Literature Review on womens prison

There have been quite a big number of crimes committed by women in the US. The systematic review will show the various causes that lead women to crime. The impact on their children after they have been imprisoned is a paramount question that needs to be addressed. We need to clarify the scope of the stated problem and come up with a strategy that is followed in cases of pregnant prisoners, the mentally disturbed and if or not they receive any medical attention. We need to evaluate on how women are treated differently from male species and the reasons that trigger them to commit crimes.

Imprisoned females constitute an essential obstetric group of which little is actually known about them. Female gangs are less violent as compared to their male counterparts. Girls are 3 times likely to be involved in the acts of larceny and property offenses. Female gangs are usually an interesting phenomenon. The number of females being imprisoned is going up (Morales, 2000). A review on arrests from the year 1984 to 1993 depicted murders among the females were 78, Assault cases were 108.9  and robbery crimes were approximately 89.4 (Morales, 2000).The main reason why most women engage in the gang syndrome is because of protection from their female allies or under the threat of sexual abuse.

Girls who are mostly rebellious towards their parents end up being incarcerated. Other reasons for the increase in women gang is fear of facing reality. After most women have attained an age that they honestly feel that getting married will be quite complex, they end up committing crimes to end up in jails and get boy friends who have always been rocked up ( Morales, 2000). Morale also asserts that most women who are stereotypes end up getting children in early ages whereby they have no any parenting skills and the children follow the same route of the gang crisis. The drug economy has also played a big role in the increase of female gang in the prisons. Drugs economy is more lucrative than it was 30 years ago and most drug dealers trust their businesses to a woman who later becomes managers of their own. Most girls start their crime careers as shoplifters or joyriding with criminal guys. They then promote to using drugs then prostitution.

The review conducted showed that there are different factors women need in order to have a moral background as compared to the male species. During the early ages of growth, the female species separate with their families and start looking for their own identity which is not usually simple. In comprehending the developmental pathway that may lead to delinquency in females it is vital to include their needs and recognize their challenges that may end up pitting them at risk (Harriet, 1998).
Women need physical and healthy safety. They are challenged by homelessness, poverty, violence and substance use.

Female need somebody they can trust, respect, love and are mostly challenged by poor communication, abandonment and family dysfunction.

Women need optimistic female role models who will believe in them and they are always faced by the issue of sexism, racism and lack of support.

They also need safety to be in a position to explore freely sexually at their own time and pace but rather they end up being abused sexually, exploited and receiving divergent messages on sexuality.
They have a need to feel competent and worthy but are weakened by negative peer influences and weak family ties.

Among the female delinquents in US, 70 have a history of being sexually abused. In the detention sector 90 of girls have been abused (Harriet, n.d). If sexual violence is not addressed this leads to them turning into alcohol, drugs as others revenge at their perpetrators. These circumstances may lead them to jail. Women who are suffering from humiliation either from unwanted pregnancies may end up attempting suicide which may lead them to jail.
Some of the problems they encounter in prisons are the fact that most vital systems and programs are usually geared towards men. In Jail and prisons, female make up for less than 5-10 of the total gang membership (Morales, 2000).  A report by inside prison shows that the challenge that women face while in prison is the sexual assault. In a study by the Midwestern states revealed that 1 in 5 inmates experienced pressure in coerced sexual act while still imprisoned. About 300,000 inmates are usually sexually insulted every year (Donaldson, 1995). These acts are mostly directed on first time offenders and those facing less grave charges.

Incarceration has severe ramification towards women. Approximately 8 of women going to prisons are usually mothers. In contrast 60 of men in state prisons are fathers and have custodial rights (Nancy, n.d).  The mothers go through intense pain of separation from the children. Their children end up in foster care. Their imprisonment leads to feelings of guilt and apprehension on their childrens welfare. In cases where children are allowed to visit they suffer from trauma of the inhuman conditions their mothers are living in (Nancy, n.d).

The imprisonment of women has a destabilizing impact on both their families and other social networks. As women continue to be the main care giver as far as children are concerned, then it simply means that the imprisonment of these women will have adverse effects on the growth of their children (Laura, 2008). The society gets affected too on the grounds that when the woman is in prison, they have to take care for the family left with the basic needs. On addition to the complexity, the US government inexplicably incarcerates women less economic resources thus creating more hardships in communities where resources are scarce (Laura, 2008).  Female inmates suffering from mental illness are usually the most affected in the fact that they get the most abuses from the staff on the grounds they can not function in a prison setting.

A research done in prison shows that pregnant women and those who are suffering from chronic diseases are the most affected. All essentials that are needed by pregnant women are missing in prisons (Nancy, n.d). They are denied access to medical care and treatment. Women inmates suffering from sickle cell anemia, long term miscarriages, cancer, asthma and others have little or less access to medical care thus they end up dying or having permanent injuries. There is basically inadequate reproductive care. There is shackling of prisoners even the pregnant inmates thus may lead to serious complications when delivering for example hemorrhage and reduced fetal rate of the heart and to some extent permanent damage of the brain.  For those who are lucky to have safe deliveries, they are usually separated from their infants in 24 to 72 hours after birth (Nancy, n.d).

There is inadequate and inappropriate mental service in women prisons. 48- 88 of the women inmates who suffered from physical and sexual abuse before they came to prison suffer from stress disorder and only few prisons do offer counseling. Some of those women who attempt to seek medical attention are given medication but they are not allowed to go for psychotherapeutic treatment. There is also lack of qualified personnel in medical facilities to meet the needs of the inmates.

More research should be undertaken to show the educational backgrounds of these women and how they can be helped by the government even after life in prison. It is patent from the review that the factors that lead to imprisonment have adverse effects on women and their families. Imprisoned women are socially deprived group and prison policies should present a prospect for the women to reform completely and meet their needs. It is also necessary to have rehabilitation centers in all the prisons.


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