Inside Out Fifty Years Behind the Walls of New Jerseys Trenton State Prison is a book written by veteran prison guard Harry Camisa and his co-writer Jim Franklin. It was first published in 2003, a year after Camisa retired from the employ of New Jersey Department of Corrections. It chronicles the fifty years of Camisas life as first a prison guard then a teacher in Trenton. In those years of service, Camisa encountered the many infamous characters that were detained in the prison. He also experienced many victories and trials in that treacherous environment.

Through a collection of short stories and anecdotes, Camisa brings readers inside the highly guarded walls of Trenton State Prison. The prison after all is a maximum-security facility for the most notorious and hardened criminals of New Jersey. He shares the humorous, the frightful, the surprising, and even the life threatening experiences he had while working as a prison guard.

Camisa also sheds light into the kind of people locked up in Trenton State Prison. His first-hand encounters with them gives readers a glimpse of what the most dangerous criminals are like. In his 50 years experience, Camisa even had the opportunity to befriend some of the toughest, most menacing offenders.

The extensive stint of Camisa allowed him to go through history within the massive walls of the prison. He also took part in many of the most talked about incidents that happened in Trenton. Being one of the first Italian prison guards in New Jersey, Camisa himself is part of history.

It was in 1950 when Harry Camisa started working at Trenton State Prison. He was 21. The prison is a familiar site to Camisa. He grew up only a block away from it (Camisa  Franklin, 2003) and as a boy passed by the place so many times. However it was only on his first day as prison guard did he have the chance to really see what lay inside.

Trenton State Prison is one of the toughest maximum-security penitentiaries in the country. It is located in the middle of a residential area south of the city (Camisa  Franklin, 2003). The prison is a massive two block wide brick building that house the most dangerous and brutal criminals to ever cross the shores of New Jersey.

During the 50 years Camisa was employed at Trenton, he had the chance to meet some of the most celebrated criminals in history. From known Mafia lords to the most violent sex offenders and murderers, Camisa met them all.

Several times, upon meeting these hardened criminals for the first time, Camisa was struck by how unsuspecting most of them were. Clarence Hill who was called The Duck Island Killer was a soft spoken and personable man. He was so unlike the monster he was when he went on a killing spree between the years of 1930 and 1940. Then there was Richard Biegenwald who was convicted for killing four women in New Jersey. He is considered  a serial killer in New Jersey. In his last post, Camisa worked alongside Biegenwald famously almost everyday.

In the book Camisa shared many more encounters with many more of the most vicious criminals. However, what is striking about his stories is that in most of them, Camisa would describe the inmates as meek or gentle. It surprises him that the men he spent time with in prison are the very same ones who have done the most heinous of crimes.
Camisa also tells of his harrowing experiences while working in prison. He called his life as a prison guard living on the edge (Camisa  Franklin, 2003). He was in the middle of one of the bloodiest riots in prison history when two warring Muslim gangs went after each other in 1975. He also witnessed 13 death sentences materialize. In two instances had to participate in the execution of three men in one night. He was in the center of many attempted escapes, one of which was that of a Black Liberation Army member that ended up in a gun battle between law enforcers and the escapees. And then there were times that danger became too personal. Camisa was taken hostage twice and survived.

Through his sharing of actual events inside prison, Camisa attested to many of the horrific practices by the people who run it. In fact in one instance Camisa himself took part in beating of an inmate. Life in prison is tough for both the inmates and their guards. However, in this intense environment there are still opportunities to build a life.

Inmates are allowed to work and earn inside prison. They are also given options for study and skills enhancement. Camisa after retiring as prison guard in 1979 went on to teach and run several of the facilities inside prison. He worked closely with many of his ward. Many of them who are released after serving their sentences go on to live productive and quiet lives. Some become repeat offenders and spend their lives going in and out of prison.

The guards have different views about prison. Some see it simply as a way to make a living while waiting for better things to come. In the book Camisa also revealed how some politicians use being head of the prison for their own selfish designs. Some however, like him see working in prison as a lifelong vocation.

Camisa sums up his 50 years as an employee of the New Jersey Department of Corrections with the very first line in the book I love my job (Camisa  Franklin, 2003). The system may not be perfect. The life inside prison may not be the most ideal. There are dangers waiting in every corner. Prison may be a place for seemingly hopeless individuals. But to Camisa, Trenton State Prison actually helped shape his life and made him the person he is today.

Alcohol Abuse within the Police Force

Alcohol abuse in the disciplined forces is common in federal and state departments across the country. But due to the sensitivity of the information it has been difficult for the public to scrutinize and estimate the impact it has on the police force. The police are custodians of law and order, they interact with citizens everyday and are expected to root out any vices within. Their sobriety is therefore paramount to the effective discharge of duties. This paper will look at the extent of alcohol abuse in both the federal and state police departments and recommend what can be done to improve the situation.

Alcohol is a recreational substance that that has been around the world for many centuries. Historically, alcohol has been used for medicinal and religious purposes. However, it also has a long history of recreational use (Goodwin, 2000, p. 19). Excessive and uncontrolled indulging may make one dependent on alcohol, easily making him or her alcoholic. Alcohol abuse therefore can be defined as the consumption of alcohol to levels that are deemed as being problematic (Ammerman, Ott, Tarter, 1999, p 31). At this level, one becomes dependent on alcohol and cannot easily do without it. The resulting alcoholism condition affects people in their daily lives irrespective of career, age, ethnicity, and even gender.

Law enforcers, especially the police, are associated with combating the illegal use of alcohol and other hard drugs. The police, whose role is to maintain law and order, are charged with the responsibility of ensuring people only indulge in alcohol within the legally permitted levels. However, one fact that is normally overlooked is that the police are human beings too and they do abuse alcohol themselves.

There have been reported cases of drunken police officers mishandling prisoners, recklessly handling firearms and driving dangerously. A number have been charged for involvement in serious accidents that have killed or injured civilians or fellow colleagues. These are not isolated incidents, rather common occurrences that have regularly implicated police officers. The victims of alcoholism include judges, physicians and most importantly the police (Goodwin, 2000, p 46).

According to the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, the rate of abuse of alcohol in the police force is double that of the general population (Violanti, 1999, p 1). The bulletin estimates that one out of ten American police officers consumes alcohol. These figures only serve to prove that the problem is prevalent in the force across the United States and the earlier it is addressed, the safer the society is going to be.

There are approximately 623,000 sworn police officers in the United States (Violanti, 2010, p1). The officers abuse alcohol for various reasons. The stressful and demanding nature of their work often makes police officers prone to alcohol abuse. Work and non -work related issues also increase the vulnerability of the policemen to abuse alcohol. Maladaptive behaviors like alcohol and drug abuse in the police may be caused by stress (Violanti, 2010, p1). Besides, family issues like failing marriages and finance are another cause of police officers indulging in alcohol abuse.

This study will analyze most of the literature and figures from documented studies, articles, books, and bulletins on alcohol abuse among the policemen in the United States. It is aimed at identifying the various aspects that characterize alcohol abuse in the police force in both federal and state departments and how the problem can be dealt with. Among the various aspects that will be tackled are causes, resultant problems, gender, race, and length of service. The analysis will focus on both federal and state police agencies.

Literature Review
Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse in the Police
A look at the general alcohol consumption prevalence rate in the American population may shed light about the extent of police involvement. The CDC in 2008 approximated that 50 of adults in the country were regular drinkers. The percentage of infrequent drinkers in the US at the time was 14. 60 of men were current regular drinkers compared to 42 of women who were regular current drinkers (CDC, 2008, p 19). The CDC further points out that consumption of alcohol has been on the decline in the past few decades in the US. The same cannot be said about law enforcement in the country. It has either remained constant or increased.

Alcohol abuse in law enforcement has always been there. Alcohol abuse in the police force is wide spread not only in the United States, but other countries as well. The problem of excessive drinking in the police has been perennial but it is now showing signs of escalation (Dietrich  Smith, 1986) (as quoted by Bonifacio, 1991 P, 163). Many studies done on active police officers have proved this hypothesis and the figures obtained easily back this argument. The incidence of alcoholism in law enforcement is higher than any other occupational group (IACPBOR, 1980, 1). Police officers abuse alcohol more than any other occupational group in the US. According to Violanti (2010), 25 of all police officers in the United States have been found to be alcohol dependent. That translates to over 150,000 police officers hooked to alcohol. In a 1979 article, police sergeant Ronald C. Van Raalte of Illinois revealed that 67 of his officers had admitted to drinking while on duty (Sudetic, 1995, p 1) (New York Times May 29, 1995). Earlier in 1973, Danielle Hitz who was researching at School of Public Health of the University of California at Berkeley reported that more police officers died of liver cirrhosis than other group of people in the general population (Sudetic, 1995, p 1) (As quoted in the New York Times May 29, 1995). It is a high number that only confirms the assumptions that police officers are highly dependent on alcohol. The numbers are not limited to a particular department they rather seem to confirm a wide existing trend.

Causes of Abuse of Alcohol in the Police Force
There are numerous causes of alcoholism and alcohol abuse in people regardless of their occupation, age, race, or gender. Generally, alcohol is not the cause of social problems rather it is on the other hand the result of the problems (Alexander, 2010 p.1). The broad categories into which alcohol abusers fall are biological, genetical and environmental, psychological and culture (Swierzewski  Emmite, 2008, p. 1). Mental as well as social problems can also lead one to abuse alcohol. Work, marriage, finances and biological defects which fall in the above categories can all lead to dependence on alcohol, making one abuse it. Alcohol abuse in the police has primarily been blamed on the nature of their work.

It is assumed that despite policemen and women being provided for with everything they need, their work is generally stressing hence most of them find relief in alcohol. The American institute of stress has ranked police work as being among the top ten most stressing jobs in the US (Forst Dempsey, 2010, p.174). Stress in the police force exists both on the individual and organizational levels (FBI, 1999).  Failure of psychological coping to individual or organizational stress finally leads to alcohol abuse by the police officers (Bonfacio, p. 164).

Individually, family issues not related to police work like divorce may raise stress levels of officers. The officers find it hard to confide to colleagues about their struggles and choose to stay with their personal problems. Maybe it is because of the ego of being seen as tough and perfect.  A good number does not seek assistance due to fear of stigmatization. Alcohol is considered part of the police culture and most of the affected officers immerse themselves in it as an escapist move.

Organizational level stress in the police has everything to do with the work that the officers are involved in. Shift work, job stress, the need to suppress emotions in the line of duty, and social isolation are some of the conditions in organizational level that contribute to alcohol abuse among officers (IACPBOR, 1980, 1). Like in the military, police officers frequently suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Order. It is understandably as a result of the complication arising from police work. About one third of all police officers exposed to diverse work related traumatic events suffer form the condition. PTSO, coupled with family and financial issues, puts many officers under extreme pressure. Most of them fail to seek assistance and engage in substance abuse, especially alcohol, to relieve the stress (Dowling, M.D., Genet, B.S.  Moynihan, C.S.W., 2005, p.1).

Drinking Subculture
According to Bonfacio (1991), alcohol is entrenched in the police culture. The drinking subculture in the police is normally meant to prove ones masculinity. Because the force is a community, acceptance is necessary. Though involuntarily, a substantial number of officers engage in alcohol to be accepted into the group (Kroes1976 Cabin, 1980  Captain Anonymous 1983) (as quoted in Bonfacio, 1991, p. 164). The above can be summed up as peer pressure which can be found in all groups of socialization. Continued engagement in drinking for acceptance finally makes one to be hooked up. Reversal of the situation is not easy and it needs effort and dedication to cast away that problem.

Gender of Police Officers Abusing Alcohol
Generally, men are known to drink more than women. A research carried out by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2004 concluded that alcohol use, dependence and abuse were higher in males than in females. The rate of meeting the criteria for alcohol dependence in males was twice that of females at 10.5 and 5.1 respectively (NSDUH, 2004, p. 1). It further said that males accounted for more than half of the cases that seek treatment for alcohol related conditions. The same study by the National Survey on Drug use and Health (2004), found out that 61 of females aged 12 or older and 70 of males aged 12 or older had used alcohol in the previous year. Additionally 12 of females and 17 of males aged 12 years or older had used drugs (NSDUH, 2004, p. 2).  Men were more likely to be dependent on or abusing alcohol in the ages 18 or older. In the ages 18-25 years, males exhibited a dependence rate of 26.3 compared to the females 15 (NSDUH, 2004, p 2). Among the employed, categorized to be 18-49 the rate of dependence on alcohol was found to be 15 for males and 8 for females.

Despite the rate of drinking in the police force being twice as much as that of the general public, the picture is likely to mirror that of the general public when it comes to gender. The incidence rate of female police officers drinking is lower than that for their male counterparts.

Race and Ethnicity factors in Alcohol Abuse within the Force
The police department has been fairly integrated in terms of ethnicity and race and it involves people from across the population divide. The number of minorities in the police force is not likely to be high as their inclusion was more of a political necessity than genuine practice. Therefore, compared to the average number of police officers in the force, minorities are likely to comprise a small section of the overall percentage of police officers involved in alcohol abuse, although the ratio of alcohol abuse among a particular race may be high.

It is generally observed that white people drink more compared to people of other races. African Americans have a lower drinking rate compared to the rest of the population (Winkel, 2010). According to Winkel (2010), their rate of drinking is 44 while that of the rest of the population is 55. On the other hand, however, substance abuse among African Americans is higher compared to other minority groups and the majority white population. It stood at 9.5 while that of the rest of the country was at 7.9  (Winkel, 2010, p. 1).

In the police force however, race or ethnicity is not likely to be an important factor influencing drinking patterns. There may be little variations reflecting the drinking patterns in the general population but these are insignificant.

Marital Status of Police Officers Abusing Alcohol
Generally, there tends to be a higher divorce rate among the younger members of the police compared to the old ones. 75 of police officers get divorced within the first three years (Kirschman, 2007 p. 5). If the marriage of a police officer survives beyond three years it becomes stronger than the marriage of an average person in the general population (Kirschman, 2007 p. 5). Due to the pressures that police work puts one through, many of them experience strained marriages. They tend to resort to alcohol but alcohol only ends up compounding their problems (Kirschman, 2007 p. 184). The NSDUH survey classifies working people to be between the ages of 18-49. In its survey on nationwide drug and alcohol use and dependence among married working males was found to be 10 while married working females were found to be dependent on alcohol by 4 (NSDUH, 2004, p. 3). The police also fall in this working class category. Therefore, the rate of married officers, both male and female, dependent on alcohol is likely to mirror that of the general population as portrayed by NSDUH.

Married officers undergo marriage related stress often and they are more likely to engage in alcohol abuse than unmarried police officers. But that does not imply that the rate of unmarried officers abusing alcohol is lower than the married ones. The difference may be small as unmarried police officers alcohol abuse may be triggered by factors like peer pressure and normal work stress. In fact, the same research found out that divorced or separated working males were more likely to engage in alcohol at 23 compared the married ones at 11. The same trend was observed for the females where separated working females were likely to engage in alcohol at11 compared to their married counterparts at only 4 (NSHUS, 2004, p. 3).

ProblemsIndicators of Alcohol Abuse among Police Officers
Over indulgence in alcohol brings with it negative results in any occupation. It is not different in the police force. It may be hard for colleagues to notice that a fellow officer has drinking problems. Absenteeism, failure to control ones emotions and low work performance are some of the early indicators of alcohol abuse. In many cases, members of the public or family are normally the first ones to notice any indications of alcohol abuse in police officers. They notice it due to the negative circumstances that the officer may find himself or herself in due to alcohol abuse.

Loss of Lives
A number of police officers have lost their lives and caused loss of others in various settings caused by alcohol abuse. The most common are motor vehicle and motor cycle accidents. Because of the combative nature of their work, police officers need to be of sound mind all the time. Overindulgence in alcohol, especially during working hours, impairs judgment leading to the accidents. The impaired judgment may also give criminal elements an upper hand in cases of confrontation. The officers cannot fully concentrate hence rendering themselves vulnerable to danger.

Alcohol abuse has also been cited as a major contributor to the high suicide rates among the force. There has been an increasing rate of suicides among police officers primarily caused by alcohol abuse.

According to Lester (1992), Stack Wasserman (1993) (as quoted by McNamara Kennedy 1999), suicide and alcohol abuse among police officers have always been linked together. In 1995, Captain ONeill of New York police department said that alcohol was involved in over 80 of the suicides committed by New York officers since 1984 (Sudetic, 1995, p 2) (As quoted in the New York Times May 29, 1995). According to a research based in Chicago, 60 of all officers who commit suicide were alcohol abusers (Wagner  Brzeczek 1983) (as quoted in McNamara  Kennedy 1999). Based on the above research findings, it is safe to conclude that alcohol abuse significantly contributed to high suicide rates in the police force.

Loss of Jobs
Overindulgence in alcohol finally impairs ones ability to work and the police are not an exception either. The police, like other professionals, are expected to be sober while on duty. Besides putting their lives in danger, drunken police officers damage the credibility of the force. Dismissal normally follows on such officers. Perhaps as pointer to big underlying problems, 75 Boston police officers have failed drug tests since the program started ten years ago. 26 officers have been fired in the same period (Smalleys, 2006, p1). Though they were not fired entirely on alcohol abuse grounds, hypothetically alcohol abuse acted as a precursor to abusing hard drugs.

The literature above cannot be said to be exhaustive on the topic of police alcohol abuse. However a number of conclusions can be drawn based on the findings. The problem is real and widely prevalent in the police force. The police have the highest divorce rate in the US, the second highest suicide rate and twice the rate of alcoholism in the country (Constant, 2010). It is almost assured that many more police officers will be victims of alcohol abuse and may suffer the consequences discussed above.

The main cause of police alcohol abuse has largely everything to do with stress. Police officers work under strenuous conditions and in many occasions come to contact with situations that expose them to post traumatic stress order conditions. This makes some officers to look for remedies to deal with individual stress thus exposing them to dangers of alcohol and it will be necessary for the concerned departments to step up and find some solutions. Some officers have succumbed to peer pressure and find it difficult to report when they have personal problems. Others cannot refer to their colleagues for remedial programs for fear that they might be jeopardizing their colleagues careers.  Peer pressure has forced others to drink in order to be accepted. Causes of alcohol abuse like peer pressure can be dealt with through regular counseling and encouraging police officers to develop strong personalities. Fellow peers in the force are better placed to help their colleagues since they share a lot and will develop a sense of camaraderie. It will help them resist undue pressure from colleagues and peers.

The problem is evidently affecting many police officers families. Divorce rates are high, especially among newly recruited officers within the first three years. It is important to bear in mind that police officers whose family is not happy cannot perform optimally.

Though various police departments have recognized the problem, many more are yet to do something about it. In 1981 Civil Rights Commission emphasized the need for the establishment of stress management systems in police departments (Forst Dempsey, 2010, p 180). The New York police department established its stress management program in 1986 with an initial group of 100 trained police officers as per counselors. Since then, many others have followed suit. The peer counseling departments should continuously be adapting to the dynamics of the problem to ensure help is effectively delivered when needed. It is highly likely that people who engage in alcohol abuse engage in drug use as well. Tackling drug use among the police may offer insights as to which members of the force abuse alcohol hence extend help.

Alcohol abuse among officers should be regarded as a pointer to a bigger problem, whether individually or in the organization. Remedial measures should be instituted to correct the situation to prevent more officers from falling into the same situation. The programs should be extended to cover even retirees.

Alcohol abuse is a disaster not only confined to the police force. From another angle, they are part of the general population that as studies suggest drinks less than the law enforcement force. However the critical role they play in maintaining law and order demands that they work in a sober environment and in a sober state of the mind. In the United States, both the state and federal police departments are big institutions that touch every person and every aspect of their lives. A majority of the police officers are well behaved and do not have problems with alcohol use, although the percentage which is alcoholic is a matter of concern to all members of society. Bureaucracy within the police force in terms of obtaining information should be discouraged as it only acts as a catalyst to the problem by distorting the actual facts of the scourge.

United States v. Lopez 514 U.S. 549 (1995) Supreme Court of the United States

April 26, 1995
United States , petitioner
Lopez, Jr. , respondent, concealed firearm in high school

Procedural History

Respondent Alfonso Lopez, Jr. was arrested and charged under Texan law with firearm possession on school premises.  The next day, the state charges were dismissed after federal agents charged respondent by complaint for violation of the Gun Free School Zones Act of 1990.  Following indictment by a federal grand jury, respondent moved to dismiss the indictment, but the motion was denied by the District Court.  Responded was convicted for violation of 18 U.S.C. 922(q) after a bench trial.  Upon appeal, the Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit reversed the ruling of the trial court.  Petitioner filed before the United States Supreme Court a writ of certiorari which was granted.


12-year old Alfonso Lopez, Jr. entered Edison High School in San Antonio, Texas concealing a .38 caliber handgun with five bullets.  An anonymous tip alerted the school authorities, who confronted respondent.  Upon admission, respondent was arrested and charged for firearm possession in school, which was dismissed after federal agents charged respondent for violation of the Gun Free School Zones Act of 1990 ( HYPERLINK 18 U.S.C.  922(q)(1)(A)).  In this Act, Congress deemed punishable for any individual knowingly to possess a firearm at a place that the individual knows, or has reasonable cause to believe, is a school zone.

Respondent Lopez, Jr. was convicted on said Act and sentenced to six months imprisonment and 2 months supervised release.  The conviction was appealed to the Court of the Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, claiming that 922(q) of the Act was unconstitutional as it exceeded Congress power to legislate under the Commerce Clause.  Under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, Congress is empowered to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes (U.S. Const., Art. I, 8, cl. 3).  The appellate court agreed to the contention and subsequently reversed the order.  Hence petitioner appealed to the United States Supreme Court in the form of a writ of certiorari which the High Court granted.


Whether or not possession of firearms in school premises, as enumerated in  HYPERLINK 18 U.S.C.  922(q)(1)(A), also known as the Gun Free School Zone Act, renders said Act unconstitutional for exceeding Congress power to legislate under the Commerce Clause.


The United States Supreme Court declared  HYPERLINK 18 U.S.C.  922(q)(1)(A) as unconstitutional, and affirmed the decision of the Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in reversing the conviction of respondent.

The reason behind the affirmation by the High Court is hinged on the review of past precedents of intrastate commercial activities subject to regulation by Congress.  First, the possession of a gun in a local secondary school cannot be considered an economic activity that might substantially affect interstate commerce.  Section 922(q) is a criminal statute that in no way involves any form of economic enterprise, however broadly those terms are defined.  Nor is it essential to a larger regulation of economic activity, in which the regulatory scheme could be undercut unless the intrastate activity were regulated.  Second, 922(q) contains no jurisdictional element that would ensure, through case-by-case inquiry, that the firearms possession in question has the requisite nexus with interstate commerce.  Respondent was a local student at a local school there is no indication that he had recently moved in interstate commerce, and there is no requirement that his possession of the firearm have any concrete tie to interstate commerce.

As to the argument by the Government that Congress acquired institutional expertise on previous enactments of firearm regulation, the Court agrees with the appellate court that such findings to justify  922(q) is inappropriate because the prior federal enactments are unrelated to the subject matter of  922(q).  Also untenable is the Governments contention that possessions of firearms would substantially affect interstate commerce through the costs of crime brought about by the mechanisms of insurance, and threatens the educational process, leading to a less productive citizenry.  The Court reasons that costs of crime and national productivity reasoning, if accepted by the Court, will render any activity subject to regulation by Congress.


Rule of Law

The congressional power under the Commerce Clause, although there are no precise formulations, holds true to the principle of enumerated powers, meaning that what is enumerated presupposes something not enumerated.  Hence, there is no clear distinction to what is national and what is local.

Other Opinions

Kennedy, A, joined by OConnor, S., concurs, adding that regulation by Congress under the Commercial Clause must not intrude into state sovereignty, unless there is a stronger connection or identification with commercial concerns that are central to the Commercial Clause.

Thomas, C. concurs, but insists that there must be a standard in applying the substantial effects test that reflects the original wording of the Commerce Clause.

Stevens, J. dissents, adding that national interest justified federal regulation of possession of handguns
Breyer, S., dissents citing that Congress ... could rationally conclude that schools fall on the commercial side of the line.

Souter, D. dissents, adding a caveat that the distinction between commercial and non-commercial activity was not tenable.

Federal Courts Jurisdiction based on United States v. Lopez

There are two kinds of court systems in the United States state and federal.  Both have a hierarchical structure of jurisdiction.  Federal courts are courts of the federal, applying the federal law, with the power to test the constitutionality of state law, and adjudicate controversies arising between residents of two or more states (Adler, Mueller  Laufer, 2009).  Federal courts are often called the guardians of the Constitution because their rulings protect rights and liberties guaranteed by the Constitution (U.S. Courts, 2009). Generally, cases are filed for the first time in lesser courts, while decided cases are filed before the higher courts for review.  This jurisdiction held by lesser courts is known as original jurisdiction as opposed to the appellate jurisdiction that empowers the higher courts.  Taking the case of United States v. Lopez into consideration, the jurisdiction of federal courts of the United States are as follows

United States District Courts

District courts are trial courts in the federal and some state systems (Adler, Mueller  Laufer, 2009).  They have jurisdiction to hear nearly all categories of federal cases, including both civil and criminal matter (U.S, Courts, 2010).  Ninety-four federal district courts exist throughout the country, with the inclusion of Guam, the Virgin Islands, the Northern Marianas, and Puerto Rico.  Each state is allotted one district court, except in populous states.

United States Circuit Courts of Appeal

Circuit courts of appeal are appellate courts of the federal system with the power to review judgments of federal district courts, also known as appellate jurisdiction (Adler, Mueller  Laufer, 2009).  There are thirteen such courts, with one in every eleven districts.  They also have nationwide jurisdiction to hear appeals in specialized cases, such as those involving patent laws and cases decided by the Court of International Trade and the Court of Federal Claims (U.S. Courts, 2010).

United States Supreme Court

The United States Supreme Court is a federal court that has the ultimate authority in interpreting the Constitution as it applies to federal and state law the final authority in federal law.  It represents the highest echelon of the third branch of government, the judiciary (Adler, Mueller  Laufer, 2009).  The members comprise the Chief Justice and eight associate justices, and appointments are made by the President of the United States, with the advice and consent of the Senate.  Each year, the Supreme Court hears a limited number of cases it is asked to decide.  Such cases may have originated in the federal or state courts, with important questions about the Constitution or federal law (U.S. Courts, 2010).  Cases elevated to the Supreme Court are usually in the form of writs, specifically the writ of certiorari.  Writs of certioraris are writs alleging grave abuse of discretion or in excess of authority on the part of the deciding court or tribunal.

Role of drug courts in reducing crime

Special courts like drug courts are given the task of handling cases involving offenders who are drug users. This is done through intensive legal supervision, case managing mandatory drug abuse treatment as well as drug testing. When the participants go through the program successfully, they can have their charges dropped, their sentencing reduced or set aside. These programs in the drug courts help the participants to rebuild their lives and become law-abiding citizens. There is also provision for graduated sanctions as well as gifts that are like rewards for improved cases. Participants in drug courts usually undergo long-term treatment, psychoanalysis as well as frequent sessions in court.
Success of the drug courts can only be achieved if there is maximum cooperation between the stakeholders, that is, the judges, court personnel and the people who provide treatment need to cooperate with one another in order to make sure that the program works. This was deemed necessary because the rate of crime was too much for one group to handle. From one jurisdiction to another, the drug courts usually vary. This is in terms of organization, the population they target and capacity.  At the same time they have similarities and primary goals, which include reducing the use of drugs by participants so as to reduce recidivism as well as enabling rehabilitation of drug users. There are ongoing analysis and research about how effective these drug courts are and there are indications that the special courts have a positive outcome and do manage to reduce recidivism.

The courts need to match the wants and needs of the participants and this is how the magnitude of their influence is measured. The drug courts function as an alternative to the criminal courts, something that makes its cost benefit analysis difficult. The importance of studying crime and criminal justice helps one understand how the existing crimes are altered and how to create new criminal offenses. It also helps one understand which factors pose emerging challenges, understand legal issues and also create unique research opportunities for criminal justice practitioners, scholars and policy makers.

Literature review
The US introduced special courts such as drug courts in response to the rise in the number of arrests needing special attention. According to (US Department of Justice 1997, pp 6) there was a phenomenal growth in the numbers of people incarcerated for drug offences and for that reason, formation of a court to take care of the cases was justified. The rise was specifically prominent in the period between 1984 and 1990, whose rise was estimated to be 11854 to 29306.

Florida was the first state to create a special court for drugs through the Dade Countys creation of a drug court, which was the first in the country. By the mid-1990s there were around 41 drug courts that were operational in the United States. By December 1995, there were around 82 drug courts. A number of reasons are advanced as forming basis for expecting drug courts to be more effective. According to (Blumstein, 1986), previous research has found strong links (both direct and indirect) between drug use and rates of repeat offences. In reducing drug consumption and crime, treatment has been shown to be effective. According to (Belenko, 1999), voluntary treatment programs showed lower rates of repeat offences compared to those in coerced treatment.

 The clear cut rules, intensive supervision and sanctions coupled with rewards that characterize drug courts appear to be the factors improving patient retention in the program.     The overall objective of the treatment program is to reduce the incidences of drug abuse, thereby, lowering the incidences their chances of them sliding back to crime. The practice of subjecting drug offenders to court-supervised treatment leads to lowering of drug abuse, and for that reason, it is safe to assume that the treatment they are subjected to leads to lower incidences of drug abuse and hence lower criminal activity levels. A number of reviews have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of drug court. One such review, and the most prominent of them, was conducted by (Belenko, 1999). From the review,  (Belenko, 1999) concluded that as long the drug offenders remained in the program, the drug courts would be effective.

For instance the study found the in Miami those who attended drug courts had lower levels of recidivism in comparison to those individuals who had not been handled by the drug courts. However, the study did not take into account the differences that existed between the two groups of individuals because some of those handled outside the drug courts did not have any drug related case that warranted the attention of the drug courts. Lower rates of recidivism among the participants whose offences were related to alcohol or drug abuse have been reported in some studies. But in these studies, there were considerations of the many and major differences of the participants for example the age, gender, number of offences. In addition to that it did have a follow up period.

Lack of Consistency and weaknesses in methodology are some of the characteristics that plaque drug court evaluations. Though there have been results showing that special courts like drug courts have advantages for example reducing the participants drug abuse, the time factor has not been addressed. The focus of this study would be if it costs the state more time to try all drug offenses in special courts rather than trying some of these cases in criminal courts. This is all the while putting aside the many benefits previously proven in other evaluations. The next factor to address would be are there enough drug courts to attend to this cases. If not, would it be wise to increase the number of drug courts or transfer some of these cases to the criminal courts.  In this study, it would be appropriate to have groups with the same characteristics and a follow-up period to ensure the results are accurate and consistent.

Social Structure Theory

Social learning theory is based on a theory of deviant criminal and conforming behavior. It looks into the causes of criminal behavior while social structure deals with the environment in which the behavior occurs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss social structure, socioeconomic structure in the United States, social organization, concentric zone theory, ecological theory, strain theory, anomies, and cultural deviance and how they contribute to the social structure theory.

Social Structure
Social structure is the manner in which the society is structured and is based on relationship that is predictable and people s interactions with each other. These interactions are largely independent of the individual, and shapes behavior, and identity of the individual from the force that it exerts. Based on the social structure and the need for interaction to exist in a society, it requires bargaining, compromising, redefinitions, and production of an evolving sense of order to match the existing reality.

This social structure is geared around negotiation, some situation more than others. It is also based on formal versus informal rules, such as guilty pleas, role making and tax laws. Culture is the backbone of social structure, with norms, languages, and values playing important roles. The social structure is also based on each individual s status, role and the groups of people and their interaction with each other based on shared expectations (Keel, 2010).

Socioeconomic Structure (US)
A stratified society like the United States (US) is classified as the prestige wealth and power being unequally distributed. The social classes in any society are population segments who share similar lifestyle, norms, attributes, and values. In many societies such as the United States (US) the population is divided into class structures upper, middle, and lower class citizens based on their economic levels in the society. The smallest segment is the upper class who when compared to the other two groups earns or creates significant wealth and social resources, with more than 50 percent of the total household income. The lowest class (poorest fifth) in the population represents approximately 20 percent of the population and earns 10000 or less annually, which is at least 3 percent of the total US income. On the other hand, the middle class (top fifth) approximately 20 percent of the population, earns in excess of 150,000 annually (Siegel, 2008, p. 162).

Wealth is not only concentrated in the US, because based on the World Wealth Report there are over 8 million individuals with high net worth in excess of 1 million, and a collective network of over 30.8 trillion and growing. The lower class on the other hand faces underemployment, inadequate housing, inability to afford proper healthcare services, and overall despair. The problems of the lower class are complicated with issues of depression, drug and alcohol abuse, obtained through illegal means, and although not unique to this class, is their case it is caused by poverty (Siegel, 2008, p.162).

Social Organization
Social organization of groups incorporates interaction, marriage and patterns of residency, kinship system, division of labor, a ranking strategy and the individuals with the knowledge and goods within the group. Archeologists study the social organization of a people or group by looking for areas where there is a concentration of artifacts, and a comparison of grave goods and other belongings. This leads to social stratification which is created based on ethnic groups. Urbanization of the social organization studies the traditional societal patterns to get a better understanding of today s society. This involves class structures, and the social relationships, the people, persons of caste, ceremonial occasions such as marriage, childbirth, initiation ceremonies, and funerals (Social Organization, n. d).

Concentric Zone Theory
The emergence of this theory was based on the studies conducted by Robert E. Park and Ernest W. Burgess in the 1920 s on urban environments. Based on results of their studies they developed the theory of urban ecology in 1925 which stated that  cities were environments like those found in nature, governed by many of the same forces of Darwinian evolution that affected natural ecosystems  (Brown, 2001). The study revealed that competition between groups was the principal forces of Darwin evolution due to the struggle that occur for scarce urban resources such as land. This led to urban space being divided into distinct ecological niches or  natural areas and each niche is shared by people from the same social standing, and share similar ecological pressures (Brown, 2001).

The land was divided into zones with the more popular areas with higher rents. The less advantaged individuals and less prosperous businesses live and operate in the inner cities and spread outwards based on their economic standing, with the most prosperous living in the outer zones, in process parks and Burgess called succession. This model known as the concentric zone theory was based on a prediction that cities formation would take the shape of five concentric rings, with social and physical deterioration in city centers, and prosperous areas on the city s edge. Burgess and his students between 1923 and 1924 designed a Social Science Research Map of Chicago where the studies were conducted, which included physical, political, zoning, residential, commercial, and vacant lots within the city. From the Social Science Research Map several dozen of thematic maps were designed based on Chicago s social characteristics to identify zones and natural areas (Brown, 2001).

Ecological Theory
Ecological theory is otherwise called Positivist theory. This theory seeks to identify the reason for human behavior, both deviant and non-deviant, based on the social structure in the external environment. Based on this theory an individual can develop criminal behavior because of the physical environment in which they live or the social environment in which they interact. Ecological theory has some similarities to the Functionalist sub-cultural theories. These similarities include (1) emphasis on the cultural or sub-cultural group s development of their individual norms and values, physically and materially (2) structural in scope and developed from the Functionalist theory. An ecologist focuses on physical environment or the geographic location of the individual, whilst sub-cultural theorists focuses on the relationship between norms and values to the material things (Livesey, n. d).

Strain Theory
Durkheim theory has been very influential in the field of sociology and criminology and his beliefs that crime occurred as a result of social forces was considered extreme during his time. Strain theory evolved from Durkheim s theory of anomie, which was interpreted as  deregulation , while other control theorists also inspired by his work interpreted it as  normlessness  (Strain theories of crime, n. d).

Strain or structural strain is the process of inadequate regulation in the society which filters down to individuals and how they view their level of needs. On the other hand, strain or individual strain is the friction and pain individuals face as they devise ways to meet their needs.  Merton s strain theory evolved from  the means-end theory of deviance  which views economic success-based aspirations as culturally motivated, and the individual s possible achievements are distributed structurally. The strain theory assumes that a person s aspirations to be successful occurs across all social class, and that the incidence of crime are more likely to occur in lower class areas because the opportunities for achievement are lower than in middle and upper class areas. Merton (1968) states that  It is the combination of the cultural emphasis and the social structure which produces intense pressure for deviation  (Strain theories of crime, n. d). Merton believes that individuals in the lower class structure are more susceptible to the  strain  and their aspirations for economic success are likely to remain unachievable (Strain theories of crime, n. d).

Robert Merton in the 1940 s concluded that biology did not account for the variance in two different societies in terms of deviance.  Merton was concerned more about the deviance rate which varied significantly in different societies as well as sub-groups within the same society, rather than why individuals were deviant.  He believed in the functionalist perspective and the unifying function in culture (Robert Merton Anomie theory, n. d).

Merton adapted Durkheim concept in his analysis of circumstances when culture causes lack of unity and deviant behavior. Durkheim s use of anomie resulted from the rapid breakdown of cultural norms, such as the occurrence of a suicide due to depression. Merton altered the concept marginally which resulted in cultural norms not matching with life s successes (goals), and the use of the cultural norms to determine the best methods to achieve the goals (Robert Merton Anomie theory, n. d).

Anomie based on Merton s formula explains both the reason why deviant behavior is higher in the US society, in comparison to others, and also the occurrence of deviance in groups such as race, class, and ethnicity. Merton developed a series of adaptations (1) designated the individual s relationship in relation to norms and goals (2) categorized the relationship to norms to the way the goals would be achieved. He developed a mode of adaptation, which were (1) conformity  (2) innovation- (3) ritualism- (4) retreatism- - (5) rebellion xx. The symbols  represent acceptance, - represent rejection and x indicated the rejection of the values that prevailed and the replacement of those values (Robert Merton Anomie theory, n. d).

Cultural Deviance
Criminal or delinquent subcultures have been categorized by Kornhauser (1978) as  pure cultural deviance theories  or  mixed models  of delinquency ((Kalkhoff, 2002). Pure cultural deviance theories indicate that deviant behavior is normal in comparison to those who adhere to a delinquent subculture, because delinquency is the root cause of conflicting subcultures. This is caused by the socialization of the value system of the subcultures which condones wrong behavior as right. The models of theoretical delinquency are not considered pure due to combined assumptions of cultural deviance theory and analytical models of delinquency, such as control or strain theory ((Kalkhoff, 2002).

The connection between these theories focuses on the economic, socioeconomic, physical locations where individuals live and who they interact with socially. These theories such as cultural deviance look at criminal and delinquent subcultures and the root of this problem, and also anomie theory which looked at the deviant rate in different societies and within the same sub-culture. The studies conducted by these theorists were designed to allow people to develop a better understanding of the factors that result in certain behavior.

Al Qaeda and Energy Security

Even though Tony Blair and George Bush did their best to legitimize the invasion of Iraq, one message that was clearly spelt out is the West has an insatiable appetite for oil and theyll go to all lengths to satisfy it. America is currently trying to reduce its dependence on Middle East oil but achieving this feat might take decades. The Arab oil embargo imposed on the US in 1973 exposed their Achilles heel and the current foreign policy in the Middle East is indicative of the lengths to which the US will go to protect its oil interests. Looking at Saudi Arabia, the country practically feeds the US economy yet the Bush and Obama governments have continued to ignore the role of the Saudis in the September 11th  terrorist attacks. Its common knowledge that some of the terrorist were trained in Saudi Arabia and a couple of rich families in this nation continue to fund terrorist activities. Adding to this, the West has always spoken harshly about countries which impose Sharia law but little is said about Saudi Arabia (White, 2009, p 18). The main reason is the Saudi Royal Family has continued to play its position in supporting every American Administration since the days of Ronald Regan to the current administration.

US Interests
Looking at the other side of coin, Afghanistan was about to be flattened by the US military after the 911 attacks but another distraction emerged Iraq. The reasons surrounding the invasion of Afghanistan was to neutralize the threat of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda. Before the 911 attacks, Saddam Hussein wasnt even in Americas radar when weighing their existential threats. After 911 Iraq was portrayed as a hotbed of terrorism and Al Qaeda had already gained foothold. This seems highly unlikely if one considers the cultural history of the Arab world. Iraq predominantly practices the Sunni brand of Islam, which is also quite predominant in Saudi Arabia. Its neighbor Iran practices the more radical Shiite brand of Islam. Some of the most radical Islamic terrorist groups like Hezbollah and Al Qaeda can all trace their routes to Shiite Islam (Marsella, 2003, p 15). Therefore, it would have made a lot more sense to invade Iran to neutralize Al Qaeda since the country has been known to openly support Hezbollah in Lebanon. But what did the US do They invaded Iraq.

There are a number of legitimate reasons as to why they dethroned Saddam but the reality is Iraq was sitting on the largest crude oil reserves outside Saudi Arabia and Saddam Hussein wasnt playing along like the Saudi Royal Family. Once the sectarian violence subsided and the threat of Al-Qaeda eliminated, the Iraqi oil fields were auctioned off to Western oil companies. It seems the objective of invading Iraq was achieved.

Just recently, Yemen has been in the news for all the wrong reasons. The Yemeni army was involved in serious clashes with rural tribes and the reasons were never clearly stated. However, this new conflict has taken the shape of the new war on terror. According to international news sources, radical Islamic elements have been crossing the border in their thousands. Some of these fighters were linked to Al-Qaeda and their reasons for fighting the Yemeni governmentarmy arent quite clear. Unofficial sources claim that the conflict in Yemen is sectarian related and it was simple a case of turf wars amongst the rural tribes. The entry of the Yemeni army into the conflict only exacerbated the situation because most of these rural regions are neglected by the government sending an army to quell a situation that may have been sparked by government inactions in the past isnt the best choice. The question that needs to be asked is how does Al-Qaeda fit into the Yemeni conflict

Yemen is not a major oil producer like Saudi Arabia and Iraq but oil accounts for 90 of its exports. Their major advantage is they are a non-OPEC member and whichever oil deals the country will sign with the US wont be affected by the politics of OPEC (fluctuating prices) or even the political turmoil of the wider Middle East. Gaining a foothold in this nondescript nation will be a tall order for the US but, its an achievable feat of the so called Al-Qaeda extremism continues to flourish. Should this happen, the US can always use its military, under the guise of fighting terrorism, to topple the regime or install a government which will preserve US oil interests.

 This theory might seem far-fetched but its more than a coincidence that almost all oil producing nations are grappling with some form of political upheavals. From Nigeria to Venezuela, and even Sudan to Guinea Bissau, all these nations are hardly stable democracies and the elected governments all have a tendency to engage in corrupt activities (Forest, 2006, p 45). It can be hypothesized that the US tolerates the installation and maintenance of these unstable governments and in the near future, they will justify their involvement by basing their facts on the existence of terrorist elements within these countries. Convincing the general public that Al-Qaeda or other radical elements exist in a stable country like Norway (major oil and gas producer) is next to impossible. However, calling Hugo Chavez a firebrand or linking Ahmedinajad to terrorist activities is a much easier affair.

Al Qaeda and the U.S.

Michael Chossudovsky insists Al Qaeda is a U.S. backed intelligence asset that had no involvement in the 911 terrorist attack in America and whose existence was in fact used by the Bush administration to launch and justify the military offense against Afghanistan and Iraq (Garduce, 2006). In my opinion, Al Qaeda staged the 911 attacks as retaliation for the perceived atrocities committed by the West against Muslims. To start with, Al Qaeda is a radical terrorist group that emphasizes religious ideologies that sees America as the enemy. The organization was influenced by various jihadist movements fueled by political, ethnic and Islamic conflicts across Central Asia. It is well-funded, vicious and highly trained in combat since its leader, Osama bin Laden along with other core members were seasoned war veterans (White, 2009). I also believe that the U.S.-Pakistani relations during the Russian-Afghanistan war gave rise to Al Qaeda. Although U.S. money funded these paramilitary groups, it was Pakistan that cradled Al Qaeda for its own agenda of securing certain areas of Afghanistan. To rectify this, Obamas new war strategy stipulates that Pakistan must fully commit to fight Al Qaeda and extremists in exchange for U.S. aid (Obama, 2009).

Other details such as the veracity of the 911 official report that based its account of events on mobile phone calls made by passengers onboard hijacked planes should also be given a second look, as some groups believe that such calls were not possible on high altitudes. Moreover, it is also interesting to note Chossudovskys assertion that these military campaigns were launched on areas rich in oil and gas reserves. In closing, I do think that U.S presence in these regions will assure America its supply of resources in the long run. And with the high cost of running wars, influential defense contractors are surely bound to make large profits at the expense of innocents and displaced civilians. And so the cycle of hate and terrorism repeats itself.

The difference between two jurisdictions in terms of parole laws and rate of recidivism for sex offenders in UK and US

Sex crime is increasing at an alarming rate. Due to this increase, different States and countries have enacted laws that govern human sexual behavior which individuals need to observe. Those who break these laws are referred to as the sex offenders and are held liable for prosecution. These laws vary from place to place and they prohibit sexual abuse and practices that the government considers to be against the society norms (Henton, 2010). They are intended to protect the community from further harm by the sex crime offenders.

It is important to study crime and criminal justice because many of the aspects of these crimes can be a predictor of future crime and can also be used to find the causes of sexual crimes that were handled in the past. The study of crime and criminal justice is also crucial for social security purposes such that it becomes easier for States to detect the offenders and their details in a bid to monitor the behavior patterns and also ensures that those affected by the victims behavior find justice and compensation. Examples of sexual crimes and assaults are rape, obscenity, human trafficking, frotteurism, and incest.

There are variations among States that are evident when it comes to laws governing sex crimes. In this case, we will be looking at the differences between jurisdictions in terms of parole laws and the rate of recidivism for sex offenders in the U.K. and in the U.S.

In the United States, the sex crime convicts were sentenced to a term of incarceration which was followed by a period of supervised release where the convicts were allowed to join the community but were subject to continued monitoring. They were also expected to comply with certain terms and conditions while in the society (Henton, 2010). However, with time, criminal justice experts realized that there was a high rate of recidivism among the sexual offenders unlike the other law offenders. This was detected as a trend among the sexual abuse victims. The authorities took action to investigate sexual crime victims and their behavior trends. It was concluded that incarceration of convicts followed by parole was not enough to either protect the community at large or to rehabilitate the victims. This led to alteration of the laws governing jurisdiction of sexual crimes that are currently used.

One of the alterations was the need for the sexual offenders to register with the local law authorities every time they move from one region to another within the first seventy two hours. Those who fail to register with the authorities are considered to have committed a unique crime and this leads to prosecution. Another modification was done in federal legislation which has resulted to significant change in the United States Department of Justice by developing and maintaining the States register database for sex offenders. This database consists of the names and identification details of the sex predators including their photos. This information is made available to the public such that those interested can access the database on the internet. The convicts movements and residence were also altered such that certain limitations introduced. The sexual crime convicts are restricted from walking or living in areas around a school or park in a bid to control the victims from coming into contact with children. Institutionalization was also introduced for the violent offenders so as to keep them away from the society. This ensures that the victims are confined indefinitely in a mental organization for rehabilitation.

In the United Kingdom, the sex offenders are jailed for an indeterminate period. Indeterminate sentencing is where the victims are deterred and confined from the society for as long as the legislative body considers the punishment to be necessary regardless of the offenders circumstances. In the United Kingdom, there is no sex offender registry database system (Mott, 2009). Therefore, details about sex abusers can not be obtained by the public on the internet as done in the United States of America. Instead, the U.K. makes use of software that is only entitled to the sexual abuse authorities and the national prison agencies in the U.K. (Mc Dowell, 2006). The public and private prison agencies do not have access to this database. Therefore the database is strictly for the legally allowed bodies as stated by the law but not the public.

It is important respect human dignity and to observe moral laws and ethical behavior in the society necessitating the need for States and other communities to observe sexual morality for the common good of the citizens. These are sexual norms consisting of social rules that vary widely depending on the prevalent culture and are intended to protect communities including children.

When researching sexual crime, it is important to investigate the following elements regarding sexuality why individuals commit violent sexual assaults and why they have chosen to engage in a wide range of inappropriate and criminal sexual behaviors, the likelihood of subsequent sex crime among sexual convicts, the circumstances that lead to high rate of recidivism in sexual crime and the recidivism patterns or trends among the offenders, the measures that can be taken to ensure effective rehabilitation of the sexual crime offenders, challenges involved in rehabilitating the sexual abusers and those affected, whether subsequent incarceration of sexual offenders is necessary for victims on parole, the risk posed to the community by the victims and how it affects the society, the societys view on the laws governing sexual behavior, whether the government is playing an effective role in controlling sexual crime, and to examine and evaluate the registry criteria of the sexual offenders to determine its effectiveness and if further improvements and modifications can be done to the current system. These questions are crucial for sexual crime research as they will help in collecting information that is necessary for ensuring social security, effectiveness in managing offenders for the involved institutions, and for helping the authorities to identify social rules that will help heighten social security so as to protect the citizens.

Changes in police philosophy and practice

The social, economic and political dynamics of worlds demography has greatly impacted on every aspect of human life. Increase in population for instance has strained the available resources to an extent of depletion. The provision of social amenities such as security and safety services to the people has therefore become a challenge to many authorities in the world. Moreover, the population increase is characterized by increase in societal ills such as high crime rates, increased insecurity as well as increase in unemployment. For instance, there have been concerns in the Criminal Justice System in UK in the past and its ability to provide services equally and equitably to all the people. Despite, the differences in the racial and ethnic backgrounds of people in a societal setting, it is within the jurisdiction of the government through the criminal justice system to ensure justice is restored.

The police service is therefore used by the government to enforce law and order to the public while ensuring justice and fairness to all. Police act as a link between the people and the criminal justice system and therefore directly affect the day-to-day lifestyle of the people. However, the relationship between the police and the public is an overriding factor as far as the delivery of such services is concerned (Travis, 2009).

Policing has undergone major changes since early 20th century. To start with, the police force adopted strategies to curb the widespread resistance that was eminent by then. These strategies were developed to guide the metropolitan police in their service delivery. Their successful implementation in Britain improved the relationship between the law enforcers and the public. Police force could not only be viewed law enforce but also service providers to the community. This harmonious and cohesive relationship enhanced the service delivery in Britain. The nature of relationship between the police and the public has however changed (Adlam  Villiers, 2003). Negative attitude towards the police force especially by the youth has been on the rise. The youthful group has developed fear, anger and hostility against the police force as a result of lack of confidence in the force. Additionally, the public has increasingly lost trust in the police force due to anti-social nature of the police. The March 2008 killing of a teenager by police in Greece for instance sparked anger among the youths thereby fuelling protests in the country. This is one of the scenarios where police practices have changed and the police-public relationship worsened (Narduzzo, 2007). The police force has been seen to apply the law unequally and have been cited as racists in their duties. In London for instance, the security agents have been targeting the youths with African-Caribbean origins under the powers bestowed upon them in section 44 of the 2000 terrorism Act. The police stops and searches anyone they think fall in the profile or terrorism. However, Narduzzo (2007) claims that this law has been discriminatively and ethnically applied against the African Caribbean communities in London. Statistics show that African-Caribbean population is about 2.4 of the total population in Britain but constitute about one tenth of the male prisoners. Furthermore, the black males were more often stopped by the police compared to their white counterparts (Narduzzo, 2007). This approach changed after the September 11th and July 7th terrorist attacks in Washington and London respectively. The police in London have diverted their attention from the local crimes to tackling international terrorism. They have embarked on strategies aimed at identifying and arresting potential suspects of terrorism. However, the fight against terrorism has been seen as a fight against specific groups of racial and religious background and not against the vice. The stop-and-search approach has been redirected to the people of Muslim and Asian origin. This shift in police practice has yielded no fruits as not a single conviction for offense related to terrorism has ever been made from the massive arrests of such suspects hence the public outcry of unequal application of the law by the security agents in Britain (Travis, 2009).

There has been minimal contact between the community and the police in the recent past. The security agents only intervene in societal matters when there is a breach of security somewhere in the society. This opposes the advocacy for community policing which is an important philosophy in the police service. Community policing encompasses the social roles of the police service and this can only be achieved through continuous cooperation between the police and the community (Fielding, 2010).

Additionally, community policing install a sense of trust and confidence among the public. The public confidence and trust in the police service is not only established by the effective handling of crime in the society but also the general social and moral behavior of the force in the society (Jackson and Sunshine, 2007).

The British police have been acknowledged for their minimal use of force while carrying out their duties. The Criminal Justice System has adopted strict laws that govern the use of firearms by the police officers in an attempt to reduce unnecessary shooting of suspects that have been witnessed in the past. The firearms are issued to the officers with qualified training and skills in handling the deadly weapon. The public can now sue the police upon unnecessary shooting as well as brutality by the officers (Miller, James  Coady, 2000). The Daily Correspondent reported in its daily edition of Thursday, 8th March 2007, that a police officer by the name PC Anthony Mulhall was sued and is undergoing investigation by the Independent Police Complaints Commission. Police officers are convicted upon committing such crimes. However, this never used to happen in the past. The laws favored the police force making them superior. The police could in the past shoot and walk away with the crime. In 1979 for instance, police officer shot and killed a teacher from East London Mr. Blair Peach during a demonstration (Socialist worker, 2009).

The rise in rates of crime and disorder in the society may be blamed on the ineffectiveness in the police force. Reduction in crime rate in the nineteenth century in Britain was attributed to the increased detection rates of such crimes by the security agents. This demonstrated effectiveness of the security agents. However, the current criminal activities are more complex and the offenders are more intelligent therefore modern strategies have to be put in place to counter the rising crime rate. Police force is currently subjected to modern and elaborate training in addition to the use of modern equipments such as Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in surveillance hence increased detection of criminal activities (Tilley and Painter, 1999). There has been a commendable success in the use of such cameras. For instance, the massive installation of CCTV cameras across cities in Britain helped the police launch a raid in Hampshire as well as arrest a suspect involved in bomb blasts in Brixton and Brick Lane (Davis, 2003).Finally, the police force has been subjected to annual pay review by the police Staff Association in Britain. This however, depends on the region of operation as well as competence of the officer. The increased police remuneration motivates the force leading to increased productivity (Chan, 1997).

The police force is held accountable for their activities in the society. In the past for instance, the British police was protected against any external influence from any arm of the government. This meant that the force could not be subjected to any kind of scrutiny by a government elected by the people. It installed a sense of autonomy in the police service in the early 19th century.  The British government however changed this system through restructuring of the police service by introducing policy that governs the force hence their control. This ensured responsiveness of the police to the electorate (Vigh  Shelley, 1995). Public confidence in the force is further installed through provisions that allow individual officers to sue and be sued. Additionally, the modern policy regarding police accountability has also adopted a complaint system that is open and accessible to all. In Britain, the public can launch a complaint against an individual officer or the general police body through the public complaints committee (Walker 2005).

There has been a remarkable change in the practice of the police force over the past few years. The Criminal justice system has faced hurdles in the past while trying to deliver services to the public. This has been attributed to the infrastructural and leadership problems in addition to the negative police culture that has been developed by the force. Furthermore, the bureaucratic procedures in the police force contribute to delayed service delivery and should therefore be cut to ensure faster delivery since justice delayed is considered as justice denied. The police are vessels used by the criminal justice system to provide justice to the public. Their social behavior, accountability, effectiveness as well as competence are key factors that have been enhanced in the changes. However, a lot of reforms have to be done to further strengthen the police force as well as ensuring their independence. This is important due to advancement in technology and consequent rise in crime rates as well as techniques applied in criminal activities.

Research, Evaluation Policy Analysis

School teachers visits help reign on children delinquency. Crime and criminal justice remains an important segment of society. In recent times, child delinquency has emerged as an issue area affecting society. Due to the belief that the young generation is the backbone of society, it is necessary that steps are taken to ensure the group develops as envisaged.

Literature review
The Nurse Home Visitation Program which was partially sponsored by NIMH presents a twenty year old approach in which case nurses pay visit mothersHowever, this is merely geared towards ensuring the health of the kids. This program helps in helping low income families to reduce injury cases (David and Weikart et al, 2006).

It is held on the basis of a research by NIMH that poor care is a major cause of antisocial behaviour which leads to arrests later in life. On the strength of the research, it was found that by the age of 15 there were fewer problems associated with drug use and alcohol. It was also found that there were fewer instances of escapes from home, fewer arrests, fewer convictions, and less sexual escapades. This research shows that visitation was a useful tool in helping kids mature to peaceful citizens (Lawrence and David, 1999).

The Hawaii Healthy Start Program was designed to offer prevention against child delinquency. This programme helps prevent neglect and guarantee better development. The program which is currently applied state-wide is a source of inspiration. Through the use of home visitation, the programme officers offer guidance to parents and kids on a number of issues.  This helps impart problem solving skills into parents. Consequently, kids are nurtured in the right way. After a period of two years, it became apparent that the programme was a huge success (Westinghouse Learning Corporation, 2001).
A study carried out in Tennessee, Washington, North Carolina, and Washington has confirmed that nurtured kids through the use of the visitation programme develop into law abiding citizens. Through the use of the Families and Schools Together Track Program, aggressive children of the age of six in kindergarten are observed. In this programme, the children, the families and the school systems work as a unit. The programme identified Pre School kids predisposed to high risks in 55 schools.  The children were then arbitrarily identified for no intervention or intervention.

The kids who enrolled are currently adolescents. Findings showed less aggressiveness among the participants. This meant that those who were in the programme did not need special education.
The Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers Program presents a ten week programme which aims at making interventions. This programme seeks to check the behaviour of children at a risk of developing conduct problems. This is as a result of residing in high juvenile delinquency areas. The programme incorporates the input of parents and teachers. On the basis of the programme findings, it was found that the children in this programme showed lesser aggression as compared to outsiders (Irving and Darlington, 2001).

The researches which are reviewed in this paper are closely related to the question at hand. They all point to the use of visitation as an antidote to children delinquency. The researches thus go a long way to aid the facts this paper seeks to present. The studies have found that visits by teachers help tone down the aggression in children. Those children missing visits pay the price as they are embroiled in negative deeds later in life.

The studies have used small samples owing to the complexity of the study. The population studied is the young generation. The units of study remain mainly the children though teachers and parents could easily be counted as other units in the study.

Child delinquency is conceptualized as an act of law breaking by children. Teachers are viewed as the best role models in a position to positively influence the development of the young kids. It is also assumed in the studies that the development of pupils is a function of a number of factors
Research gap

The researches conducted so far present a strong case in reference to findings. The studies have made a meaningful contribution to the field of crime and criminal justice. However, the studies do not reveal how these visits by teachers to young childrens homes affect their development adversely. There is a possibility these visits may hinder the development of young children in a number of ways. For example, the presence of teachers may kill young childrens enthusiasm. Simply put, nobody wants to have much of one thing repeatedly. The researches did not discuss how the findings affected the policies in the regions of study. But it is clear that the findings hugely influenced how lower studies are conducted.

There are a number of perspectives to every issue at hand. However, the choice of perspective to take rests with the researcher. In simple terms, the researcher should be allowed the freedom to make a choice depending on the goal of the study. On this basis, the approach taken by the various researches serve as a pointer to a work well done.

On the basis of the findings of the paper, visits by teachers to young children helps in reducing aggressive behaviour in the long run. All the study findings prove that visits are helpful. They should thus be encouraged as a solution to help reduce child delinquency in society. As indicated in the literature review, there is a research gap which should be filed. The gap centres on the adverse effects of the visit programmes on the young children.

It is implicated on the basis of this study that visits have a positive transformation in lives of young people. Further research should be conducted to determine the adverse effects of such programmes. The proposed research should be premised on the question, do preschool and weekly home visits by teachers to children under 5 substantially reduce arrests at least through age 15 and up to age.

Examine the relationship between organised crime and international peace operations in one of the following countries Afghanistan, Haiti, Bosnia. Outline the challenges faced by peacekeepers in tacking organised crime in such places.

Hayes, G  Sedra, M 2001, Afghanistan Transition after Threat, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Canada.

This book talks about the different challenges that are faced by Afghanistan, focusing on the period after the American occupation, the ouster of the Taliban regime, and the establishment of the transitional government. This work is a compilation of different papers which discusses in detail the problems that the transitional government is facing including economic challenges on Afghanistans development, the problems of political transition, state security and the Taliban insurgency, and as well as the tasks of international peacekeeping operations. One of the security problems highlighted in this work is the difficulties that are faced by the government and the peacekeepers alike in facing the challenges of organized crime, including the arms trade and the narcotics trade. The authors argue that the international community, including the peacekeeping forces, must in fact reconsider its strategy in the counter narcotics problem, because of the fact that it is more dictated by western countries concern rather than the interests of Afghanistan.

Surkhe, A, Harpviken, K  Strand, A 2002, After Bonn Conflictual Peace Building, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 5, Reconstructing War-Torn Societies Afghanistan, pp. 875-891.

This article tries to look into the present challenges being seen in the peace building process being done in Afghanistan, given the fact that the Bonn agreement have been already passed in 2001 regarding the political transition in the country. According to the article, despite the passage of the Bonn agreement, and as well as the commitment of peace-keeping operations to help in the rehabilitation of the country, old problems still continues to threaten the stability of Afghanistan, including the continuing insurgency of the Taliban Islamic fundamentalists and the presence of the illegal narcotics trade.  The article argues that politico-military groups still dominate much of the Afghan countryside, and act as warlords, making it difficult for international agencies, international peacekeeping organizations, and even the transitional government itself in facing the challenges of insurgency and organized crime, especially in the illegal trade of heroin. In addition, the authors also argue that reorientation of the strategies is essential, especially in reviewing the past involvements of the international community in the area.
Cockayne J 2009, Providers, Platforms or Partners Possible Roles for Peace Operations in Fighting Organized Crime, International Forum for the Challenges of Peace Operations, Version 9, pp.1-7.
This article tries to look at the possible roles of international peace operations in fighting organized crime, especially in maintaining the stability of the areas where they operate. According to the author, most areas recently torn by conflict hosts different organized crime activities, which threaten the stability of the area of operations. Due to this situation, the author argues that most areas where peace-keeping forces are active also confront the problem of organized crime. Given this fact, the author argues that peace operations must not be the primary or sole provider of the wide range of services needed to tackle organized crime  or the primary developer of such services at the national level, given that their forces are already very thinned out. In addition, the author also argues that peace-keeping operations can confront organized crime in concerned areas in a three way approach through social and economic responses, governance responses, and political strategy.

Cockayne, J  Pfister D 2008, Peace Operations and Organised Crime, The Geneva Papers, GCSP Geneva Papers 2, pp. 1-55.

This paper tries to explore the deep and often overlooked relationship between organized crime, conflict, and peace operations. This article focuses on the different forms of organized crime, both local and transnational, and takes a glimpse at the different implications of organized crime in the sustainability of peace operations in the country. This paper first looked at the relationship between crime and conflict, and then studied the effect of conducting peace operations on organized crime, the threats and opportunities that organized crime offers for peace operations, and on organised crime as a potential spoiler to the peace process. The authors argue that the existence of organised crime actually poses a threat to spoiling the peace process, due to the fact that this situation endangers human security, including those involved in international peace-keeping operations. In addition, they argue that organised crime also creates a more challenging operational environment for international peace-keeping forces.

Fulga, G 2005, Combating International Terrorism  Cross-Border Organized Crime. Strengthening the FIS International Partnerships, Conflict Studies Research Centre, 0511, pp. 1-4.

This article tries to argue for the importance of international partnerships in Battling not just the challenges of international terrorism, but more importantly, the challenges offered by cross-border organized crime. According to the author, since the attacks of 9-11, international security have always been inconstant threat, especially from radical groups willing to do such acts in an international scale. In this case, the author also adds that the existence of terrorist groups often get involved in organized crime for them to finance their activities, in an international scale. In this case, this work argues that building international partnerships is essential in confronting cross border organized crime, including the support of international peace-keeping operations and other concerted efforts of the international community. In addition, the author also argues that unless close international cooperation, including the support of international peacekeeping efforts such as by the NATO and the UN is not supported, then this will continue to be a serious threat to global security.

4. In order to understand TOC fully, a political economy perspective is required. Discuss.
Neuman, WL  Berger, RJ 1988, Competing Perspectives on Cross-National Crime An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence, The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 281-313.

The article argues that the present study on cross border crime is actually dominated by a Durkheimian-Modernization theoretical perspective, in which alternative perspectives on studying organized crime, the Marxian-World System and Ecological-Opportunity perspectives, should also be considered. The dominant Durkheimian-Modernization theoretical perspective was reviewed, and then is compared with both the Marxian-World System and Ecological-Opportunity perspectives, summarixing their different assumptions, concepts, and relationships to explain cross-national variations in crime. The authors argues that studies on criminology needs redirection, given that the Marxian-World System and Ecological-Opportunity perspectives gives a fresh insight, especially on the role of political economy in perpetrating these crimes. The Marxian-World System theory, according to the author, can be an effective theory in analyzing transnational crime according to politcal groups and social classes that uses it for their interests.

Naylor, RT 2002, Wages of Crime Black Markets, Illegal Finance, and the Underworld Economy, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

This book, authored by RT Naylor, gives an analysis into the different economic and political factors that supports transnational organized crime operations, in order for them to pursue their own agenda. Naylor argues that, the real threat to economic morality comes from seemingly legitimate business types intent on seeing how far they can bend the rules before they have to pay politicians to rewrite them, giving a hint that in fact, political and economic elite are behind some illegal criminal activities on a  transnational scope. The 4 major illicit trades that involves the connivance and interests of business and political figures are focused in this book the illegal arms operation of several guerrilla groups, the present arms trade, money laundering, and the trade of gold on the underworld. Naylor argues that such crimes are not only motivated by economic gain, but in addition are backed by powerful elite groups that seek to maintain their status over rivals.

Wenmann, A 2004, The political economy of transnational crime and its implications for armed violence in Georgia, Insight Turkey, Volume 6, Number 2, pp. 105-117.

This article deeply discusses the political economy of transnational crime, in relation to the recurring armed violence in the state of Georgia. Wenmann argues that the transition to a market economy, which Georgia, just like other former Soviet states have gone, has pushed powerful political elites to utilize transnational crime groups just to forward their own quest for power and wealth. According to the author, transnational crime was able to profit from the rapid privatisation of state assets, the commercialisation of weapon stockpiles and the smuggling of consumer goods and natural resources. Weimann further argues that the black market for arms and drugs will continue to prosper, as long as there are armed groups who are willing to do everything just to pursue their political agenda.

Cohen, S 1996, Crime and Politics Spot the Difference, The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 1-21.

Stanley argues that, We were right to follow Matzas injunction not to separate the study of crime from the workings and theory of the state...especially in a world which politics and crime become indistinguishable is something else. The book actually lets criminologists and encourages them to analyze crime according to postmodern theories, specifically on how state institutions riddled with politics may in fact become facilitators of organized crime themselves. This work tries to explore the relationship of organized crime and politics in the context of the methodologies and the concepts of the new criminology movement. In this article, Cohen also argues that the difference between politics and crime is continually being diffused, given that a lot of political groups are now even choosing to utilize transnational organized criminal groups, especially in a time of armed conflict.

Beare, M 2005, Critical Reflections on Transnational Organized Crime, Money Laundering and Corruption, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

The work attempts to provide new insights not commonly heard in conventional criminology especially by making a discursive analysis on the different concepts, policies and laws, enforcement responses, specific illegal industries, the illegal activity of legitimate corporations, the corruption of officials and the sorts of criminals involved in transnational organized crime. This book by Margaret Beare, includes a collection of different papers which tries to cover transnational organized crime, money laundering and corruption, in the context of critical criminology. The book also says that given the present discourse in the study of transnational organized crime, the real nature of transnational organized crime is actually blurred, especially with the arguments that transnational crimes are merely global threats to western security, when in fact it is much more. This work also offers a fresh analysis into the role of corruption in the proliferation of transnational organized crime.


Crimes can cost communities a lotnot just in property and money but also in increasing fear, increasing the risk of stigma and impacting the local services especially to already underprivileged communities that result to lowering the quality of life. Property damages and loss from different types of crimes such as property crime, violent crime, white collar crime and internet crime also impose major costsfinancial, physical, emotional and psychological.  These negative effects of violent crimes on communities and families cannot be overestimated. Australian Institute of Criminology and Statistics aggregate crime data stored in the Police Management Information System (PMIS) maintained by Police Services Division (PSD) being updated monthly and quarterly  (Johnson, 2005). The collection of data, analysis and explanation of crime was done in diverse ways such as qualitative study, survey and meta-analysis. National government and law enforcing enforcement agencies are committed to reduce crimes, in all its forms. It is required to facilitate the necessary integration of these judicial and punishment activities so that law enforcer efforts for peace and order are effectively directed and controlled. In these this current economic situation,s the nations and the world in general must use a strategy so that theys strategy may be involved planning at several levels of crime structure (Warren and Palmer, 2010). Factors affecting the strategic decision- making process of a nation and law- making bodies may be the proper development and maintaining strategic fit between the crime punishment and its opportunities (Guha, 1999).

Property Crime
Property crime is considered as one of the most common crimes experienced by the Australian community. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) conducted a safety and crime survey in April 2002 to have a picture of how crimes affect Australians. It was estimated that 354,000 Australian households had at least experienced one break-in to their garage, shed or home (Johnson, 2005).

Nationally, this indicates that 4.7 of households were likely to be victims, slightly decreased from 5.0 in 1998. The survey presented that 254,400 households or 3.4 of all households found indications of at least one attempted break-in. Australian Northern Territory had the highest household proportion experiencing property crimes (13.5) followed by Western Australia with 6.2. Victoria has the lowest rates proportion with 3.4 and the Australian Capital Territory with 4.4 (Australian Bureau of Statistics ABS, 2002).

Source Australian Institute of Criminology 2007. Australian crime facts and figures 2006. Canberra AIC
Figure 1. Property Crimes Statistics
Source Australian Institute of Criminology 2007. Australian crime facts and figures 2006. Canberra AIC

Property crimes have been significantly decreased since the 2000-2004 period. Some researches have theorizsed that changes in culture and lifestyle have played a significant role in this trend (Braithwaite, 2009). Comparing victimisation rates within the preceding twelve months over the two time periods, all crimes with the exception of motorcycle theft and robbery declined in 2004, and those two remained stable. Data were collected through surveys complementary to national data (Johnson, 2005).These surveys are generally conducted by telephone and involve questions concerning the victimization of respondents. According to studies, many people spend their evenings at home in fact many of them workfromtheir homes (Mayhew, 2003). The level of property crimes has curiously remained consistent for example, purse snatching, has made up 1 of all larcenies during the last 40 years. Considerably, a property crime such as burglaries, larcenies, and motor causes annual losses at least 15 billion (Johnson, 2005). Other types of crimes have also changed in subtle ways. In the late 1990s, law enforcement agencies witnessed an increase in burglaries committed during daytime. As parked cars became difficult to steal, the car jacking crime began to increase (Braithwaite, 2009). Offenders are typically influenced by the state of the economy and drug related abuse. Most of the offenders are young drug abusers or chronic alcohol drinker. Specifically, most of the car thefts are done by young men aged 1420 years old world (Australian Institute of Criminology AIC, 2010). Officials also indicate that Tthey steal a car for the purpose of using it rather than for financial gains. Reducing this kind of crime includes diverting towards a more positive lifestyle and addressing their anti-social behavior (Warren and Palmer, 2010).  Another type of property crime is fraud which includes copyright infringement which can be accomplished through internet crime. This is  considered as an important issue in protecting original ideas to big businesses, music and arts (Braithwaite, 2009). The Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) concludes that there is an economic impact of such crime on indigenous Australians and regional communities. Law enforcement, legislations, civil remedies, and criminal prosecution have subsequently increased in terms of Australian Government funding allocation (Holder, 1997.

Violent Crime
Violent crime is a crime in which the offender threatens or uses violent force upon the victims. This entails crimes in which the act is the objective like murder, as well as crimes such as robbery. This type of crime includes crimes done with and without weapons (Warren and Palmer, 2010).  Rape accounts for 6 percent of all violent crimes reported. Consequently, males are the common victims of all forms of violent crime. Violent crimes also associated with property crime in several ways. The victims were usually victimiszed by these two crime classification simultaneously (Johnson, 2005).

According to AIC (2009) violent crime is significantly increasing in Australian community and very much the domain of men (30 of its population were victimiszed). They are responsible for most criminal acts and they are the victims more often than women. Women are less likely than men to use a weapon such as a blunt object, knife, or firearm in the commission of a crime (Johnson, 2005). The present figures show that the percentage of violent crime represents a slight increase. Survey forms are the basis of violent crime data collection within the country. It is designed to collect aggregate data on the incidence of crime and records three major components for each criminal incident type, volume and persons charged by gender, youth or adult (Warren and Palmer, 2010). To address the issue, the Australian government tries and stop intimidation and low-level aggression through measures designed to decrease offenses related to alcohol and anti-social behaviors (Mayhew, 2003). Low-level crime alcohol abuses are known to be the root of many crimes. Abusers are the common violent crime offenders according to statistics. It gives local communities and law enforcement agencies the power to discuss these problems as well as the serious violent crimes caused by knives and guns. Studies revealed that Australia led the list with more than 30 of its population victimiszed in the world (Australian Institute of CriminologyAIC, 2010). The Australian Standard Offence Classification (ASOC) does not have a one category for violent crime. Rather, violent crime is categorizedcategorized under a number of various categories that often show a range of both non-violent and violent behaviors (Johnson, 2005).  These include homicide and other related offences , driving causing death and manslaughter acts intended to inflict injuries, such as aAssault sSexual offences those against the children abduction and related crimes such as deprivation of liberty, kidnapping or false imprisonment and extortion or robbery (Mukherjee  Carcach, 1998).

White-collar Crime
White-collar crime defined as a crime approximately committed by an individual of high social status and respectability in the course of his profession. White-collar crimes include bankruptcy fraud, financial fraud, identity theft, fraud, medical crimes, bribery, embezzlement, insider trading, computer crimes, environmental crime, pension, occupational crime, forgery, etc, and others. According to the results of a survey conducted by the Australian government, 63 of executives polled expect accounting fraud to significantly increase during the next 2 years world (Australian Institute of Criminology, 2010). Much of the largest white-collar offense haves been perpetrated by senior executives of the company or organization (Mayhew, 2003). The offender commits the crime through the computer or paperwork tools.  The victims were usually corporations and business individuals. White collar crimes usually go largely undetected. In Australia, the problem of unsatisfactory penalties for white collar crime is part of a more general or inappropriate penalties (Australian Institute of CriminologyAIC, 2010). It is a more serious part of the problem in every area of white-collar crimes. There are problems with giving false effluent data in environmental regulation. There have been serious problems with regards to provision of fraudulent data on efficacy and safety of drugs in terms of with pharmaceuticals regulation (Mayhew, 2003).  Moreover, fraud is a major issue in the security and safety, prudential, occupational health, securities and companies regulation. It does not only cost millions of dollars, it also kills. In Australia, authorities have neglectful of frauds that put many lives at risk (Hall, 1979). The police occurrence report forms are the basis of data collection for white collar crime rates. Standard rules were adoapted for counting incidents, persons charged and clearance data. Police record of fraud offences believed with fewer than 50 of incidents being reported to authorities or police (Warren and Palmer, 2010).

Reported white collar fraud offences and othervrelated crimes from 199596 to 200607 (number)19959691,495199697101,256199798109,404199899112,209199900112,264200001106,141200102109,080200203108,940200304102,86320040589,198200506101,22220060795,606Figure 2. Reported white collar offences and othervrelated crimes.(Place title).

The trend in white collar crimes reported to and recorded by police authority annually over the 12-year period has been relatively stable. The number of offences in 200607 was the third lowest since 1999 (Johnson, 2005).

Internet Crime
According to the Australian Institute of CriminologyAIC (2010), Internet crime is a term used to define a range of various crime types that are committed or facilitated using computers online. The cost of this crime in economic and human terms is high, and its it is still increasing. It includes viruses, junk email or spam, hacking, internet fraud and pedophilia (Richards, 2009). This type of crime is also termed to as e-crime, cybercrime and hi-tech crime. In the year 2006-07, the majority of all credit card fraud cases involved so-called card not present fraud, in which cards were, illegally used either over the phone or online (Johnson, 2005).This has been the biggest type of card fraud in Australia and other countries. Nationally, the Australian government funded the computer crime introduction units for every police force (Mayhew, 2003). They introduced specific crime-specific initiatives to combat this type of crime by educating people and establishment of Internet to provide support for victims, intelligence distribution and conduct investigations (Braithwaite, 2009).They also initialized legislation to avoid unsolicited messages to personal email account. Statistics shows that Australia has the highest incidence of Iinternet crime in the world (Australian Institute of Criminology, 2010).  The study found that more than 39 of Australians haved been the victims of Iinternet crime, compared to Italy with 32 in Italy and 28 of Americans (Richards, 2009). The most typical forms of iInternet crime experienced by Australians were not receiving products paid for at online auction, phishing, credit card fraud, fraudulent e-mails and unauthorized bank transfers (Braithwaite, 2009). As computer-related crimes become more prevalent, an increasing need emerges for police personnel-- - particularly those who do not have expertise in computer technology - --to understand how these crimes vary.  Computer-related crime refers with increasing intellectual property and frequency (Richards, 2009).

Source Australian Institute of Criminology 2007. Australian crime facts and figures 2006. Canberra AIC
Figure 3. Place TitleComputer related crimes.

As few police agencies identify cybercrimes, the chart above present results of the 2005 Australian computer crime and security survey by Australian High Tech Crime Centre (Richards, 2009). People working with information technology, manufacturing, federal and state government, finance, utilities and education are the common victims of this crime. The crime rate for this crime is stable and slightly increasing in 2006 (Johnson, 2005).

There are four classes of crimes discussed in this paper.  Firstly, property crime is considered as one of the most common crimes experienced by the Australian community. It has been significantly decreased since the 2000-2004. Some researchers have theorized that changes in culture and lifestyle have played a significant role in this trend. Secondly, violent crime is a crime in which the offender threatens or uses violent force upon the victims. This entails crimes in which the act is the objective like murder, as well as crimes such as robbery. According to AIC (2009) violent crime is significantly increasing in the Australian community and very much the domain of men (30 of its population were victimized).  The third type of crime is white-collar crime defined as a crime approximately committed by an individuals of high social status and respectability respectabilityin the course of his profession . It include bankruptcy fraud, financial fraud, identity theft, fraud, medical crimes, bribery, embezzlement, insider trading, computer crimes, environmental crime, pension, occupational crime, forgery, etcand others. According to the results of a survey conducted by Australian governmentAIC, 63 of executives polled expect accounting fraud to significantly increase during the next 2 years world and has been perpetrated by senior executives of the company or organization (Australian Institute of CriminologyAIC, 2010). The last type is Internet crime which used to define a range of various crime types that are committed or facilitated using computers online. It includes viruses, junk email or spam, hacking, internet fraud and pedophilia. This type of crime is also termed to as e-crime, cybercrime and hi-tech crime. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) which produces The information produces informatioby The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)n on crime rates and occurrence frequency report forms which is the basis of data collection for these crimes rates. Standard rules were adapted for counting incidents, persons charged and clearance data (Johnson, 2005).

Modern Criminology is one of the fields of study and disciplines about criminals and criminal behavior. The development of the subject attempted to build theoretical foundations that explain why these crimes occurred and test those theoretical concepts by observing their behavior aspects (Aris, 2008).Criminological concepts help shape the response of society to crime types in terms of responding and preventing crimes after its occurrence. The concern of it was focused with the human moral relationship, values and moral status together with its non-human elements. It has become a new philosophical sub-discipline in the early 1970s it was challenged by classical criminology. Foremost, it instigates the considered moral superiority of humanity to population of other people on the planet. Second, it examined the rational possibility of arguments for providing intrinsic value to the diversity of crimes and punishment elements (Guha, 1999).

Many people will have come across these types of crimes. That is why, there are an effort that involves the police and local community to build safer environments and prevent crime (Hayes, 2008).  These National Crime Prevention project are is located being implemented in hot-spot areas of South Australia and Queensland, focuses on preventing repeat victimization. The strategies they are using have proven successful overseas in reducing crime rate, not just moving the crimes to other locations. A variety of strategies is being used, such as, increasing the likelihood of reducing the rewards and detection and making properties more difficult to break into. Community groups and police are involved with an emphasis on police delivery working together. Through getting involved in organizations or local activities, one can help build long-lasting solutions to the problems of social alienation and isolation that contribute to crimes (Meyer, 2010).