Examine the relationship between organised crime and international peace operations in one of the following countries Afghanistan, Haiti, Bosnia. Outline the challenges faced by peacekeepers in tacking organised crime in such places.

Hayes, G  Sedra, M 2001, Afghanistan Transition after Threat, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Canada.

This book talks about the different challenges that are faced by Afghanistan, focusing on the period after the American occupation, the ouster of the Taliban regime, and the establishment of the transitional government. This work is a compilation of different papers which discusses in detail the problems that the transitional government is facing including economic challenges on Afghanistans development, the problems of political transition, state security and the Taliban insurgency, and as well as the tasks of international peacekeeping operations. One of the security problems highlighted in this work is the difficulties that are faced by the government and the peacekeepers alike in facing the challenges of organized crime, including the arms trade and the narcotics trade. The authors argue that the international community, including the peacekeeping forces, must in fact reconsider its strategy in the counter narcotics problem, because of the fact that it is more dictated by western countries concern rather than the interests of Afghanistan.

Surkhe, A, Harpviken, K  Strand, A 2002, After Bonn Conflictual Peace Building, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 5, Reconstructing War-Torn Societies Afghanistan, pp. 875-891.

This article tries to look into the present challenges being seen in the peace building process being done in Afghanistan, given the fact that the Bonn agreement have been already passed in 2001 regarding the political transition in the country. According to the article, despite the passage of the Bonn agreement, and as well as the commitment of peace-keeping operations to help in the rehabilitation of the country, old problems still continues to threaten the stability of Afghanistan, including the continuing insurgency of the Taliban Islamic fundamentalists and the presence of the illegal narcotics trade.  The article argues that politico-military groups still dominate much of the Afghan countryside, and act as warlords, making it difficult for international agencies, international peacekeeping organizations, and even the transitional government itself in facing the challenges of insurgency and organized crime, especially in the illegal trade of heroin. In addition, the authors also argue that reorientation of the strategies is essential, especially in reviewing the past involvements of the international community in the area.
Cockayne J 2009, Providers, Platforms or Partners Possible Roles for Peace Operations in Fighting Organized Crime, International Forum for the Challenges of Peace Operations, Version 9, pp.1-7.
This article tries to look at the possible roles of international peace operations in fighting organized crime, especially in maintaining the stability of the areas where they operate. According to the author, most areas recently torn by conflict hosts different organized crime activities, which threaten the stability of the area of operations. Due to this situation, the author argues that most areas where peace-keeping forces are active also confront the problem of organized crime. Given this fact, the author argues that peace operations must not be the primary or sole provider of the wide range of services needed to tackle organized crime  or the primary developer of such services at the national level, given that their forces are already very thinned out. In addition, the author also argues that peace-keeping operations can confront organized crime in concerned areas in a three way approach through social and economic responses, governance responses, and political strategy.

Cockayne, J  Pfister D 2008, Peace Operations and Organised Crime, The Geneva Papers, GCSP Geneva Papers 2, pp. 1-55.

This paper tries to explore the deep and often overlooked relationship between organized crime, conflict, and peace operations. This article focuses on the different forms of organized crime, both local and transnational, and takes a glimpse at the different implications of organized crime in the sustainability of peace operations in the country. This paper first looked at the relationship between crime and conflict, and then studied the effect of conducting peace operations on organized crime, the threats and opportunities that organized crime offers for peace operations, and on organised crime as a potential spoiler to the peace process. The authors argue that the existence of organised crime actually poses a threat to spoiling the peace process, due to the fact that this situation endangers human security, including those involved in international peace-keeping operations. In addition, they argue that organised crime also creates a more challenging operational environment for international peace-keeping forces.

Fulga, G 2005, Combating International Terrorism  Cross-Border Organized Crime. Strengthening the FIS International Partnerships, Conflict Studies Research Centre, 0511, pp. 1-4.

This article tries to argue for the importance of international partnerships in Battling not just the challenges of international terrorism, but more importantly, the challenges offered by cross-border organized crime. According to the author, since the attacks of 9-11, international security have always been inconstant threat, especially from radical groups willing to do such acts in an international scale. In this case, the author also adds that the existence of terrorist groups often get involved in organized crime for them to finance their activities, in an international scale. In this case, this work argues that building international partnerships is essential in confronting cross border organized crime, including the support of international peace-keeping operations and other concerted efforts of the international community. In addition, the author also argues that unless close international cooperation, including the support of international peacekeeping efforts such as by the NATO and the UN is not supported, then this will continue to be a serious threat to global security.

4. In order to understand TOC fully, a political economy perspective is required. Discuss.
Neuman, WL  Berger, RJ 1988, Competing Perspectives on Cross-National Crime An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence, The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 281-313.

The article argues that the present study on cross border crime is actually dominated by a Durkheimian-Modernization theoretical perspective, in which alternative perspectives on studying organized crime, the Marxian-World System and Ecological-Opportunity perspectives, should also be considered. The dominant Durkheimian-Modernization theoretical perspective was reviewed, and then is compared with both the Marxian-World System and Ecological-Opportunity perspectives, summarixing their different assumptions, concepts, and relationships to explain cross-national variations in crime. The authors argues that studies on criminology needs redirection, given that the Marxian-World System and Ecological-Opportunity perspectives gives a fresh insight, especially on the role of political economy in perpetrating these crimes. The Marxian-World System theory, according to the author, can be an effective theory in analyzing transnational crime according to politcal groups and social classes that uses it for their interests.

Naylor, RT 2002, Wages of Crime Black Markets, Illegal Finance, and the Underworld Economy, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

This book, authored by RT Naylor, gives an analysis into the different economic and political factors that supports transnational organized crime operations, in order for them to pursue their own agenda. Naylor argues that, the real threat to economic morality comes from seemingly legitimate business types intent on seeing how far they can bend the rules before they have to pay politicians to rewrite them, giving a hint that in fact, political and economic elite are behind some illegal criminal activities on a  transnational scope. The 4 major illicit trades that involves the connivance and interests of business and political figures are focused in this book the illegal arms operation of several guerrilla groups, the present arms trade, money laundering, and the trade of gold on the underworld. Naylor argues that such crimes are not only motivated by economic gain, but in addition are backed by powerful elite groups that seek to maintain their status over rivals.

Wenmann, A 2004, The political economy of transnational crime and its implications for armed violence in Georgia, Insight Turkey, Volume 6, Number 2, pp. 105-117.

This article deeply discusses the political economy of transnational crime, in relation to the recurring armed violence in the state of Georgia. Wenmann argues that the transition to a market economy, which Georgia, just like other former Soviet states have gone, has pushed powerful political elites to utilize transnational crime groups just to forward their own quest for power and wealth. According to the author, transnational crime was able to profit from the rapid privatisation of state assets, the commercialisation of weapon stockpiles and the smuggling of consumer goods and natural resources. Weimann further argues that the black market for arms and drugs will continue to prosper, as long as there are armed groups who are willing to do everything just to pursue their political agenda.

Cohen, S 1996, Crime and Politics Spot the Difference, The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 1-21.

Stanley argues that, We were right to follow Matzas injunction not to separate the study of crime from the workings and theory of the state...especially in a world which politics and crime become indistinguishable is something else. The book actually lets criminologists and encourages them to analyze crime according to postmodern theories, specifically on how state institutions riddled with politics may in fact become facilitators of organized crime themselves. This work tries to explore the relationship of organized crime and politics in the context of the methodologies and the concepts of the new criminology movement. In this article, Cohen also argues that the difference between politics and crime is continually being diffused, given that a lot of political groups are now even choosing to utilize transnational organized criminal groups, especially in a time of armed conflict.

Beare, M 2005, Critical Reflections on Transnational Organized Crime, Money Laundering and Corruption, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

The work attempts to provide new insights not commonly heard in conventional criminology especially by making a discursive analysis on the different concepts, policies and laws, enforcement responses, specific illegal industries, the illegal activity of legitimate corporations, the corruption of officials and the sorts of criminals involved in transnational organized crime. This book by Margaret Beare, includes a collection of different papers which tries to cover transnational organized crime, money laundering and corruption, in the context of critical criminology. The book also says that given the present discourse in the study of transnational organized crime, the real nature of transnational organized crime is actually blurred, especially with the arguments that transnational crimes are merely global threats to western security, when in fact it is much more. This work also offers a fresh analysis into the role of corruption in the proliferation of transnational organized crime.


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