Judicial Administration

Various sections of the criminal justice system of the United States developed at the state and federal levels between the periods of independence and the American Revolution until the early on in the twentieth century. Jrank establishes that these sections of the American criminal justice system include courts, prisons, and policing. This paper aims to cover the foundations of the justice administration as well as the legal and historical bases and also the public sector as opposed to the private sector and how all this comes together in an organization.

Foundations of the Judicial Administration
Jrank asserts that there was no legal structure that existed in the United States before the American Revolution era. Every colony operated independently. The legal system differed from one colony to another. At the time of the revolution, it was decided that a joint and proficient legal system was needed and thus the Bill of Rights was adopted in 1791, stating the protection in the criminal justice system for nationals according to the National Archives and Records Administration.

The constitution that was drafted gave the government specific powers but would limit them so that individual liberties would be protected sufficiently. Various states met to vote for its adoption whereby people demanded their liberties and their securities in the criminal justice process be explicitly listed since they feared that over time their individual liberties would vanish as the federal government grew. So the constitution was some sort of insurance. The constitution contained a draft that consisted of ten amendments known as the Bill of Rights that were for the purpose of the protection of nationals. The man who would become the fourth president of the United States, James Madison joined in the writing of this document.

According to Jrank, another part of the criminal justice system was policing which slowly developed throughout the nineteenth century starting in the mid-1800s. Although it was improved several times, it remained part of the political procedure in local towns and cities hence leading to rampant corruption.

Legal and Historical Bases of Justice Administration
The Federal Judicial Center gives a description of the legal system of the United States where the judicial branch has the power of judicial review as a control on the powers of the executive and legislative branches. Therefore it presents the court with the power to proclaim executive or legislative acts invalid if they are contrary to the federal or state constitutions. The U.S. has set up a two tier court system that consists of Federal and State courts. Federal courts deal with cases involving federal laws, controversies between states, and cases involving foreign governments while State courts deal with a vast majority of cases and has exclusive jurisdiction over all of them (1).
Frank provides a historical base of the federal judicial system whereby James Madison sat with fifty-four other people on May, 1787. They had various necessities to address such as the safeguard of commerce against disruption by state taxes or directives, an end to impairment of contracts, a taxing system that would be equivalent to needs of the public and an executive department.

Public-Sector versus Private-Sector Administration
The public sector refers all organizations owned by the government while private sector is all organizations that are not controlled by the state. These two types of sectors have different types of administration.

The public sector of the United States has a judicial branch which has a dual court system that consists of the Federal Court and State Court systems. The Federal Judicial Center asserts that at the top of the Federal Court system is the Supreme Court which consists of nine justices who sit together and hear cases. It contains two lower levels which are the United States District Courts and the United States Circuit Courts of Appeals. On the other hand, the State Courts deal with minor civil and criminal cases presided over by a judge. The highest court here is the State Supreme Court.
The private sector Administration for instance, that of the United nations had a different structure of Justice Administration. Its Secretariat includes Internal Justice bodies which are Ethics Office, Office of the United Nations Ombudsman, Office of Administration of Justice and the United Nations Administrative Tribunal.

In an organization, Justice Administration applies whereby an organization has a lawyer that represents them in cases that involve their area of business. The lawyer also takes part in documentation relevant to the rights and protection of the organization and its members.

In conclusion, the administration of justice entirely is based on the constitution since the writers who took part in its inception and adoption meant for justice to be served and implemented in order to protect the citizens of the United States.


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