Terrorism and Multinational Criminal Justice Social Injustice, Benefit Finding and the search for a Restorative Model of a Justice System

Studying Terrorism and Multicultural Criminal Justice requires a broad knowledge base to understand and even with which there are a lot more to be understood that the final result is that there is that we can only hope to understand part and parcels of the activities of Terrorism and the Rules Regarding Multinational Criminal Justice. This paper will discuss on the concept of Social Injustice as the root of Terrorism and the main problem of the Multinational Criminal Justice. We also will explore the claim that acts of Terrorism do not only produce negative effects but they also produce benefits among the people that are directly or indirectly affected. We will also explore of in this paper an alternative to the Traditional Justice system in which the main form of correction is punishment through correctional or other means.

Terrorism and Multinational Crime
Contemporary crimes have seen various reasons why crimes have come up and prospered. Usual causes of Terrorism and Multinational Crime lies in the individual or the groups and there are limitless reasons why acts of terror and crime are done. Though these instances differs from case to case, in contemporary times provides solutions to crime as well as creates additional problems. Proof of this lies in the development of technology, Globalization as well as the assimilation or simply the exposure of the different cultures with each other.  Before furthering the argument, understanding the difference between the two are important to remember.

Terrorism is said to be a violent act by a group or an individual that aims to affect or influence public opinion which, in effect will, also affect government action. Terrorist acts are done in which the victims are not actually the people who they are targeting, rather what they aim for is the publicity. The more people know about their acts and what they claim to be fighting for then the more their actions are effective. Terrorism can be seen as a Multinational crime.

Multinational Crimes are crimes in which not only one state or nation is affected. This means that these crimes transcend the boundaries of territory.  In this regard perhaps the most influential organizations are those who are involved in organized crime. Unlike terrorists, their actions are continuous and more widespread. Terrorists capitalize in large scale activities that involve a lot of publicity while these organized crime groups are those who capitalize in large scale activities but are not, as much as possible, involved in any kind of publicity.

To address this kind of activities, more and more countries are getting interested in the concept of having an International Criminal Court (ICCs) that will be headed by the UN. The purpose of which is to try, punish and prevent any more of these activities from happening. Critics of this course of action criticizes the countries who are pushing for this since it would seem like they do not plan on addressing these problems in their own countries, rather they would be depending on this international criminal court to do this task for them. (Neumayer, 2009)

Sociological perspective Social Injustice and its place in Terrorism and Criminal Justice
Society has always been one of the determinants of criminal behavior. In this respect there is a broad range of subjects to explore. In this paper, we will be exploring the concept of social injustice and its role in terrorism, domestic and multinational criminal justice.

When we talk about Terrorism, these are groups and individuals who think that they are, in some way or another being abused. They want something that they think is their right and because of these they resort to violent acts and behaviors in order to direct attention into what they are fighting for. There might not be any logical or rational reason behind this or they have simply different views regarding the different matters. They view their situation as the effect of some continuous action imposed upon them by a foreign or outside entity. They view themselves as victims of social injustice and thus move to address this, usually through the means of violent and destructive acts to let others know and meet their demands.

Social Injustice is seen as one of the main reasons why crime, whether domestic or multinational, are done. In terms of domestic crimes, the socio-economic gap between individuals is the primary causes of crimes. There is inequality between individuals in every society before or after crime. There are some who even posit that the criminal justice system does not focus on crimes that further these instances of inequality such as those white collar and corporate crimes. The criminal justice system focuses on crimes against people usually since they are easier and provide much less risk upon the individuals and the society involved. Matters of race and culture also matter in many cases in which they are also discriminated against despite the assurance of the laws. (Erickson, 2003)

It is true that criminal justice is far from being perfect but here we see that the inequalities and the discrimination have proven to be more of preference and not because of the criminal justice system.  Agents of the criminal justice system tend to choose who to punish and the method of punishment. When it comes to crime, domestic or multicultural, the people who are agents of the system are affected by pre-conceived notions of who these criminals are. They throw undeserved suspicion and doubt against them because of race, culture and ethnicity. This has become such an apparent problem that left the criminal justice system because they were torn between their duty to uphold public safety and their image of being discriminatory (Derksen, 2005).

Psychological perspective The effects of the Criminal Justice system upon the individual
Psychology also studies the reasons why criminals choose to become criminals. In relation to the above statements we can say that individuals have developed their own value system where they can weigh and judge their situations. They commit crime because they saw that it is more advantageous to them if they continue in this course of action. However, this paper will concentrate of the psychological effects of the criminal justice system on the psychology of the individual rather than providing reasons for criminal action.

In this section, we shall explore the effects of the Criminal Justice system upon the individual criminal. In the paragraphs above we have determined that the criminal justice system is plagued by social inequality in domestic and multinational level. This has profound effects upon the psychology of the individual especially in the cases in where they are actually imprisoned. These effects, more often than not, provide limitations and deterrents against the possible re-entry of these individuals to the civil society whether or not they are proven to be guilty or not. Thus, a call for a more restorative Criminal justice model is called for where the communities are encouraged to join in to make it a more successful process (Albert W. Dzur, 2004). Being imprisoned develops in them a sense of helplessness that will prevent them from being productive. The effect of being imprisoned does not just last overnight and might even last throughout their lifetimes.

In terms of Psychology, if we look at the individuals who were affected by terrorism either directly or indirectly, researchers have found out that they have produced various effects upon these individuals. They have developed a stronger sense of unity, solidarity within their groups but have also developed a sense of indifference with individuals of other groups (Brian J. Hall, 2009). This has developed a defensive process that is more inclined for them to support individuals of their own groups and shun other people they have regarded as their out-groups. They have also developed a sense of meaning because of these events that have happened which have affected how they view and moved in the world, emotionally, spiritually and socially. This direction focuses on taking care of their own kind rather than self absorbed action (Brian J. Hall, 2009).

Criminal Justice The cry for a more Restorative Criminal Justice system
The criminal justice system have been said to have failed because of many reasons. Reasons relevant to this paper are that because the state has provided an isolationist procedure of criminal punishment that aggravates social and psychological environment of the person that it becomes difficult for them to further live normal lives. When taken into a larger context, we can see a cycle of discrimination that becomes difficult to break. It promotes social inequality, and though, provides a channel and venue for a more defensive and protective psychological bearing, it produces an environment which is not suitable for multinational or even multicultural cooperation.

Though the criminal justice system works, partially in deterring crime, it does not address real problems in the society that are the root of crime and terrorism. This does not mean that the different countries always give in to the demands of these individuals and groups. What it should aim to do is to remove public support for these kinds of activities by understanding the social, psychological and international climates. This cannot be done if they are forced into a procedural process in which they are only tried because of the result of their action and not because of the reason behind that action. The justice system becomes limiting in this regard and will not actually solve the larger problem of dissatisfaction in society (Donatui, 1990).

This rigid and indifferent system is seen as one of the reasons why crime proliferates in contemporary society.  The cry for a more restorative criminal justice system and indeed of leadership is timely in these times in which societies refuse to listen to the cry of criminals. Terrorists and Multinational crimes are there because there are still problems that need to be addressed. (Karstedt, 2007)

This paper is disperses its exploration upon three important fields of study namely sociology, psychology and criminal justice. Through sociology we understand that the reason for crimes can be caused by the dictates of society. Sociology finds that crime can be a shout for help because they live in a society that has become so blind to their needs and wants. In this paper we have focused on the existence of Social Injustice and inequality that have yet to be addressed. Psychology on the other hand focuses its efforts on determining individual reasons for crime, we have implied there the use of the Rational-Choice Paradigm in relation to the statements in the discussions regarding sociology.

There are different effects of both the act of the crime, in this case terrorism, and the punishment given to the individual provided by the criminal justice system. We see that though there are negative and positive effects in both instances, we see that there are also latent effects that are frequently overlooked. In this regard there is a need for an alternative to the current justice system and this paper provides for the use of a Restorative criminal justice system that will open its doors to the promise of justice but also of change.  In this system the criminals are not entirely limited by their actions but this system will also explore the reason for their actions. This alternative system also will provide a better venue in which these individuals can better reintegrate themselves to the society through the help of the community in which they are part of.  In cases of small or domestic criminal acts, this community is small. The larger the scope of the crime committed, the larger the community that will aim to help restore order.


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