A Research Proposal on the Impact of Cybercrime on the Use of CCTV Devices in the Field Of Security Surveillance

Security concerns have continued to increase with the continued advancements in technology (Evang 1977, pp. 13-54). The utilization of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras to enhance private and public security has had both negative and positive impact to both individual and business organizations.

Technologies in CCTV cameras usage such as the use of Internet Protocol (IP) networked cameras have continued to better the level of security. However, there are a number of concerns which are normally associated with the fact that security standards through most networked security monitoring devices such as CCTV Cameras, pass-through gun detectors, and cyber-eyes have compromised security standards. Fafinski (2009, pp. 42-78) explains that the usage of the closed circuit television cameras plays a very vital role in maintaining high security levels in the modern business. King, Wincup (2007, pp. 77-441) reinforces the fact that banks and other areas that demands stringent security enhancement have continued to utilize CCTV cameras and the related technologies to better their security standards. This research proposal therefore outlines the research question, the different research methods which would be applied in the research process, the possible challenges that are likely to be faced, and the ethical issues concerned with the research (Delman 2000, pp.11-23 Johanna 2003, pp. 101-109). Though this fact is not widely accepted, cybercrime has had both positive and negative impact on the usage of the close circuit television in the security surveillance industry (Johanna 2003, pp. 101-109 Delman 2000, pp.11-23).

Cybercrime and Closed-Circuit Television
While cybercrime means the use of computers and related technologies to commit fraud and other illegal internet practices, CCTV devices in the field of surveillance are mainly employed to ensure that high standards of security are put in place (Grabosky 2006, pp. 211-289). The use of close circuit-surveillance cameras, according to King, Wincup (2007, pp. 77-441) has continued to elicit mixed reactions on the need for individual privacy all over the world. Both stand alone and networked systems of closed circuit television cameras do exist and are all prone to misuse thus becoming a threat to security. Balkin, Grimmelmann, Katz, Kozlovski, Wagman, and Zarsky (2006) believes that the overall cost of networked systems which are sometimes distributed within a stipulated geographical location is always very costly yet very efficient compared to the traditional stand-alone closed circuit television closed circuit television cameras since networked systems tend to utilize little human resource due to the very minimal attention required to manage them. Initially, surveillance cameras were very static in nature (Shelly, Cashman, Vermaat, and Walker 1999 Skelton 2010, 9-130 WHO 1986, pp. 4-31). Both sirens and related alarm systems, gun detectors, and telephone systems have been integrated in closed circuit television cameras in order to fully achieve the full benefits associated with closed circuit television cameras. Based on the analysis of Computer crimes and the digital investigations by Walden (2007, pp.24-37 Paul 1999, pp. 198-206), it has become evident that security related issues can no longer be entrusted into the hands of a few individuals within an organization.

Research Questions
Different technologies are normally combined in order for efficiency, effectiveness, and reliability of the security enhancement efforts in an organization to be realized fully (Wall 2007, p.83). Crime rates have however continued to increase with the usage of more technologically advanced closed circuit television systems and other related security enhancement technologies. What is the impact of cybercrime on the usage of CCTV devices in the security surveillance among different organizations
Based on the above detailed research question, there are a number of objectives which the research would aim to achieve. Though very diverse, all the objectives are geared towards ensuring that all relevant issues related to the research question are fully exploited and any doubts dispelled (Brenner 2007, pp. 131-141 King and Wincup 2007, pp. 77-441). The short list of the clear objectives and aims are as stipulated below

To identify the existing loopholes in the design of CCTV camera with an intention of ensuring that the CCTV surveillance systems become more effective and reliable.

To investigate the major contributing factors to the ever increasing crime rates despite the advancement in security surveillance technologies such as CCTV camera usage.

To identify the correlation between the major CCTV devices in the security enhancement industry and the actual implementation of technology related ethical codes of conduct.

To analyze the current and the probable future organizational security enhancement trends and the possible positive impact of cybercrime on the use of CCTV related devices.

To fully evaluate the existing both negative and the positive impact on the use of CCTV related devices in the security surveillance industry.

To project the likely future trend in cybercrimes and the usage of CCTV technologies in the surveillance of security in both small and large business organizations.

To find out the impact which the recent rapid growth in internet penetration in many parts of the world has had on the use of the closed circuit television devices and its relation with internet and computer related criminal offences.

The above set objectives would act as working guidelines in order to ensure that the research team does not deviate from the core research objective. The in-depth analysis of the research problem by working to address the above research objectives would also ensure that the strategies to curb the negative impact of computer and internet related crimes are put in place.

Perspectives to be Used and Reasons for Their Consideration
Both qualitative and quantitative research perspectives would be utilized in the overall development of a theoretical framework of the actual research process ( HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiHubert_Chanson o Hubert Chanson Hubert 2007, pp.946-951). This would help in the understanding of the research problem and also contribute towards finding reliable information which regards the solution to the research problem. Based on this perspective, the researcher meanings would attempt to derive meanings from the found research information and before reaching a conclusion. The grounded theory of qualitative analysis would be vital in ensuring that the analysis of the data collected and the related theories are analyzed before conclusion of any sort is arrived. Different categories of data would be arrived at through comparison and correlation of the findings on the impact of cybercrime through the use of the closed circuit television devices in security surveillance properly outlined. Additionally, the personal construct theory of the qualitative research perspective would be employed to ensure that the current existing systems in different organizations are used to interpret the past systems performance and experiences. The usage of this perspective is very fundamental since it would offer the researcher an opportunity to fully comprehend all the related issues geared towards ensuring that organizational matters are also put into consideration when making certain conclusions (Csonka 2000 Nigel 2008, pp. 23-571).

In addition to qualitative perspective of research, an international research perspective would be employed in developing the research theoretical framework. The broad scope of issues related to cybercrime and closed circuit surveillance cameras can only best be addressed by ensuring that the research does not focus issues on a very broad scale since this may complicate the entire research process. With reference to the argument of  HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiHubert_Chanson o Hubert Chanson Hubert (2007, pp.946-951), since the research to be carried out would be very strategic to various business environments, the international perspective would provide room for diversity and integration of various related issues in cyber crime and security surveillance. The perspectives therefore focus on addressing organizational needs due to the sensitive nature of security related issues in most organizations. These perspectives, the international and the qualitative perspectives, have been considered to be the most appropriate due to a number of factors (Brenkert 1999, pp.168-193). To begin with the international perspective gives a broader view to matters of great concern to security related issues. This, according to Kotler, Adam, Brown, Armstrong (2006) is crucial in ensuring that the wide scope of security related matters is fully addressed throughout the research process. Furthermore, the two perspectives increase the adaptability and flexibility of the research findings (Grabosky 2006, pp. 211-289). It would therefore be much easier for most organizations across borders to adopt the research findings due to the fact that the international perspective makes them to be more relevant, flexibility, efficient and effective, have a global face while at the same time being easily adaptable (Nigel 2008, pp. 23-571).

According to the computer law and security report by Csonka (2000), there are a number of closed circuit television devices though most of them could be corrupted and used for various cybercrimes. The devices tend to be used in a number of ways depending on their sizes, design, the overall distance to be monitored and the environmental conditions in which the devices are designed for use. According to AIAA (2007, pp. 1762-1797), while the very small size CCTV cameras may not be very common, they are the most powerful and in most instance the most costly CCV cameras. However, the research would be restricted on the commonly used security surveillance cameras in the business arena. Only cameras which are either used independently or integrated to other security related systems in the business environment would be considered during the research process. This limited perspective would be vital in ensuring that more reliable information is researched in an in-depth manner (Baram 2007, pp. 75-178 Shaw, Chapman, Petchey, and Abbott 2009, pp.813-918 Nigel 2008, pp. 23-571).

Generalization of issues would also be avoided since the limited perspective of the research would enable the researcher to concentrate the available resources in ensuring reliability, authenticity, and acceptability of the research findings by the concerned research stakeholders. To fully address issues related to cybercrime and its impact, the research would mainly focus on computerized organizational processes.

Research Methods
The actual research process would employ very reliable research methods that are cost effective and efficient. Through the utilization of the relevant and most appropriate research methods, both epistemological and ontological issues that are closely related to the research topic would be provided. Explanatory, empirical and the constructive research method would all be integrated into the research process. For the research process, the integration of both secondary and the primary methods of data collection would be done. The different methods used would help to complement on the weaknesses which other research methods may be prone to. The actual research methodologies to be utilized in the entire research proposes from the time of inception to the end would be critically discussed and issues of concern clearly addressed (Hubert 2008, pp. 4-12). Questionnaire administration, interviews, and study of the past research materials, journals, magazines, security and technology related books, and other online materials would be employed as the research methods.

Both primary and the secondary methods of data collection would be used in order to enable the researcher to collect vital information from all the stakeholders in the security surveillance industry. The core aim of using the three employed research methods would be to enhance convenience, flexibility, and ensure that the entire research process is conducted in the most cost effective manner possible. Based on the analysis of the nature of this research, though the perspective of the research has been defined and limited, it is very evident that the usage of a single research method would not achieve the research objective and may also leave a lot of issues pending (Kotler, Adam, Brown and Armstrong 2006). Industry players such as security provision companies, banks and other organizations that receive closed circuit security related services, the business market in the CCTV systems, government representatives, and other individuals considered vital to the research would be employed as part of the sampling population in the research process.

Questionnaire Administration
Administration of questionnaires would be the core method to be used for the research. This research method would be utilized in order to ensure that respondents who can not be easily reached for interviews are given the opportunity to participate actively in the research process. Very brief questions would be drafted and then presented to the respondents in a manner that would encourage the respondents to willingly respondents to the questions. Offensive and defamatory private questions would be avoided at all cost since this could easily deter most respondents from participating in the research process.

Closed and open ended questions would be utilized in order to encourage the respondents to share more crucial information and hence the success of the research process. Dichotomous questions would be used in order to, according to Hubert (2008, pp. 4-12), ensure that the respondents have an easy time choosing between the two available research questions options. In addition to that, ordinal-polychromous questionnaire questions would be included in the questionnaires to be drafted in order to offer the respondents to choose amongst the two or more ordered options that would be available thus not being restricted to a set of few restricted alternatives ( HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiJensen,_Derrick o Jensen, Derrick Jensen and Draffan 2004, pp.33-278).  To find out the extent to which the respondents, especially the security surveillance industry players, gauge the performance of CCTV cameras in the security industry, respondents would be presented with bounded questions. The questionnaire would also provide in all sections a set of open ended questions in which the respondents would present their views based on the provided guidelines (AIAA 2007, pp. 1762-1797).

In rare instances, face to face administration of questionnaires would be used. The computerized technique of administering questionnaires would be employed to ensure that faster dissemination of the questions to the respondents is done where longer distances are involved and where no other alternatives of administering the questionnaires exist. This would be integrated with the usage of the adaptive administration of questionnaires through a computerized system. The selected items presented on a computer would be based on the different answers on those particular items. To ensure that the information provided by the respondents is valid and more reliable, similar questions which are formulated in different wordings and placed separately would be used (Last 1983, pp. 221-234). Matrix and contingency questions would also be employed in the questionnaires. A logical flow of questions from the more general to the very specific questions would be done since according to Anand, Rosen (2008, pp.97-101), such a strategy would ensure that both the researcher and the respondent clearly understand the major research issues. This objective would be achieved by ensuring that there is a neutral grouping of the questions and that the used questions remain unambiguous, very neutral, non personal, and focused on the research objective.

Conducting Interviews as a Research Method
Interviews would be used in the proposed research process. A method of qualitative research would be employed in ensuring that more reliable information with great convenience is collected from the research sample. Interview usage as a research method would facilitate proper understanding of the research topic by providing an in-depth understanding of all issues related to cyber crime and the security surveillance industry (Webster and Robins 1996). Interview would be used with the core intention of ensuring that research related issues that would not be able to be answered through the use of questionnaire administration are also catered for through the utilization of this interview research method.  The qualitative research interview to be used intends to address both the factual and the very meaningful concepts of the research. The process would facilitate the researchers ability to arrive at more factual issues that relate to the CCTV surveillance industry and also understand the respondents experiences in such security related issues (Allen and Morton, 1994).

Rather than use the informal conversational interviews, the standardized open ended interview approach would be employed by the researcher. This would ensure that more closed and fixed responses which are easier to analyze and come up with conclusion are arrived at. This issue has been emphasized by Leung (2001, pp. 3-145) who argues that for efficiency of a research interview greatly lies in the fact that there should always be efficient and well planned communication between the interviewer and the interviewee. According to him, the interviewees ought to be provided with alternative choices from which to choose their responses from during the interview process. However, there shall also be room for the interviewers to freely and willingly contribute to the research questions and even share their personal opinion and experiences on a number of diverse issues in the research (Becker 1980 Brenkert 1999, pp.168-193 Nigel 2008, pp. 23-571).

Telephone interviews would be carried out especially in circumstances where the researcher would not be able to secure an appointment for a face-to-face interview with the researcher. During such interview sessions, strict official language would be adhered to. The telephone interviews would be vital in ensuring that the researcher gathers crucial information rapidly (Michael and Michael 2009, pp41-61 Trochim 2006). Even during the interview process, either face to face or through telephone, the interviewees would be briefed on the objective and scope of the interview while the interviewer would ensure that a friendly yet restrained environment is maintained throughout the interview session without any biasness, and slanting of the interview results. Only facts from the interviewee would be recorded. As shown in the Concepts of health related behavior in research (1986), the processes of interview investigation which include designing the interview questions, actual interviewing, analyzing the collected data, and reporting the findings would be done. The sessions would be handwritten, digitally recorded on tape, observations written down and where possible the verbatim taken.

Secondary Research Methods to be Used
A number of secondary research methods would be used to ensure that both online and non-online books past and current research materials, journals, magazines and newspapers, dissertations, diaries, statistics in the market, company reports, and films are all utilized whenever they are dimmed important by the researcher (Williams 2006, 78-256). McQuade (2006, pp.2-96) argues that this research method would ensure that the researcher collect very crucial already existing information that relate to the various issues related to the impact of cybercrime on the usage of CCTV related devices in the security surveillance industry (Leung 2001, pp. 3-145).

Justification of the Methods
There are a number of reasons why the above methods of data collection are considered to be the most appropriate for gathering the necessary information to address the research problem. To begin with, due to the wide scope of the research, questionnaire usage is vital in ensuring that a large research sample is used. It is much easier to use questionnaires which are easy to draft, very cost effective to implement, and also consume little time compared to other research methods. Questionnaire administration, when used as a research method, enables the researcher to stick to the research objectives (Perez 2000). Moreover, there is demand for a lot of effort to be applied by the researcher since most of the questions in the questionnaires are always self explanatory. This is in direct contrast to the complexity involved in some forms of interviews such as telephone interviews and, to some extent verbal interviews (Mellenbergh 2008, pp. 124-245).

In circumstances where the respondents have requested that an interview rather than administration of questionnaire, be conducted, then interviews would be carried out. Issues related to security are normally very private and hence closely guarded by the management of various organizations.

Interviews would be important in collecting first hand information that relate to the research topic (McEwen 2006, pp. 79-367). According to Mellenbergh (2008, pp. 124-245), conducting research interview in this research would ensure that the information collected from the respondents are very reliable, have minimal or no misunderstanding since the questionnaire which would not be understood better would be clarified while the face-to-face effect would ensure that the interviewees and the interviewer offer their best without any doubt. Nigel (2008, pp. 23-571) argues that even though the use of interviews as a research method is a more time consuming research approach, the method is very convenient for collection of more reliable data from the research respondents. Personal interviews shall allow for the personal contact between the interviewer and the interviewee. The use of interviews also compensates on the high quality results which would otherwise have been lost in questionnaire administration hence a better understanding of the views of the respondents (Peter and Russell 1998, pp. 25-126). In comparison to experiments, it is clear that the use of experiments would have been very costly, complicated, and time consuming.

Ethical Issues to be Considered
Privacy of individuals and personal property is normally compromised whenever uncontrolled security surveillance is undertaken. According to the Publication of Ethical Standards (AIAA 2007), not all sections and issues within an organization should be monitored for security in since some captured moments recorded could threaten the integrity and competitive advantage of the concerned organization. It would therefore be prudent for the researcher to ensure that the researcher data collection process do not compromise on the individual and organizational security policies (Anand and Rosen 2008, pp.97-101). Privacy of the collected data would be enhanced. To ensure reliability and trust between the researcher and the research respondents, organizational details and individuals would not be indicated (Behrman 1988, pp. 45-78 WHO 1986, pp. 4-31). Since some security information could be revealed on the basis of anonymity, the research documentation process would ensure that organizations and respondents names are not mentioned in the report unless there is dire need for it, in which permission would have to be sort from the relevant authorities.

Anticipated Challenges Problems in Conducting the Research
The research process targets to cover a wide scope of issues related cybercrime. There are different fields in which closed circuit television could be used in and in which cybercrime continuous to pose great danger. The fact that the research proposal intends to cover wide scope of issues would most likely be a great challenge to the research proposal. Stringent organizational security related policies could also hinder the process of the respondents freely sharing information required by the researcher (McEwen 2006, pp. 79-367). This could be as a result of lack of trust from the organizations top management. Presence of poor weather conditions during the research proposal is likely to be a great hindrance to efficient and effective research process (King and Wincup 2007, pp. 77-441). Due to the drastic changes in weather conditions, it is indeed very likely that poor weather conditions could negatively hinder the research process.

Lack of cooperation from some of the respondents or their change of mind to cooperate as they would have promised may be a great challenge to the overall attainment of the research objectives. Norris, Armstrong (1999, pp. 129-289 Kim 2009) believes that based on his research in CCTV cameras and surveillance issues, complications in issues related to technology and lack of proper understanding of the various CCTV cameras may result into inadequate feedback on very fundamental research issues.
Additionally, lack of adequate funds or unfulfilled promises to fund the research process is another likely challenge. The scope of the research entails a lot of travelling and many individuals working as part of the research team. This may therefore hinder the achievement of the desired research project goal. Financial challenges would very negatively impact on the research process. This is also closely related to the problem of lack of adequate research tools due to lack of the required funds.

Solutions to the Anticipated Challenges
To avert the anticipated challenges that may be faced in the research process, various measures would be undertaken. The lack of trust and cooperation to the researcher would enhanced by the researcher elaborating to the potential respondents of the objectives and the scope of the research while at the same ensuring that a coherent and very friendly relationship between the concerned parties is fully enhanced (Mellenbergh 2008, pp. 124-245). The likely problem of poor weather to the research would be countered by providing the researcher and the research assistants with the correct adequate attires for the different weather conditions. Based on the various methods suggested by Marcoux (2009, pp17-46), in the Business focused through use of business ethics, the challenge of the wide scope of the research process would be addressed through setting up very clear research guidelines and limits which would then guide both the researcher and the research population during after the data collection process. The likely project financial challenges would be addressed by ensuring that the project sponsors and financiers fulfill their promise of giving our funds in time in order to avoid derailing the research process. In some instances, binding contracts would be signed between the researcher and the financiers of the project. The research project financiers would also be made to fully understand the vital role they would be playing towards the success of the project.


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