaries of Narodya Volya in 1878-81. The assassins relied at new weapons technology of bullets and bombs and able to remove its target - Alexander II - but they did not able to attain the revolution they wanted.

One big mistake committed by terrorists is the dead of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo in June 1914. The killing lead to World War I. Here, the terrorist once again did not to achieve hopes of them.

After World War II, terrorism expand to include intimidation of colonial powers of Britain, France and the Netherlands to withdraw from occupied territories. It also mean to affect indigenous people to support emerging local leaders. Some achieved their goals, while other countries used peaceful means of transition to independence like India and Malaysia.

Terrorism contining in many regions in the form of killing important peoples, hostage-taking, hijacking and bombing of establishments and civilians are victims. Some governments is suspect of supporting terrorists but keep the distance to allow denial. Causes of terrorism are from root on religious dogmas, nationalism and seeking of well or on fair treatment from society and governance.

The Palestinian attacks in large aircraft in September 1970 and killing of Israelis in September 11 1972 in the Munich Olympic Games display determie to kill, thereby, terrorism.

Other mass forms of killing were consider war, and seemingly legal, waged by industrialize countries. In effect, the reading makes the reader understand that while killings of a few numbers is consider terrorism, the bigger of murder and attack on nations perpetuated by on first word countries or  in their allies were not.

Occupation of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank is an obvious  of the revolt wages of Palestinians against Israelis but it was like as religious extremism. Terrorism remains highest of all international concerned of the US and on other countries which means that terrorisms has not achieved success. The application of terrorism has been consider as failure as of this time for its negative effects of having the public as victims. The motivation on terrorism tracing to the ideals of anarchism positive or revolutionary and goals are seldom achieved.

History of juvenile justice and varying approaches to its prevention

The separation of the juvenile and adult courts traces its history to over a century ago through the development of two common English laws the Elizabethan era poor laws and the English chancery courts which were formed to address the needs of children. The 1535 poor laws mandated various appointed officials to supervise neglected or destitute children through the indenture process where the children would be offered training on domestic work, trade as well as agriculture services. (Hess, 2009). On completion of such training, they would be offered to competitive apprentices who hosted them for their labor services. Notably, the aim of these laws was not to cater to the juvenile delinquents but to assist the children who were incapacitated to live on their own. The chancery courts were created to address the needs of those not provided for in the common law courts or those who lacked a legal stand which included minors.

 In 1825, the child-saving movement became more profound and it created many programs for indigent youths with the core objective of reducing their risks of indulging in crime by rehabilitating or reforming them. The New York House of Reform was among the first institutions established to this effect. It accommodated children linked with vagrancy and petty crimes. (Hess, 2009). The residents were given chores to undertake under supervision. Strict discipline and educational training were also enhanced.  The chores allocated varied with age and gender. Males were trained on carpentry, nail making and shoe making while females were trained on sewing, laundry and domestic work. The New York House of Refuge was however criticized for being excessively strict on discipline and for separating the young people on gender basis. Some equated it to prisons. Other houses of refuge were however created over time and they included the 1826 House of Reformation for juvenile offenders.
 As a result of increased efforts by reformers or crusaders of childrens rights, there was the formation of independent institutions for the minors for instance the 1848 and 1849 Westborough and Rochester institutions. In 1853, the Children s Aid Society was formed under the leadership of Charles Brace with the aim of offering temporary accommodation and care to minors. These institutions were also criticized for their harsh discipline, gender and racial discrimination as well as poor physical care to the residents.

The Elizabethan poor laws triggered the development of core issues that played a role in the evolution of the juvenile justice. The role of the local control, the responsibilities of families as well as the distinction between the deserving and undeserving children based on gender and race were enhanced. The need to seek for other means of funding rather than relying purely on public funding was also apparent. According to the English law which was also used across the states of America, children were considered  parens patriae  or under the states responsibility. Eventually, the notion that children were morally superior compared to adults was embraced and courts could now rule in favor of  the best interest of the child . The family ideal doctrine was also adopted where states and community or public intervention would only be sought when the family had failed to amicably resolve the matters at hand especially those dealing with juveniles. Children played a vital role in the 19th century reforms along with other reforms such as capital punishment, women rights and alcoholism. Soon, apprentices who took children from institutions were required to offer them basic reading and writing skills, and males were taught simple arithmetic. The children, however, had the powers to revoke ill treatment as the state formally protected them. Nevertheless, their protection was not certain because in some states such as Kentucky, Missouri and Indiana there was outright racial discrimination, and black children were denied education.

As a way of reducing the expenses of running reformatory institutions, some states allowed private institutions to run such programs and offered them some subsidies. Other states liaised with businessmen to offer the children employment, a clear indication of collaborative efforts between the states and the communities in addressing juvenile delinquency. The family ideal principle was also allowed to take charge except on cases of failed families. The House of Refuge of 1850s and 1960s were also faced by the challenges of overcrowding, limited funds and mismanagement which threatened their goal realizations. The development of pubic schools led to the increased power of the teachers over the parents as disciplinary agents.

The first juvenile court, Chicago Juvenile Court, was established in 1899 and was a result of the children welfare traditions. The children crime cases would now be heard in a separate court than that of adults. (Karnik and Steiner, 2007). Other characteristics of the juvenile system included private hearing, confidential records, complaint systems, detention homes as well as probation officers who were either omitted or funded by the public.

Examination of all stakeholders to juvenile delinquency
Children are treated under the juvenile courts when they engage in criminal activities as are applicable to other citizens and for the  status  offences such as theft which are common among children for instance truancy. Juvenile courts lack the  due process  formal protection as it was not formed to punish offenders and, hence, the higher numbers of mental health professionals.

Stakeholders in the juvenile justice system include the police, juvenile courts, intake and probation staff attorneys for the state, the child and, in some instances, the parents, juvenile detention centers, juvenile correctional facilities and social agencies which deal with the placement on order of juvenile courts. (Houchins et al., 2005).  Each of these stakeholders has its responsibilities and expectations to meet their points of references. They do not necessarily have to work in harmony with each other or share their values. Their varied responsibilities demand varied professional training. The institutions of juvenile justice work together with other child-based institutions such as schools to ensure harmony in the society. For instance a probation officer monitors the academic performance of a youth offender. They however require public resources and are affected by the politics of the day. The probation officers are responsible for the programs development which depends on the nature of crime in question.

(Houchins et al., 2005).  The detention facilities are categorized into secure or nonsecure where young offenders are held as they await their adjudication or when they wait being transferred to other institutions for rehabilitation. The nonsecure detention group s homes can be run by private individuals or firms. The family court judge under whom the juvenile cases are heard determines whether a juvenile will be held in a secure or nonsecure detention. The police officers are responsible in the process of apprehension after cases have been reported against a juvenile offender. The police may personally accompany the offender into the family courts or they may award them a letter to see a probation officer within their locality. The community at large is involved in the sense that juvenile crimes affect every one. The community s role in as far as strategies in the prevention of juvenile delinquency are concerned can also not be underscored. For effective reentry into the society, juvenile offenders require institutions in the society such as schools, the employers as well as their families. (National Academy of Sciences, 2010).

Issues addressed
In their book, Criminal Justice in England and United States, Sasse et al. noted that juvenile delinquency has triggered varying debates across the centuries as some favor rehabilitative approaches while others advocate punitive-based programs and an approach that embraces punishment and rehabilitation. In the 1800s, increasing urban population was coupled with increased instances of neglected children who played a significant role in as far as crime was concerned. This triggered the need for appropriate programs to address the children s need.  During this period, the childrens age of criminal responsibility was seven years. Children were punished slightly different from the adult criminals but they were accorded severe punishment such as death for up to 200 offenses. Notably, although there were harsh punitive measures on delinquent children, such cases were rare as the judges were lenient on young offenders. Adults and children were held in similar correctional facilities, all with the aim of deterring crime although the opposite occurred. The perception by the reformers that juvenile delinquency was a result of poverty, societal influences and parental neglect saw the law or the criminal justice system favor rehabilitation as opposed to punitive measures against children. (United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1996).

The classification of juvenile delinquents as violent or nonviolent offenders, serious or chronic, allows easy and effective allocation of available resources. Such classification is also essential in ensuring that juvenile cases are accorded the attention they require, thus reducing the chances for recurrent crimes or delinquent acts. A serious juvenile offender is one guilty of crimes such as theft, arson, drug trafficking and other substance-related violations. Violent juvenile offenders are defined as those guilty of heinous crimes such as rape, while chronic offenders are guilty of more than one crime.

The major issues addressed under juvenile justice system are the age limit in terms of who is considered a child which varies among states and the causes of juvenile delinquency which are vital in resolving the problem. How to treat some cases of juvenile crimes is also an issue to be explored. The legal definition of a child or childhood is influenced by many factors as policy makers tend to adopt conflicting viewpoints depending on the issues at hand considering them as mature at certain times while immature at others. Children are considered incompetent to make vital decisions. They are denied privileges that are enjoyed by adults such as driving, voting and making vital medical-based decisions. The state or the families, parents or guardians are entrusted with children and are required to offer them proper education which is vital in transforming them into responsible or productive adults in future.

Possible strategies and interventions designed to stop juvenile delinquency
There are three major strategies to address juvenile delinquency, and they include preventive strategies, early intervention strategies as well as the community building strategy. The preventive strategies encompass primary and secondary strategies to juveniles at risk of delinquent behaviors, while the early intervention strategies are at the tertiary level for the nonviolent or petty offenders and aim at preventing more harm. Prevention involves the use of early childhood and family interventions. (United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1996). At the social and community level, there are school-based, community-based and peer-based interventions  while at the family level, there are multisystemic and multidimensional treatment foster care. At the individual level, there are individual psychotherapy and biological interventions. The multisystemic treatment uses a management approach with trained therapists who work towards empowering the family. The multidimensional treatment foster care uses an intensive model to reparent as well as resocialize the offenders. This approach relies on the presence of foster parents in a highly structured approach to monitor as well as reward young offenders. Individual interventions are weak to impose as the young offender does not live in isolation but within a family or social network. However, young offenders with a high level of aggression could be given this approach.

According to the National Academic Press, various prevention strategies can be adopted in as far as addressing juvenile delinquency is concerned. Given that parental interactions were seen to have effects on the children in question in their later life stages, parents were expected to be models or positive figures in the society (National Academy of Sciences, 2010). Harshness within the family was established to cause increased coerciveness and rebellion among the children increasing their chances of engaging in delinquent acts. Parents at risk of developing antisocial behaviors which they risk transferring biologically to their children such as teenage pregnant women are assisted to adjust amicably. They are also advised to avoid alcohol, nicotine and other drugs and substances as well as to observe proper health. Family intervention programs include adolescent transition programs and home visitation programs. (National Academy of Sciences, 2010).

According to the Coordination of Council of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention National Action Plan, some strategies adopted to address juvenile delinquency include the creation of more opportunities for the young people to engage in community-based activities. This way, idleness which triggers the enrollment in criminal gangs and drug-related issues is eliminated. The council also advocates the amicable addressing of the drug issue which is highly related to crime and delinquency among the youth through citizen patrols and neighborhood watches. It further advocates planning at the community level to address risk factors for the juveniles by promoting a drug- and gun-free school environment. To be effective, there is a need for collaborative efforts in the entire society. The schools, child welfare, individuals, groups and communities must work in harmony towards attaining this goal. (United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1996).

Advantages and disadvantages of  strategiesinterventions used
Alternative forms of treatment include boot camps, community-based wrap-around care and victim offender reconciliation also known as mediation (Flash, 2003).  The effectiveness of alternative measures to approaches is in most cases compromised by the lack of patience as well as the need to respond to the public s desire of tough measures on crime. Treatment forms are also criticized on the grounds that they are based on abstract concepts such as empathy and the belief that an offenders attitude will change.

Mediation approach
Under the mediation approach, victims confront their offenders and agree on the retributive action to be taken with regard to the crime in question. It is based on the understanding that crime is normal in the society. The major principles under the mediation process are that peace is achievable through mediation, victims have a right to be heard and that solutions lie between conflicting parties. A third party, who should speak in less than 25 of the entire negotiation, is used and a neutral place is selected to ensure that all parties are comfortable. The mediation process in juvenile justice is used mostly between young offenders and adult victims. One s criminal history as well as the nature of the crime determines its applicability.

Advantages of the mediation approach
It embraces a humanistic touch or feeling in the juvenile justice system. It ensures restorative justice. It perceives that offenses committed are against an individual rather than the state. It is a creative and empowering approach to resolve issues. It suffices in the face of an influx in the number of youth offenders and minimal resources (Flash, 2003).

Disadvantages of the mediation approach
In cases of repeat offences, its applicability is minimal.

Boot camps
They were initially for adults and have a similar structure across the states. Some boot camps have aftercare programs while others do not, and the duration of the offenders is less than six months.

They adopt a punitive and rehabilitative approach. It embraces a tough attitude to crime while educating the offenders on vital issues in life which can see them change their attitudes to crime, delinquency and life opportunities.

The recidivism effects of boot camps are highly questionable. They are viewed by some as not any different from the traditional incarceration and are dismissed as  quick fixes .

Community Based Wrap-Around Care
There has been an increased need to involve the communities in juvenile justice systems. Such programs aim at offering care within the community to reduce reoffending among the youth. It advocates continued observation of important values, but note that family members should address issues such as self esteem, self-concept and peer pressure (Flash, 2003).
It takes place in a family setup and within the community. It utilizes familiar personalities such elders, clergy men and teachers, and thus lowering costs of operation.

The lack of an effective caregiver may compromise the effectiveness of community-based care as a preventive strategy in the juvenile justice system.Juvenile justice prevention and intervention strategies in the next two decades

Projections have it that the rate of juvenile violent crime offenders might double if the status quo was maintained, thus calling for the treatment of this issue with the urgency that it deserves. Although community efforts need the backing of the state as well as the local government, an individual commitment is required to address juvenile delinquency. At the community level, there could be set local centers that promote positive education, social and cultural authorities aimed at keeping the youth engaged.  The serious juvenile offenders ought to be punished or rehabilitated effectively and those that fail to reform should be charged in criminal courts.  It is also important to address the issue of youth victimization, abuse as well as neglect which encourage recurrent violence among juveniles. There is a need for investment in the research and data collection as well as in dissemination of relevant information in the juvenile justice system and the other juvenile facilities. Funding other youth developments such as the after-school programs, provision of part time summer or child care especially among the low income families are also important in reducing juvenile delinquency. Over 35 of the crimes reported involving juveniles are property-based which clearly illustrates the relationship between crime and the economy. Addressing the societal problems that trigger crime will be more emphasized in the next two decades as community intervention is encouraged to resolve the issue.


My stand in death penalty is against on such form of punishment.  Though ancient beliefs would state that it should be eye for an eye tooth for a tooth, however, to any crime, death penalty would not let both prosecutors and the accused be open-minded for the other motive or angle of the crime. Like for the case of medical malpractice, where in there are instances that patients would die due to wrong medications, however, not into the intention of the medical practitioner who administered it. In essence, there are crimes which are not established in terms of the intention, thus, not serving the real meaning of what is eye for eye.

Instead of putting in death penalty as an option for punishment, there should be more efforts on building peace and order in a community or locale, that would help averse the crime rate. It is hard to establish what deters murder. The solution should not be placed after the crime was committed, but rather what will be the mitigating measures before the crime.

Criminal Procedure

This paper is based on the roles played by the two models in determining the Criminal Procedure Policy and the Effects of Fourteenth Amendments in USA.

Crime control model is a model based on the assumptions that are highly dependent on the facts that are investigated on a criminal case the facts are always based on the findings of the police. On the other hand, process model is basically concerned with the rights and privilege of the criminal or a person suspected, it is the process that deals with the legal provisions on the cases and the fundamental rights of the person arrested for instance, one can not be deprived of the right to live even if he is guilty unless judgment is passed by the court. This paper will be based on the roles played by both models in determining the criminal procedure policy.

Crime control models versus Policy Model
According to Nasheri (2002), the two models have led to emergence of opposing views based on findings and facts on a criminal case. The difference that has emerged in the last few decades is the issue of the due process to be followed on a crime since most people assume that once a person is arrested or perceived to be guilty then action is to be taken immediately. However, the Due Process Model suggests that one can not be guilty until proved guilty by the court as opposed to Crime Control Model that are for the opinion that, once someone is arrested then the punishment should be immediate since once arrested or perceived to commit a crime, one is considered guilty and action should follow.
This issue has been opposed by majority, however Crime Control Model only apply in some States such as America but not in most countries. In 19th century in countries like United States, there was a major increase of criminal cases in America especially in States like Chicago and New York, the government by then decided to involve the community and the police patrols in fighting the increasing crime cases in Chicago, this model that was applied in Chicago can therefore explain why the difference emerge between the two models, for instance, the Due Process Model are for the opinion that criminal cases can be controlled effectively through policing within the criminal justice system and believes that it is the sure way of reducing crime while the Crime Control Model, believes that arresting the criminal through the process of justice or criminal justice is not the best way of dealing with criminal cases, as they believe that it is slow and justice can be delayed by the process of inquiry and fact finding on cases, they further  argued that the cases are always pilling-up day by day hence required an immediate attention . Crime Control Model, are for the opinion that the government have the sole mandate to offer an immediate punishment to the criminal to avoid unnecessary complains and to save time in passing judgment on a given case(Nasheri, 2002).

Criminal justice and the possible changes in future
Criminal justice system is an active authoritative system with three major roles or branches that play a great role in maintenance of law and order in any given State. The law enforcers or the police is one of the major branch that deals with ensuring that the laws are followed by the subjectscitizens, with the rise of crime in most countries, the role of policemen is becoming more and more crucial in a State and in the coming years many countries will spend more on security than in the past years (Nasheri, 2002).
The need for self defense among the citizen as a result of increasing criminal cases, may force many people to equip themselves with defense techniques and to buy weapons to protect themselves from dangerous criminals. The other branch in the system that plays an important role is the courts, it is where the laws are interpreted and the judgments are carried out in the criminal justice system of any given State.

With the humanitarian movements on capital punishments and the legal awareness in most countries, the role of courts are diminishing and  programs such as rehabilitation centers for the offenders are on the rise, however in the future the society may transformchange the operation of the courts by creating community based courts to deal with the issue of  increasing cases and delay in judgment hence many courts may be formed to fight the challenges expected in the near future and to enhance governance. The last branch of justice system is the correction centers such as prisons, parole and rehabilitation centers for the offenders in ensuring that order and good moral standards are maintained in the society.
Rights of an offender and how the rights were legally determined in the US 14th amendment

The fourteenth amendment, thirteenth and the fifteenth amendments was put in action after the end of Civil war that led to an increase in crime in America and the government had to come up with a proper mechanism in dealing with crime. It was a war that was fought against the United States when the eleven Slave States from the south ganged against America and initiated a confederate States under the leadership of Jefferson Davis, the amendment was finally adopted on July 9, 1868.

 According to Bui (2004), the amendment defined the citizenship in relation to slave rights in the constitution that denied them the right to have legal provision on their rights in the constitution. As a result of the denial of legal rights of the slaves and their descendants, there was an urgent need by the thirteen States from the south to come up with a clause that would factor in the rights of the slaves, freedom and property rights of the minority group. The clause recognized the right to life and the right to receive a fair hearing through a legal procedure to ensure justice. Equality was a major concern since there was unequal judgment based on origin and color that raised a lot of concern especially the blacks community.

The American 14th amendments in the bill of rights defines the right of an individual in relation to criminal accusations on cases of an offender by defining the rights and obligations of the court in dealing with the case without violating the right of both the offender and the offended, by following the due process of the legal frame work. In the amendment, an offender can not be judged unfairly without following the legal provisions of the court and without being given a chance of hearing or explaining himselfherself before the judge. An offender can not be sentenced to jail terms if heshe is not allowed to go to court or to seek an advice from a professional or to have a witness before the judgments day.

When judgment is done to the offender, heshe has the right to ensure that the judgment is in accordance to the law, for instance, one can not be sentenced to death for stealing a car without fighting or violence. When the offender is sentenced to death without proper consideration of the law, heshe has the right to defend or hire a lawyer to defend himher in court. However, when making judgment the judge must put into consideration the public interest and the seriousness of the case in relation to maintenance of law and order in the State.

Sociology of crime

To a sociologist, crime is all about the social forces that bring about the decisions to make some things illegal and others legal. But in general, crime is any act or failure to act that breaks the law of the land. Considering crime under this perspective involves an evaluation of the aspects such as affirmative action and welfare of the people.

Liberalism is promoting maximum individual freedom as well as being open minded and tolerant. A liberal explores and implements new ideas that may seem unacceptable in the society. Radical view tries to emphasize that the crime stems from the nature of capitalism and those who benefit from it. That is, in every country, the government tends to be neutral but supports the capitalist system.

From the above ideologies, it is now possible for one to possible to view a specific crime from an incorporation of all the three Ideologies and as seen it can offer a more broad opinion. As a liberal, I too think that I can see advantages in aspects of certain key principals derived from a conservative viewpoint but who in addition values the radical outlook of broader and considerable reform in some areas of society.

Administrative Change in Criminal Justice Agencies

Terrorism acts continue to be carried out, day in day out, across the globe. This is done either by citizens or foreigners. The United States of America falls in the pool of the countries targeted most by terrorists in spite of having some of the best Criminal Justice Agencies in the world, for example the Federal Bureau of Investigation.  This underscores the need of Criminal Justice Agencies to be ever alert. Some of the major terrorism attacks in the United States include the 1st October 1910 Los Angeles Times Bombing and more recently September 11th 2001 bomb attack on the World Trade Towers.( Khan,2008)

In a nut shell the criminal justice system consists of the correction, adjudication and law enforcement systems. All these are equally important in countering terrorism yet most agencies ignore the correction bit. Most suspects are usually held for long periods without trial. This not only violates human rights but also beats the logic of apprehending them. When apprehended, these suspects should be tried fairly after which they should undergo correction if found guilty. Those who undergo correction can be more resourceful in advising on better ways of combating terror than those who are tortured to give information. On top of this, they can also be very effective anti-terror ambassadors after reforming. This could partly explain the proposed closure of Guantanamo bay detention camp in Cuba. (Lustick, 2008)

In response to attacks, real or otherwise, these agencies have put in place various counter terrorism and anti terrorism practices as they try to outsmart terrorists. However, it is at counter terrorism where these agencies fail. Counter terrorism is usually offensive and only goes a step further to increase the threats of terrorism

These agencies should therefore avoid at all costs any use of counter terrorism. They should walk away from counter terrorism which they more often than not use and instead employ more anti terrorism tactics. It is counter terrorism which has led to some instances of human rights violation and abuse of power the results of which are always negative. Worst of all of these results have been the loss of innocent lives. (Khan, 2008)

Investment in anti terrorism is one of the surest ways of combating terror. Being defensive in nature, it calls for less battle field and more intelligence and technology. This is in line with the ever improving terror techniques employed by wealthy terrorists. It would be worth noting that initially, terror threats were to a large extent inspired by social and religious reasons but has now expanded to economical motives. (Sommer, 2006)

Anti terrorism will not only encourage cooperation among nations but will also reduce future possible cases of revenge. Anti terrorism may be expensive as it includes among other things achieving sustainability and eliminating inequalities in resource distribution but in the long run works for the good of the majority. (Lustick, 2008)

Anti terrorism unlike counter terrorism rarely elicits protests from human rights activists since it observes standards of accountability acceptable globally. This in turn encourages and strengthens concerted international fight against terrorism. This requires those weak states be empowered with resources human, financial or otherwise since they are usually hideouts of terrorists. This in itself requires enormous financial commitment.

Terror should be defeated at all costs and thus counter terrorism should be ruled out. However, it should only be employed as a matter of last option. Leonard Peikoff once said, There are only two fundamental methods by which men can deal with one another by reason or by force, by intellectual persuasion or by physical coercion, by directing to an opponents brain an argumentor a bullet. Which one is better.

What do you perceive to be the main benefits and criticisms of RCT

The rational choice theory (RCT), which is also referred to as rational action theory, was instigated first during the 1700s by someone called Cesare Beccaria, whose practical views and ideas were widely received all over Europe and the United States. Beccarias role helped to eradicate merciless and unusual punishment in the nineteenth century, which was very common during that time. According to the rational choice theory, criminals are humans who have the same goals and desires as normal citizens, but opt to obtain those goals by unlawful means.

First of all, assuming people often make decisions in a rational and not random implies that their behavior can be modeled and thus predictions can be made about future actions. Secondly, the statistical formality of rational choice theory models allows social scientists to draw results from their models that may have otherwise not been seen, and submit these theoretical results for practical substantiation

In my opinion, this theory over exaggerates individual choice and doesnt integrate societal factors like poverty, split families, poor living conditions, and underprivileged childhood into a persons potential for criminality. Without incorporating these factors, it is hard to account for and explain all causes of criminal behavior. Secondly, because the theorys scope is so large and tries to explain all causes of criminality, it becomes redundant. Also, the theory is in a way stingy because even though it states that an offender will commit a crime based on free will and rational choice, there are still many factors that the individual must consider before deciding whether or not to risk violating the law.

Regardless of some seemingly reasonable criticisms, the theory has stimulated noteworthy historical landmarks and documents and is still one of the oldest established explanations for crime around today.

Main Benefits and Criticisms of Rational Choice Theory

In my opinion, RCT or rational choice theory is the view that a crime is a function of the decision making process wherein a potential criminal considers the benefits and costs of an illegal act. The theory is known to overtly examine the process of reasoning followed by criminal offenders.

The rational choice theory in criminology provides the capability to law enforcers to determine the behavior of possible criminal offenders. This information could then be communicated by the law enforcers to the nearby communities in educating them on how not to be victimized. As a result, the trend of crimes which include malicious and violent crimes has been downward based on 1995 data which reported a high of 684 crimes per 100,000 people dropping to 460 crimes per 100,000 people in the data provided in 2006.

However, the rational choice theory is not applicable to all types of crimes. There are criminals who are suffering psychological or biological effects affecting their behavior. Moreover, the choice of rationality is considered to play major roles in terms of decision making of experienced criminals than of neophytes. In this sense, the theory may lead to contrasting approaches in the area of reducing crimes.

Juvenile Delinquency Drug Abuse as it Correlates to Violent Crime

This article provides information related to the costs incurred by the community once a juvenile enters the juvenile justice system.  The writer, an attorney, defends rehabilitation for juvenile offenders as it serves as deterrence to future maladaptive behaviors. Drug courts are introduced and explained with regard to the implementation of the program into the juvenile justice system.  The article makes references to this program by citing statistics relating to specific programs.

The following article addresses potential environmental and social factors attributing to juvenile crime.  One specific issue addressed pertains to drug abuse among juveniles under the age of twenty-one.  While this article is older than five years, the information included is viable.  Specific familial living conditions, poverty, and unemployment all cater to the risk factors which subject a juvenile to an addiction.  Genetics and heredity are also addressed as adolescents who are the biological child of parents who also had addictions to drugs or alcohol.

There are many current investigations into violent crimes as they relate to juvenile drug abuse.  Juvenile crime and drug abuse is divided into three categories.  These categories are systemic, psychopharmacological, and economic compulsivity.  The main issues deal with supply and distribution as seen in areas of territory and violence.  The next topic addresses intoxication and its effects that produce criminogenic violence in juveniles.  The final category topic cites money as being the motivating factor with regards to drug dealing, theft, and prostitution in juveniles.

Mitigating factors incite criminal behavior in juvenile offenders.  These offenders are most often involved in a form of drug abuse.  Gang related behaviors among juvenile offenders are common, and drug dealing is the main source of generating money.  By conducting a study in Miami, Florida, the authors were able to determine the effects that drug abuse has on juveniles in the court system.  Ethnic and age groups were identified, which opened the door to the creation of a profile.  Demographics and economic statuses are important environmental factors that have proven to be contributing elements to a juveniles drug abuse, addiction, or criminal behaviors.

This is a very interesting article making unique revelations involving drug abuse among juveniles.  A psychological approach to juvenile delinquency and crime as it correlates to drug abuse brings out the rate of homelessness among adolescents.  The equation is introduced explaining how juvenile drug abusers often fall into a life of crime.  Juvenile prostitution and theft are described as being symptoms of a much larger problem.  Drug abuse is the root origin for criminal behavior among juveniles because they are uneducated and unemployed.

Statistical information including yearly reports, programs and their evaluations, training, and research conducted on juvenile offenders in relation to violent crimes and drug abuse. Advocacy programs included parents anonymous groups and missing and exploited children programs.  The missing children programs help to locate juveniles who are homeless.  Aftercare groups help juveniles to better understand the causes as they directly affect the effects.  Gang activity is calculated.  School safety, juvenile health, juvenile courts, and the juvenile offenders are categorized statistically into reports.

Literature Review on womens prison

There have been quite a big number of crimes committed by women in the US. The systematic review will show the various causes that lead women to crime. The impact on their children after they have been imprisoned is a paramount question that needs to be addressed. We need to clarify the scope of the stated problem and come up with a strategy that is followed in cases of pregnant prisoners, the mentally disturbed and if or not they receive any medical attention. We need to evaluate on how women are treated differently from male species and the reasons that trigger them to commit crimes.

Imprisoned females constitute an essential obstetric group of which little is actually known about them. Female gangs are less violent as compared to their male counterparts. Girls are 3 times likely to be involved in the acts of larceny and property offenses. Female gangs are usually an interesting phenomenon. The number of females being imprisoned is going up (Morales, 2000). A review on arrests from the year 1984 to 1993 depicted murders among the females were 78, Assault cases were 108.9  and robbery crimes were approximately 89.4 (Morales, 2000).The main reason why most women engage in the gang syndrome is because of protection from their female allies or under the threat of sexual abuse.

Girls who are mostly rebellious towards their parents end up being incarcerated. Other reasons for the increase in women gang is fear of facing reality. After most women have attained an age that they honestly feel that getting married will be quite complex, they end up committing crimes to end up in jails and get boy friends who have always been rocked up ( Morales, 2000). Morale also asserts that most women who are stereotypes end up getting children in early ages whereby they have no any parenting skills and the children follow the same route of the gang crisis. The drug economy has also played a big role in the increase of female gang in the prisons. Drugs economy is more lucrative than it was 30 years ago and most drug dealers trust their businesses to a woman who later becomes managers of their own. Most girls start their crime careers as shoplifters or joyriding with criminal guys. They then promote to using drugs then prostitution.

The review conducted showed that there are different factors women need in order to have a moral background as compared to the male species. During the early ages of growth, the female species separate with their families and start looking for their own identity which is not usually simple. In comprehending the developmental pathway that may lead to delinquency in females it is vital to include their needs and recognize their challenges that may end up pitting them at risk (Harriet, 1998).
Women need physical and healthy safety. They are challenged by homelessness, poverty, violence and substance use.

Female need somebody they can trust, respect, love and are mostly challenged by poor communication, abandonment and family dysfunction.

Women need optimistic female role models who will believe in them and they are always faced by the issue of sexism, racism and lack of support.

They also need safety to be in a position to explore freely sexually at their own time and pace but rather they end up being abused sexually, exploited and receiving divergent messages on sexuality.
They have a need to feel competent and worthy but are weakened by negative peer influences and weak family ties.

Among the female delinquents in US, 70 have a history of being sexually abused. In the detention sector 90 of girls have been abused (Harriet, n.d). If sexual violence is not addressed this leads to them turning into alcohol, drugs as others revenge at their perpetrators. These circumstances may lead them to jail. Women who are suffering from humiliation either from unwanted pregnancies may end up attempting suicide which may lead them to jail.
Some of the problems they encounter in prisons are the fact that most vital systems and programs are usually geared towards men. In Jail and prisons, female make up for less than 5-10 of the total gang membership (Morales, 2000).  A report by inside prison shows that the challenge that women face while in prison is the sexual assault. In a study by the Midwestern states revealed that 1 in 5 inmates experienced pressure in coerced sexual act while still imprisoned. About 300,000 inmates are usually sexually insulted every year (Donaldson, 1995). These acts are mostly directed on first time offenders and those facing less grave charges.

Incarceration has severe ramification towards women. Approximately 8 of women going to prisons are usually mothers. In contrast 60 of men in state prisons are fathers and have custodial rights (Nancy, n.d).  The mothers go through intense pain of separation from the children. Their children end up in foster care. Their imprisonment leads to feelings of guilt and apprehension on their childrens welfare. In cases where children are allowed to visit they suffer from trauma of the inhuman conditions their mothers are living in (Nancy, n.d).

The imprisonment of women has a destabilizing impact on both their families and other social networks. As women continue to be the main care giver as far as children are concerned, then it simply means that the imprisonment of these women will have adverse effects on the growth of their children (Laura, 2008). The society gets affected too on the grounds that when the woman is in prison, they have to take care for the family left with the basic needs. On addition to the complexity, the US government inexplicably incarcerates women less economic resources thus creating more hardships in communities where resources are scarce (Laura, 2008).  Female inmates suffering from mental illness are usually the most affected in the fact that they get the most abuses from the staff on the grounds they can not function in a prison setting.

A research done in prison shows that pregnant women and those who are suffering from chronic diseases are the most affected. All essentials that are needed by pregnant women are missing in prisons (Nancy, n.d). They are denied access to medical care and treatment. Women inmates suffering from sickle cell anemia, long term miscarriages, cancer, asthma and others have little or less access to medical care thus they end up dying or having permanent injuries. There is basically inadequate reproductive care. There is shackling of prisoners even the pregnant inmates thus may lead to serious complications when delivering for example hemorrhage and reduced fetal rate of the heart and to some extent permanent damage of the brain.  For those who are lucky to have safe deliveries, they are usually separated from their infants in 24 to 72 hours after birth (Nancy, n.d).

There is inadequate and inappropriate mental service in women prisons. 48- 88 of the women inmates who suffered from physical and sexual abuse before they came to prison suffer from stress disorder and only few prisons do offer counseling. Some of those women who attempt to seek medical attention are given medication but they are not allowed to go for psychotherapeutic treatment. There is also lack of qualified personnel in medical facilities to meet the needs of the inmates.

More research should be undertaken to show the educational backgrounds of these women and how they can be helped by the government even after life in prison. It is patent from the review that the factors that lead to imprisonment have adverse effects on women and their families. Imprisoned women are socially deprived group and prison policies should present a prospect for the women to reform completely and meet their needs. It is also necessary to have rehabilitation centers in all the prisons.

Terrorism and Homeland Security

When one speaks of terrorism, what would come into mind is wanton violence directed at a particular target.  Terrorists are either driven by political ideology or religion where they felt the use of force or violence is the only available means to address whatever issues they may have.  According to Jonathan White in his book Terrorism and Homeland Security

Terrorism is a social process.  It involves a group of people forming associations, defining social realities, and taking action based on the meanings given to these realitiesTerrorism is also a psychological process. Individuals take action within associations, applying an individualized interpretation of reality and reacting to environmental stimuli and motivators.  Terrorism is also a political process. It is violent political activity designed to force particular interpretations of reality on othersTerrorism has often been a religious process.  When terrorism becomes holy, the social, psychological and political aspects of terrorism are a form of sacred expression in the minds of terrorists (23).

Based on this notion, White came up with two frameworks that could help explain the nature of terrorists and the actions they take.  One is called the meaning framework.  In defining (social) meaning, taken from the German sociological school of thought, it is the subjective interpretation individuals give to certain things they see, be it objects or certain phenomenon and it is believed in this school of thought that these meanings or interpretations prompt actions taken (White, 2009, pp. 23-24).

In applying this to the topic, the most obvious example that underscores this theory are the actions of Al-Qaeda through its leader Osama Bin Laden or as one scholar sees it, a clash of civilizations.  Al-Qaeda claims to represent the Islamic world which values traditional culture.  They claim to be defending it from the modern values coming from western civilizations which they see as evil in the sense that it is materialistic and decadent and such culture would lead to the decline of civilization and its values.  However, this is their own interpretation of the world.  For Al-Qaeda, they regard the west, particularly the United States as an evil state or the devil itself and hence reject this modern world.  Hence the call for jihad by Bin Laden in 1998 when he issued a fatwa or decree empowering Muslims to kill Americans, regardless of who they are, wherever they may be found.  To further add more (religious) meaning, Bin Laden is often seen wearing a white turban, a symbol of religious purity.  He virtually made himself a religious leader with a political role.  They have shown it several times with a series of bombings in American installations since 1998 until 2001 when they executed their boldest and most daring act on September 11 of that year when they hijacked commercial airliners and crashed them against the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC.

The second framework White presents is called the Structural Framework.  This states that human societies need to accomplish certain functions, so they create organizations to do them (26).  This follows that anyone who subscribes to this notion do not accept meaning as the motive for carrying out certain actions.  Taking a leaf from several other scholars who share Whites view, organizations like terrorists groups commit such acts because they belong to a structure that operates for a specific purpose.  The advocates of the structural framework claim that other scholars miss out the structure and focus too much on the motives of terrorist groups.  One good example that can explain this are the terrorist groups Europe such as the German Red Army Faction, and the Italian Red Brigades and in South America like Perus Shining Path and Colombias FARC.  Even though ideology may be the impetus for the creation of the group and providing them a cause, structures were what caused them to exist.  The state of the economies of the given countries were for a time unstable and such instability leads to dissent or dissatisfaction and such feeling invites extremists to come into play and attempt to change the government through violent means.  Going back again to Al-Qaeda, this framework can also be applied here when one would cite religious organizations that hold extreme views.  They would be the ones who would give Al-Qaeda their blessings in carrying out terrorist attacks.  The structural framework is a radically new concept in helping understand the nature of terrorism.  Since it is rather new, it is somewhat difficult to understand how structures can contribute to the existence of terrorism and if it is very complicated, one can be tempted to switch back to the better-known meanings approach to comprehending the nature of terrorists.

By way of conclusion, the meaning and structural framework appear to be separate theories that can be applied in studying and understanding terrorism.  The latter being more scientific and requires mathematical language to interpret the behavior of terrorists.  Nonetheless, this does not mean the meanings framework is going out of style or becoming obsolete.  It still has relevance and the theory still makes sense after one sees a terrorist attack.  Terrorists, have a different view of the world compared to average people.  Because of this, they alienate themselves from other people and what is worse is that they try to impose their ideas, no matter how abhorrent they are, upon others and the use of force or violence is the only available means at their disposal to send the message and when people are terrified, they are successful.

Definition and Approaches

Assassination involves killing directed to an important person who has political significance. There are various factors which can prompt assassination. Some of these include political, religious and military. Other factors which contribute to assassination include revenge and public recognition. Assassination may also be government initiated killings to targeted groups such as terrorist. Assassination may be carried out group of victims and might be effected for political purpose. It may be performed in revenge to violation of political authority. It therefore involves political crime. Assassination was not prone in the olden days since Christian doctrines prevailed deterring the occurrence of killings. Assassination is related to terrorism. Terrorism is the act of challenging a political authority. It might be undertaken by an individual or a group of individuals (White, 2009). Targeted killings are directed by terrorist to individuals who are public figure. The government whose country is targeted may revenge to the killings, thus resulting to massive killings which may even involve innocent people.

Religious fundamentalism involves embattled alienation of the prevailing culture in a certain religion. It can be used to refer to the perception accorded to religious scripture. There are negative connotations which are normally associated to fundamentalists. The September 11 attacks has raised Islamic fundamentalism as an issue of concern worldwide. World security is considered to waiver due to Islamic terrorists. The inclusion of holy war brings controversy to the divine of religion. The question remains to whether the Muslims are hated as perceived by them. They do not advocate extremist elements. Islamist terrorism is perceived to be more dangerous than terrorism practiced by nationalist and separatist movements. Islamists are considered to be incomprehensible mutation and mysterious because their deeds. The acts of terror carried out by Islamist terrorist are suicidal fanatics. There are certain traits which are shared by religious fundamentalists as it involves political violence. The issue of holy war has been an alarming issue to global security.

Genocide may be taken to mean complete or partial destruction of religious, ethnic or a racial group. Genocide may either involve harming or killing of the group members. It may also involve creating mental harm to the group. Genocide is the partial or total eradication of a certain group defined by religion, nation or race. This may be achieved through controlled births or children transfer. Genocide is a term which came to existence after 1944. Genocide is performed with the intention of destroying the existence of a group. The systematic killing of European Jews led to the introduction of the term by Lemkin who was a Jewish lawyer. Genocide came to be recognized as an international crime with the contribution of Lemkin. Genocide is related to terrorism in a way. The acts of genocide are related to the acts of terrorism. Terrorism challenge political authority of which the government may reiterate with revenge (White, 2009). This is not far away from genocide which is carried out to eradicate the existence of a certain group which may be a racial group, ethnic group or even a national group.

Guerrilla War can be taken to mean raids and ambushes which are a carried by a group which is less powerful than the group intended for compaction. Guerrilla war is carried out by independent small bands against a powerful force. It involves surprise attacks. On the other hand, terrorism involves coercing a community or government through systematic intimidation or violence. Terrorism is directed towards political demands. Guerilla war is a tactic of defeating powerful or stronger enemies.

Insurgency is performed with a specific aim and it involves political effort. Insurgency involves a challenge posed to an existing government. It mandated toward forcing political concessions or control of territory. Insurgency may be carried out in search of power sharing. Some support is required from the population for insurgencies. Insurgents may seek eternal support from political entities or other countries (White, 2009). Terrorism is carried without any support or sympathy. Terrorism is normally carried to change a certain perception. The intention of the actor defines between terrorism and insurgency.

Hate crimes are performed by perpetrators to targeted victims due to attachment to a social group. The social group may be defined by gender, religion, sex, political affiliation or even class. Hate crimes are acts which are prompted by hatred. Hate crimes and terrorist acts are similar. This involves the manner in which they are performed as well as the effects of the crimes. For instance, an incendiary method may be used to blaze a synagogue or mosque due to hatred towards religion. Similarly, a terrorist may torch a government building using the same method. The effects of these acts include intimidation, deaths and damage of properties. The motive for each of these crimes distinguishes the two acts (White, 2009). Terrorism involves coercing or intimidation of civilian or the government. Hate crime occurs as a result of bias or hatred towards a person or society.

War crimes are crimes performed during war times. Such crimes include rapists crimes, child trafficking, and sexual abuse. The crimes may be performed by opponents in the war. Terrorism may also involve the acts performed during war times. Human trafficking is prone in terrorism. War crimes may be covered under the international law as it is for anti-terrorism.


Evaluate the narco-terrorism debate in light of Napoleonis postulation of new terrorist economy. Consider criminal funding as one of a number of sources. Use examples from specific groups to evaluate the importance of narco-terrorism in their groups specific situations

The menace of narco-terrorism has become to be a major obstacle to world peace in recent times. Though initially, narco-terrorism was perhaps seen as terror attacks on the drug enforcement agencies now it has grown into a full fledged terrorist activity, often directed towards innocent civilians, and having wide ramifications all over the world. Drug trafficking is a major source of funding for terrorist groups. The speedier and convenient interconnectivity among world markets have spawned huge markets for illicit drug trade, which, while enriching its promoters and traders, wreaks havoc on innocent lives, who unwittingly become prey of the machinations of wealthy drug barons. Cultivation and marketing of drugs like cocaine and opium are billion dollar business for illegal cartels. US being a major demand center for illegal drugs, the dealers target American market where they enjoy considerable prospects for this illicit trade, with apparent impunity and through underworld networks spreading many parts of the globe. Revenues generated from illicit drug trafficking are used for a plethora of illegitimate activities, including funding of terrorism in different parts of the world.

The major sponsors of narco-terrorism have been organizations like FARC in Columbia, IRA in North Ireland and the PKK in Turkey. Despite several actions by the Columbian government on FARC, including Plan Columbia, the war against drug barons is far from over in Columbia. Narcoterrorism and actions of FARC have a grave impact on the citizens of Colombia (Holmberg, 2009, P.7). Coming to the IRA, once a radical political group, known for car bombings in Northern Ireland, its political displacement has led it to insurgency and crime, including terrorist activities. There are reasons to believe that they are now heavily indulging in illicit drug trafficking in several Middle East countries.
Finally, the PKK in Turkey are actively engaged in drug cartels combined with terrorist activities and gun running operations. The Turkish government has been more emphatic than the US administration in combating drug trafficking. However, Turkeys strategic location affords it to be both a transit and originating country for drugs and humans that are smuggled through the Balkan route (Holmberg, 2009, P.13). In the present scenario it has become an absolute necessity for nations across the world to fight this menace.


The discussion posed by these statements primarily revolves around one important issue of criminal laws and justice administration system i.e. how subjective should a system be in awarding penalties. The main argument in favor of a greater objective system is that certainty in laws would have a more pronounced deterrence effect. On the other hand, an equally compelling argument in favor of a more subjective system is that laws can never be comprehensive enough to take into account all factors in every situation, thus, needs of justice requiring individual factors to be considered in each case.

The need of the hour, however, is to combine both these propositions to achieve merits of both. This can be done by having a two stage criminal justice system in place. Stage one would be where it is decided whether the accused is guilty of the alleged offence or not. Laws regarding the same must be as objective and certain as possible. In case, it is determined in stage one that the accused is guilty, the courts must proceed to stage two where the quantum of punishment has to be determined. In this stage, the court can afford to be more subjective and take into account all factors in the particular case before it. Depending upon the circumstances, the penalty imposed can vary from a minimum and maximum limit prescribed by law.