Incarceration Rates in America Compared to other Civilized Nations

The United States of America Justice department reports that one in every thirty two Americans adult is incarcerated. The report indicates that close to eight million adults in America are either on parole, incarcerated, or on probation. This indicates that United States has the highest number of prisoners in the world with seven hundred and thirty per one hundred thousand people. It is followed by Russia which has six hundred and eleven per one hundred people. United States population accounts for less than a fifth of the world total population but more than twenty five percent of the world prison population is American. (Mauer, S 2007 82)

China is the world most populous nation accounting for more than twenty percent of the world total population. In terms of the population in prison, China ranks far much below with only 1.5 million people in Chinese prisons. This accounts for a very small percentage of the total population of this country. Russia rank close to United States with six hundred and twenty seven prisoners for every one hundred thousand people. The other countries in Western Europe have much lower rates with England having one hundred and fifty one and Germany eighty eight. The median for all the nations in the world is roughly one hundred and twenty almost six times the rate in the United States.

Criminologists have pointed some of the factors which have led to the extraordinary figures as far as incarceration is concerned in United States of America. The high rate of violent crimes, harsh sentencing laws, racial crisis and above all the special fervor in fighting illegal drugs in the country.

Others have pointed the American temperament and the fact that the judges yield to the populist demands for the sake of their posts. Whatever the reason to explain the high figures, it is evidently clear that the gap between the American justice system and the other parts of the world is huge and continue to grow. Gone were the times when the Europeans nations used to send delegates to study our correctional centres.The high figures shows that our justice system struck a sentence with the slightest provocation. (Mauer, S 2007 109)

Analysts point out that the Prison sentences in United States have become extremely harsher compared to any other country in the world. There has been a joke going round that the high rate of incarceration in one of the strongest democracies in the world has made it a rogue state. This indicates that America has decided to deviate from the Western world norms and applied some of the harshest practice in the justice system. (Cowling, M 2008 182)

The rise in the rate of incarceration has only been a recent phenomenon. In the early 1920s the rate was stable and remaining under this condition for more than half a century when the figures stood at one hundred and eleven prisoners per one hundred thousand people. When the campaign to get tough on crime was brought into the picture the rate began to rise to the levels which are being experienced today.

The crime rate had by then reached alarming rates partly due to the easier availability of guns as well as increase in the number of the people who were abusing drugs. This explains why the decision to get tough on crime and drugs was made. As a result of this policy the population in our prisons began to rise as those who were engaging in criminal activities were sentenced harshly to deter others from engaging in the criminal activities. The war on drugs had similar effects as the number of those incarcerated rose to figures which have never been witnessed before. Sixty percent of the prison population constitutes those who have been convicted due to drug related crimes or being caught in possession of the drugs. This clearly indicates that the war on drug has contributed heavily as far as increase in the rate of incarceration in United States of America is concerned.

The issue of rising crime rates and drug related cases is not an American problem only. It is a thorn in the flesh for most developed and developing country. The rate of violent criminal activities has been on the rise in major European cities. The assault rate in London and New York has not registered much difference yet the incarceration rates remain distance apart. This shows that American justice system is skewed towards slapping sentences even when the situation does not warrant. It has been pointed out that there are far too many people who are behind bars yet the other channels of justice have not been utilized. Our justice system has heavily relied on incarceration as a means through which offenders are punished. Other parts of the world have come up with other methods therefore explaining the gaping differences that exist as far as incarceration rates are concerned. (Cowling, M 2008 202)

People who commit those crimes which are categorized as non violent are less likely to get long sentences in other parts of the world. This is totally different in United States since this category of law breakers is usually slapped with long sentences. This makes our country the only one in the category of advanced nations to incarcerate people who have committed petty crimes such as issuance of bad checks.

The effort to fight the illegal drugs in our country has often taken ugly turns. Right from increasing the number of prisoners to targeting a given race these efforts continue to receive mixed reaction from different corners in the country. There are those who feel that this war heavily targets the minorities in the country. Figures show that almost fifty percent of those who have been convicted of cases related to illegal drug use are African Americans. The Hispanic and American of Asian descent are also affected by the war on drugs. This has led to the opposition of this war on the premise that it criminalizes specific communities in the country.

In 1980 there were only forty thousand drug related prisoners in American correctional centres.This number has risen to more than one million presently. Many Americans ask themselves why this number has risen to such an astronomical figure over a span of thirty years. The answers lie with the perception which is highly held by American prosecutors who believe that putting those who are involved in drugs in prison reduces the demand of the illicit drugs hence a step further in discouraging this practice. This school of thought has been blamed for the shame American has experienced as far as incarceration rates are concerned. (Kender, S 1996 67)

The length of sentence has a directly effect on the rate of incarceration. American justice system is known to slap heavy penalties on a number of cases. For example, burglars in United States usually get sixteen months behind the bars, this is far much higher when compared to our neighbors Canada where the same crime attract five months and in United Kingdom the term does not exceed seven months. This clearly shows that an offender will spend more time in prison in this country as compared to other nations across the world. (Gottschalk, M 2006 56)

There has been a raging controversy whether race has been a factor as far as incarceration in this country is concerned. Many specialists have dismissed this argument as unfounded. It is evidently true that the minority across all the nations constitute the largest number of the prisoners. In countries such as United Kingdom, Canada and Australia the minorities make the highest population in prisons.

Some scholars have brought out an interesting angle as far as incarceration rates are concerned. They claim that English speaking countries generally have higher prison rates. There is no single factor which has been cited as a contributive to this situation but several issues have been brought forward as probable causes. Capitalistic economies and political culture which leans away from social democracy tend to prefer incarceration as opposed to other means of punishment therefore contributing to the higher rates in countries which have adopted this culture. The American character of independence, judgemetal and self reliance has been noted to play a big role in contribution to the incarceration rates.

It is quite evident that the higher rates of incarceration in United States have not led to reduced crime. The crime rates continue to rise in the country despite the tough measures and policies which have been instituted by the government for a couple of years. The fact that this country has the highest incarceration has not made it a haven where criminal activities have been reduced. It is time Americans wake up to reality and adopt new measures which will lead to use of other methods of punishment

Community policing policy

The criminology essay is based on the policy of community policing and its effect on the public policy. First, the essay describes community policing looking at several aspects that make it a better policing tactic as compared to traditional policing methods. The essay further suggests that this policy was initiated by the US national assembly and has a minimal constitutional issue. Community policing will greatly change the communitys perceptions towards the law enforcers and see them as partners rather than oppressors.

Adopting neighborhood policing is one of the major policies within the criminal justice systems affecting the public policy in the US. Neighborhood or community policing is a philosophy or strategy of policing that was founded on the concept of community support and interaction with the law enforcers which can greatly contribute in reducing fear and controlling crime. This is possible since the members of the community can assist the police in bringing various security problems to the police officers attention, detaining vandals and identifying suspects. Using community policing as a policing approach encourages organizational strategies that assist in the systematic application of problem solving and partnership techniques, in proactively addressing the instantaneous conditions that normally bring about issues of public safety such as social disorder, crime fear and crime (Community Policing Consortium, n.d.).

Community policing
In essence, community policing is the collaboration between the community and the police that not only identifies but also solves various community problems. Under community policing, the police officers cease to be the sole custodians of order and law, they are instead helped by all the community members who become very active partners in contributing to efforts that are aimed at enhancing and promoting safety in the neighborhoods. This policing approach which is relatively new has implications that are far reaching. The extended stance of crime prevention and control, increased emphasis on making all community members participants with an active role in the problem solving process, and the pivotal role of patrol officers in this approach of policing requires changes that are profound within the institute of law enforcers (Community Policing Consortium, n.d.).

Community policing increases the effectiveness of police officers since they are made to be more proactive in their duties of maintaining security in the neighborhoods. The people who bring about insecurity within the community live among the community members and are best known to the community members compared to the police officers. This therefore means that, it is the community members who are best placed in assisting police officers in identifying and arresting such people. The essence of community policing is basically to reduce the gap that existed in traditional policing approach between the police officers and community members, whereby each party perceived the other with a lot of suspicion with little trust if any between them (Community Policing Consortium, n.d.).

By working closely with members of the community, the police employing neighborhood policing strategy are at a better chance of protecting and detecting crimes in the neighborhoods. In this case, police are in a position of serving the community members better since they are able to prevent crimes from taking place unlike in the traditional approach where they could rush to scenes where crimes have already taken place and people have already suffered. The members of community assist the police in detecting various crimes and thus prevent such crimes from taking place and thus reducing crime rate in the neighborhoods (Community Policing Consortium, n.d.).

Community policing is a legislative policy that was started and greatly supported by the US parliament. The national assembly passed the necessary laws to ensure that this form of policing operate within the laws of the country. The US national assembly was greatly influenced by the need of having an effective policing in the country which would greatly incorporate all the stakeholders involved. They noted that most of the policing systems exclude the local communities who are the direct victims of criminal activities. By including the American society within the policing system, the US parliament hoped to reduce the increasing crime levels in the country as well as increasing interaction between the law enforcers and the members of the community. In this particular policy, there is a slight constitutional issue since a few amendments have to be done to ensure that the laws governing community policing are consistent with the other laws of the land (Community Policing Consortium, n.d.).

Community policing will have a great impact on the American communities. They will be in a position to interact more with the law enforcers and thus contribute significantly in enhancing security of their neighborhoods. Community policing will have a great impact on the attitude community members have towards the law enforcers. For a long time, Americans have perceived police officers as an oppressive class of people. With increased interaction between the police officers and the community members such attitudes are likely to change whereby the community members will start perceiving police officers as security partners and thus share with them more information concerning crimes that take place within their communities. The communities will therefore have a greater chance of becoming more secure and safer (Community Policing Consortium, n.d.).

Community policing policy is one of the noblest ideas that have been introduced in the criminal justice system of America in the recent years. It is meant to bridge the existing gap between the law enforcers and the community members. These two major stakeholders in crime deterrence and prevention will have a great opportunity of working together in making neighborhoods much safer and secure. It appreciates the fact that insecurity within communities cannot only be fought from one end and thus cooperation is required from all the stakeholders concerned.

Medical Crime

Medical Crime is an illegal action in medical profession which led towards Health Care Fraud and Health Care Abuse. U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has instigated every healthcare crime and fraud very seriously and penalties are too levied thereon for restraining such immoral medical occurrence in future.

Part A Health Care Fraud
Health Care Fraud is defined as the misrepresentation of factual informationwhichis stated intentionally for means of unfair profit that is gained through medical coverage under the Medicare Program. It is an illegal claimof medical expenses which is misstated by an individual or organization that leads to unauthorized benefit.

Difference between Health Care Fraud and Health Care Abuse
Health Care Fraud is defined as an intentionalact of misstatement with havingperception that something is wrong and is done for the purpose of undue profit or unauthorized payment whereas, Health Care Abuse is described as an inconsistent act or unreliable actionin medical or fiscal practices. It involves unnecessary treatments and excessive payments in addition to an actual program payment which can be enforced directly or indirectly.

The leading difference between healthcare abuse and healthcare fraud is the intention of a person.Its actions are quite effective as it grabs the valuable funds of the Medicare Trust which can indeed, be utilized for the betterment and treatment of Medicare beneficiaries.

Part B Ten Examples of Medical Crime  Fraud
The following are the ten examples of medical crime  fraud
Unfurnished billing for services rendered
Misstatement of actual treatment to adjust payment

Proposing or getting bribe
Issuing certifications for the coverage of medical expensesor falsifying the medical archives to adjust payment
Billing for unfurnishedservices in addition toactual treated diagnosis e.g. upcoding

Charges of exploding or unbundling
Provision of unnecessary medical services e.g. durable medical equipment or therapy services
Favoritism of multiple chronic treatments which will not be recovered by patients such as diabetes and hypertension

Benefit sharing with others e.g. ping ponging
Usage of rogue nurses or doctors.

Part C Four Medical Crime  Fraud Cases
The following are the four medical cases related to the healthcare crime  healthcare fraud
First Medical Fraud Case In November 2009, Mark Kabins, Orthopedic Surgeon was convicted in fraud case misprision of felony. The Board of Medical Examiners of the state accused Kabins of fraudulent act led to profession into disrepute. He was been charged for not reporting criminal activity. Kobins was sentenced for five years probation by the U.S District Senior Judge Justin Quackenbush. Medical Boards complaint states that Kabins admitted the concealing of wire fraud which were been conducted by others medical professionals on his former patient. Plea agreement needs Kobins to pay US 3.5 million and perform 250 hours of community service to his former patient (Melodie Simon) who suffered paraplegic due to an operation conducted by Kobins and another surgeon.

Second Medical Crime Case Gayle Rothenburg, M.D. was the operator in the Center for Image Enhancement in Houston, Texas. According to the investigation held by FDA, Rothenburg injected patients (over 170) with unauthorized drugs by mentioning it as the authorized Botox Cosmetic. He was charged as indicted for mail fraud, misrepresenting a federal agent, misbranding a drug and was finally sentenced for 27 months in prison with fine of 1,000 (restitution of 98,426).

Third Medical Fraud Case In July 2009 in California, twenty people violated Medi-Cal fraud scheme of 4.6 million. These people conducted a healthcare nursing program for disabled at their homes. Around 75 patients with developmental disabilities and cerebral palsy were in school or home. Out of twenty, some were unlicensed few were nor properly trained and while others were no medical training at all. These twenty people are amid 42 defendants who were being classified in 41-count indictment. According to Thomas OBrien, it was the first ever case alleging Medi-Cal fraud in the history of California.

Fourth Medical Fraud Case Michael Clair, Dentist, was accused in Medicaid fraud case in Massachusetts. He was alleged for using paper clips in patients root canal whereas the procedural dentistry requires the usage of stainless steel posts for the safety of patients. Clair pleaded not guilty and was released on personal grounds. He was charged for larceny, illegally prescribing drugs, assault and battery and with defrauding Medicaid of 130,000. According to prosecutors, Clair was suspended in 2002 by Medicaid but he continued his profession by using names of other dentists from August 2003 till June 2005. Additionally, Massachusetts record shows that Clair was already been suspended in three states for practicing his profession in which he used to perform unnecessary root canals.

Part D Recommendations
The following are the five recommendations through which people can help in preventing healthcare crime  fraud

Reading Own Benefit Statements Explanation of Benefits statement is issued after the treatment which should be read carefully to ensure that health insurance plan has made the payment for the actual treatments received. Further, incase of any discrepancy in the payment, error should be reported accordingly.

Beware of Free Medical Treatment Community service organizations occasionally propose free medical treatments such as blood pressure, dental treatment, screening of vision, etc. through which, the fraudulent people attempt to get names and insurance number of patients for onward use in fraudulent billings.

Protection of Health Insurance Information Health Insurance Card is used to pay the cost for the medical treatment, just like credit card is used to pay the cost therefore, people should never disclose their insurance information to healthcare solicitors as well as to others on phone.

Reporting Suspicious Frauds to BCBSA People should report any suspicious fraud directly to the BCBSA at their toll-free hotline, 1-800-877-BLUE which is primarily been set up for reporting healthcare fraud  crime without limitation of insurance coverage or affiliation.

Investigation  Perception People can help prevent healthcare crime  fraud by inquiring detailed information from medical providers incase of any confusion, doubt or hesitation in acknowledging  signing written forms and statements. Perception is too helpful for people to prevent such illegal activities, thus, people should periodically browse the Anti-Fraud Website (www.bcbsa.comantifraud) which contains updated information and facts regarding the healthcare frauds.

Research interview on Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile delinquency is a term given to young people (juveniles) who commit crimes. Tricia Ellis-Christensen (2010) in her article entitled, What is Juvenile Delinquency defines a juvenile as a person who has not attained the age of majority or a person who has not reached adulthood. The law normally predetermines what is to be referred as the age of majority or adulthood, and this is different among countries (Angela, 2010).

The issue of juvenile delinquency has become very common in the society today. The number of youth involved in acts of crime has been rising steadily. States are concerned about this trend since the process of correction is costly and wastes the time of the concerned juveniles. So much needs to be researched on and done to ensure this trend does not continue (The Columbia Encyclopaedia, 2008). It was for this reason that the researcher planned an interview with someone knowledgeable in this field. The aim was to get insight into several issues surrounding juvenile delinquency.

In this research, interview as a method of collecting information was preferred due to several reasons. First, the respondent was readily available and therefore it was more convenient to use interview over other methods such as questionnaires. The respondent was only one and therefore this was an in-depth interview as opposed to focus groups. When the interviewee is only one, interviews are preferred (Guba  Lincoln, 1981). The in-depth interview used in this research normally provides the richest data, details and new insights. In such an interview, it is possible to experience both the affective and cognitive aspects of responses. Such aspects as irritation over a particular question or anger can be detected. Furthermore, it is easy for the interview to clarify the questions hence attaining more relevant and complete responses. Finally, flexibility in administering interviews to different individuals and circumstances is possible (Fetterman, 1989).

The interview was set in the office of the chief security officer, since he was the chosen respondent. He has studied criminology up to the university level. He was considered the right respondent due to his vast understanding of the field under study. The interview was carried out face to face since the respondent was easily available. An afternoon was believed to be the best time since the respondent was not busy hence he was ready to give his time to the interview process.

In this research, informal and unstructured type of research interview was employed. This type was chosen due to the fact that the respondent was only one and therefore no standardization between respondents was needed. This type of interview is normally flexible, responsive and sensitive to participants. The interviewer can easily adapt to the demands of the immediate environment for better results from the process. For those taking part in the interview, this method is natural and relaxed. This ensures high responsiveness and positive interaction among the participants. Furthermore, informal unstructured interviews lead to collection of qualitative data which is highly detailed and ecologically valid (Keegan, 2010).

The degree of structure in the interview questions used was minimal. This was important to allow the respondent to give his opinion without too much limitation. . J. Lemke in Analyzing Verbal Data Principles, Methods, And Problems, posits that analyzing data from unstructured interviews may be challenging but the researcher ends up with better and more comprehensive information (Lemke, 2010). Considering the fact that the respondent was a learned and well informed person, it was deemed necessary to present unstructured questions. These kinds of questions are normally the best especially when dealing with professionals in the field of study (Wilson, 1993).

The researcher found it important to tape the interview process. This was aimed at getting information with desired completeness and accuracy. When an interview is taped, it is easy for the researcher to analyze it with confidence after the interview process. It also ensures the researcher is concentrating on the process since he is not disrupted by writing (Sasked, 2010).

There were several ethical guidelines that were to be observed during the preparation of the interview. First, confidentiality was paramount. The interviewer also made sure that permission from the respondent was obtained. It was also important for the interviewer to explain the purpose of the study during the introduction part. The respondent and the researcher shared on the interview sheet after the interview. This was to ensure that the respondent agreed with and affirmed the contents of the interview (Keegan, 2010)

On interviewing the respondent, juvenile delinquency was found to be actions of crime done by people who have not attained the age of majority. Asked what he understood by juvenile delinquency, the respondent had this to say, Juvenile Delinquency is that behaviour that is recognized by law as criminal when it is done by children. Children here refers to anyone who has not reached the age of majority, or someone who is not mature. He further explained that juvenile delinquency starts from minor crimes such as bullying others in school to felony or even murder.

The researcher wanted to know why the issue of juvenile delinquency had gained so much attention of late. To that, he replied, Parents have become very liberal nowadays. They do not spare time for their children. They are too busy doing more important things. This has left the children with too much freedom that is unguided. As a result, these children have turned to breaking the law. Every day a child is committing a crime somewhere. That is why the issue of juvenile delinquency is all over the place.

At this point, the researcher sought to know how the courts deal with issues of juvenile delinquency. The respondent hesitated to answer and clarified that he would say what the courts do, not what they should do. This was seen as a sign of disagreement with the court process concerning handling of child cases. He proceeded to explain. It all depends with the intensity of the crime. When the crime is very serious, the court may decide to deal with the matter as if it was an adult who has broken the law. It may therefore sentence the juvenile just like it would an adult. However, if the case is minor, it will be referred to a special court that deals with children. From here, the children may be taken to behaviour correction centres which serve as childrens prisons. These are known as juvenile detention centres. But before the decision is made concerning whether a child will be taken to these centres or not, a few considerations need to be taken.

The researcher probed further to get insight on some of the factors that need to be considered before imprisoning a child. The first consideration, as I mentioned earlier, he began, is the magnitude of the crime. The more serious the crime is, the higher the probability of the child being referred to a juvenile detention centre. The court also determines the degree of risk posed by the juvenile to the society. This is normally compared to the degree of the benefit derived from incarceration. The judges who deal with juvenile cases have greater freedom to decide the kind of rehabilitation method to be applied, especially if the child is very young. Such may include therapy thats appointed by court or house arrest.

The next question was on the causes of juvenile delinquency. To this, the respondent said, Well, it is not possible to comprehensively discuss the causes of juvenile delinquency. This is because people are unique and they pass through unique situations. However, there are some general factors that are associated with increased rates of juvenile delinquency. For example, impoverished, neglected or abused children will be more likely to engage in delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who are well treated and taken good care of. But this idea does not explain the causes of delinquent behaviour among children who have well off parents who are loving and caring. One of the aspects responsible for juvenile delinquency is the genetic make up of the children in question. However, this only pre-determines a direction towards certain behaviour, but it is the manner in which the child is brought up that creates suitable environment for such behaviour. Other factors may include mental illness, drug use and upbringing. However, these are only general issues. Each case of juvenile delinquency is unique and should be treated as such.

The last question on this matter touched on the intervention measures that the respondent thought would be useful in curbing cases of juvenile delinquency. To this, the respondent answered, The first question that needs to be answered is what the cause of criminal behaviour in a particular child is. Once the cause of the behaviour is known, it is much easier to deal with the problem. For example if it is known early enough that a child suffers from mental illness, it would be easier to deal with that problem before it to results into delinquent behaviour. Other problems such as drug abuse can also be corrected to avoid further problems. Parents should also make sure they raise their children in a loving manner without compromising delinquent behaviour. In some cases, societies come up with programs aimed at preventing the youth from engaging in delinquent behaviour. Such programs are normally aimed at preventing drug use or involvement in gangs.

Discussion and Conclusions
In this research, unstructured and informal type of interview was used. Interview method of research is purpose-based conversation that is non-experimental in nature. The aim of this method of interview is to gather particular type of information. There are several advantages associated with this type of interview.

First, since the interview is not structured, it is possible to gather data that is rich and full. It is also possible to gather highly detailed data due to the willingness of the respondent to cooperate. The validity of data is ensured by the relaxed atmosphere which increases the chances of the respondent giving true information.

The informal type of interview allows for greater flexibility than other types. The interviewer can respond positively to the environment in which the interview is taking place. It is also possible for the interviewer to change the approach of this exercise depending on how he finds the interviewee. It is therefore responsive to the individuals involved in it. This type of interview acknowledges the uniqueness of every interview session and conforms appropriately.

There exists a relaxed atmosphere and this helps the interviewee to feel comfortable. The environment is very natural for both the interviewee and the interviewer. This makes the rate of coordination very high which in turn contributes to the success of the entire process. Due to this relaxed atmosphere, the interviewee does not feel as if he is being assessed. This makes them willing to give more information.
However, there are several limitations that are encountered when using informal and unstructured type of interview. First, it is very difficult to replicate because there is no standardization. One may therefore be unable to generalize the findings to a wider population. Furthermore, the interviewer may be biased and be tempted to use spontaneous questions, hence drifting away from his main focus.

The whole process of setting up, conducting and analyzing one research interview took approximately three days. The first day was for preparation, the second for the interview and the third for analysis. Some of the ethical issues that arose in the process of conducting this interview included introduction and conclusion techniques which were found to be vital whenever conducting an interview. When introducing oneself, it is important to be brief and smile to the respondent. One also needs to go straight to the point and tell the host what he or she wants (Trochin, 2006). When concluding, it is important to discuss a certain topic, like how the interviewee likes his or her job. This will ensure the respondent does not feel like his importance to you ended with the conclusion of the interview (Hollwitz  Wilson, 1993).

Research interviews are some of the best methods of gathering research information. However, their effectiveness is highly dependant on the preparation especially of the questions that are to be asked.


Faisal bin Musaid bin Abdul Aziz is born 1904 on Riyadh. He was son of Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud, the create of Saudi Arabia. His maternal, Tarfa is member group of leading families spiritual of the Al al-Shaikh. The mother die when he is young. He is raise by maternal grandfather, who teach Koran and the principles of the Islamic religion to him. The education taught affect him in his life. Faisal increase state responsibilities, begin at the age of 13. He is soldier in his fathers army. In the 18, he is commander of the Saudi Army by Asir 9south-west Arabia). He success leader Saudi military campaigns that bring Hijaz on Kingdom. The father choosing him at 15 for reason diplomatic missions outside country. Latter, he is first Saudi foreign by 1930. King Ibn Saud on 1935 give two sons promises permanent positions in country. Prince Saud old that Faisal by two make viceroy of Najd in Saudi Arabia center. Faisal be viceroy of Hijaz by Red Sea.

In power of Faisal brother Saud to crown 1953, Faisal being Crown Prince. But Saud become very wasteful of money through wants like making of big house in Riyadh. Faisal have problems come Egypt neighbor when Gamal Abdel Nasser is outed in monarchy. Royal family and religious lead ulema said Saud to make Faisal lead prime minister because he is bad to financial policies. Faisal had large powers executive. Faisal cut drama spend so safe country from bank. The financial policy is Faisal good decision made other people country proud of him.

But fight start from Saud and Faisal by 1960. Faisal out himself prime minister to fight Saud bad choosings. Saud get powers back and bring Talal home from Egypt and Saud made Talal finance ministering. In 1962 but Faisal rally with supportive family for he to be prime minister once more again. Two very much important happen by Faisal. One, Viceroy he become by March. Two, Faisal is say be King again more after King Saud out from position by November.

Important Achievements
By 1934, King Faisal go inside Soviet Union to be Saudi Arabia. King Faisal also do good by being leading on group to fight North Yemen. King Faisal follow father very much he make do all orders of father. On 1945, father once more again order King Faisal to do his wants by bringing King Faisal to United Nations Conference be Represents Kingdom by Saudi Arabia. United Nations are very importance to father and he said United Nations Conference was bringing country to good diplomatic.

King Faisal is very good kid and intelligent. By 14 father make Faisal going to United Kingdom and France ending of World War II. The sending of Faisal to countrys is good as say by father because of good relationships to Europes people. Many more, Faisal achievements is more see as King of Saudi Arabia. One, King Faisal do Saudi good because of good Kingdom finance by do of the five-year plans by economic develop. Two, the money of country rise to budget because King Faisal make high oil. Three, King Faisal also importance educational because he give many students to going outside countrys and make open schools for females. King Faisal liked educational much because people will be good through educational. Four, King Faisal stopping the sending of member families of rule family to make study educational out country. King Faisal belief that sending member families to educationing is not good on people eyes because people think rule family is wasteful of money. Five, King Faisal very much belief justice to important because he create and building Ministry of Justice by 1970. Sixth, King Faisal also love television because broadcasts officially he do. But some people dont like television because they fight building television in Saudi. People is very mad of television build and King Faisal very sad because people is mad and people even fight and King Faisal is sad more when nephew die because of fight.

Assassination of King Faisal Al Saud and Investigation
King Faisal Saud was good king. He performed very good in leadership in the whole place in Saudi Arabia in progress. As the King new in Saudi Arabia he able on promotion different programming that allowing growths economies also socialize developments of the whole society. King Faisal able to progress the foreign relation of Saudi Arabia. So, King Faisal is admire by people.

In one  situation happened at March 25, 1975. King shot blank point by the son of half brother. The name is Faisal bin Musaid that come back in United States. The dead happen in majlis. Majlis is Arab for location sitting. In the place, a event held there. The house of King is open to citizen allow people to see the house and talk to King. It was talk that the reason is because of revenge which is liked by the brother of the killer Khaled. This person is dead by Saudi Defense Force group in a demonstration at 1965.

The King Faisal dead by Musaid in a custom need in culture in Arab. The King Faisal bow head. King Faisal expect that nephew kiss him at the nose. But not, the nephew show gun. The shot are in face direct to the King only. After the shot the King is died immediately. The assassination is for the King to remove him in the rein of his country. Musaid is not considered as normal people but is a crazy person because of his killing the King. The King most love of people at Saudi Arabia dead and Saudis become disappoints. The nephew of king is did the killing because of revenging to the king. Also, investigate saying that a group that want the dead of king so that the Saudi Arabia is not going oils to Westerns.
King Faisal assassination is controversial to Saudi Arabia. He is good King of country and he die. It is very bad on the country because development is good. No one in will continue he did in past. The change of country stop. In investigation on King Faisal died eventful people is mad and want truth know.

Oil and Faisal
The using of oils in country is important. Cars, motors and more use oils to move. Without oils cars, motors also other transports need very much the oil. Saudi Arabia is have many oils and make money with it. King Faisal think that oil is important haves of Saudi because few country has it. In strategy, the King Faisal see is importance of the oils.

The accession of King Faisal, the important is finance normality of Saudi Arabia. King is maintain the rules in economy to stronger money income. To have more strong money income, King think that equal of country budget is must. Increase in making oils is importance to Saudi for have developing in years. The King did he can do in the progress in oil makings to increase money that is using as different support of people and events.

In add to the information the Saudi Arabia is lead to the importance in develops made in world industry in oils. With more oil making country, the King Faisal make relationship to others to allow the progressiveness of oils. Together with what the King Faisal did he make the important of oils in the world. The develops in the oils made change in economy of the country of the Saudi Arabia. The needs of oil in supply became importance in the world. The addition creating of oils in the Saudi Arabia is one of most important to the growths of economics for many years.

The King Faisal made relationship to creating countries of oil that providing many source. The team become important in the supply on oils to parts in world. The Saudi Arabia is now rich because of action did by the King. The King changing the policy on oil that help the peoples of the Saudi Arabia. The productions of country is good for the additions of job for people. The needed of people in welfare is giving every time is needed by a people. Benefiting is easy for the country because the King make good relation to people. The conservative of Saudi in economy became good and is not a stop on the developments. And then, the whole state is stabled compared to other. The different nation are affect in changing of world economics while Saudi is very develop that it is not hurt by change of time.

The Reaction
The die of King Faisal make many people sad. People want King Faisal to justice so they want killer to caught. Prince Faisal Bin Musaid is took by guards and put to jail. Many people see bad thing Prince Faisal Bin Musaid do he shoot King Faisal with gun. Prince Faisal Bin Musaid is a bad person because he is punish by him be killed after 80 days by Riyadh. Prince Faisal Bin Musaid is kill like how he be kill King Faisal. The die of King Faisal make Islam and Arab country very sad. Most especial Saudi people is sad because of lost King

My View
On my thinking, the kill of King Faisal is lost to Saudi Arabia and Arab country. King Faisal is good lead and help lots people. King Faisal made economy good and diplomatic well. People are sad because King Faisal is good lead.

Article Review Race and Crime Issues

Michael J. Lieber in his article Disproportionality minority confinement (DMC) of youth An analysis of state and federal efforts to address the issue seeks to determine through research a number of related questions related to the confinement of racial groups in a variety of secure facilities.  His research is connected to the Federal Formula Grants Program, in particular the DMC component of the program, and the overriding objective is to determine the efficacy of these legislative schemes in terms of state compliance.  To this end, Lieber reviews the legislative history and explains how development and implementation of the legislative mandate has been and continues to be affected by a variety of political considerations.  The federal legislation requires states to engage in independent research programs in order to determine whether DMC exists in a particular state and to what extant in addition, states are expected to engage in good faith efforts to determine the causes of any existing DMC and to thereafter develop and put in place strategies designed to address that states particular DMC circumstances.  All of these requirements, as the other points out, derive originally from the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974.

This research, however, is limited to two particular features of the legislative mandate more specifically, Liebers research is intended to investigate identification of the extent of minority overrepresentation in states juvenile justice systems and assessment of the causes of DMC (Lieber, 2002, p. 3).  He concludes with respect to the overrepresentation of minorities that DMC exists in many states but that the quality of state reporting has been inconsistent.  These quality and consistency problems have made it difficult to draw firm conclusions other than to note that DMC exists as a general matter.  He asserts, based on the available data, that racial bias probably plays a role in DMC and that racial classifications are relevant to both the existence of DMC and the extant of DMC.  Regarding the second prong of his research, pertaining to causation, Lieber first points out that states often operated on the belief that minorities were overrepresented in the system because they commit more crime andor more serious crime (2002, p. 16) before suggesting that causation is much more nuanced and that states may have been operating pursuant to flawed and incomplete assumptions.  His research is significant because it seems to demonstrate that the states have not properly complied with the federal legislative mandates in a complete and transparent manner it is also significant because it suggests that issues of causation as they pertain to DMC are inadequately understood and require further research.   Finally, Lieber supplements his core research questions by engaging in an additional type of analysis in which he examines and discusses how politics impacts the federal legislation in terms of state efforts and capacities to comply.  Politics, in his view, operate too frequently as an impediment to transparent analysis and implementation.

Lieber includes an essentially descriptive abstract which provides a very generalized overview of the article without any substantive conclusions.  A reader of the abstract would not know the research conclusions and would be required to skim or read the entire article to determine its academic position and whether the article relates to a particular readers academic interests.  The abstract might have been more effective had Lieber included a sentence or two stating the overarching conclusions in addition to the research questions and emphasis.  The introduction is more effective because it contextualizes the research in terms of the history of the relevant legislation and the underlying policy objectives of the federal legislation.  More, it makes explicit the states interests in compliance by stating how funding allocations are in theory dependent on the good faith performance of certain duties.  Although the introduction is brief, it provides the context, the main research questions, and an overview of the articles basic structure.  The literature review seems to have all of the relevant authorities, but it might have been better organized for instance, Lieber waits until the final paragraph of the literature review to state the compelling need for this research by noting that The lack of research to the DMC requirement is puzzling and provides the impetus for the present study (2002, p. 8).  It would have been more logical, and it would have more effectively introduced the literature review, by stating this lack of DMC research in the first paragraph of the literature review rather than in the final paragraph.  Readers need to know about this lack of research at the beginning, before the research is presented and discussed, rather than at the end.

What emerges from this organizational flaw is that readers may very well be forced to read and reread Liebers literature review multiple times in order to attain a form grasp of the research and Liebers organizational purposes.  The research methodology is presented in a much more logical manner.  The sample population for the identification analysis is data drawn from 43 states plus the District of Columbia and the sample population for the assessment analysis is data drawn from 40 states.  He then clearly explains state index values and the various types of secure facilities (including transfers to adult facilities) in order to properly frame the comprehensive nature of his research.  He acknowledges the race model as Pope and Feyerherms (1993) method of review of research conducted on race and decision making (2002, p. 9), he defines what he means with reference to a race effect, and he sets forth his factors.  The results section is perhaps the most well-organized and most clearly presented section of the entire paper.  The identification and assessment results are presented with clear transitions, connected to the literature review and research questions, and summaries are included at the end which effectively encapsulate the salient points of the research.  The most valuable feature of the discussion is the comparative analyses that Lieber engages in order to qualify the overall data and to demonstrate how certain states have adopted slightly different approaches or failed in certain compliance respects.  This shows how the race effects vary for different reasons between and among various states.  Finally, the conclusion attempts to synthesize all of the data in order to support Liebers conclusion that a variety of factors have made compliance flawed and incomplete.  There would appear to be ample evidence from the article to support Liebers conclusions pertaining to race effects and to weak state compliance with the federal legislative mandate.

Pretrial Process in the United States of America

Pre-trial process is the process by which prior investigations are carried out on a suspect after arrest before they are charged with the particular crime.  During this process investigations are carried out to get as much information as possible on the background of the person, so as to determine if they deserve detention or release (Clifford, 2002).

The pre-trial process in the United States of America is carried out by the U.S Probation and Pretrial Services System. The department has its operations carried out within the district court of the U.S where there are different officers who work towards the provision of the public safety and criminal justice (Leipond, 2005).  The main objective of the U.S Probation and Pretrial Services System is to ensure their dedication to the service delivery within the community through the courts and their respective offices.

The release or detention of the suspect depends on whether they are they are found guilty, or whether their release would be destructive to the society in any way. Some of the suspects are released back to the community if they can not threaten the society by their stay within the society.  However the released cases must be under the supervision by the probation and pretrial officer to ensure their return to the court at the expected return date (Katz, 2000).  If the suspect if feared to escape after release they must be detained in the court until the next trial before the court.

Some of the commonly used terms of probation and corrective measures used by the pretrial courts include community service where the client is send back to the community to work within the region without any expectation of fee or payment of whatever sort. The home confinement if yet another form of supervised release in which the suspect is monitored by use of an electronically controlled detective mechanism while heshe resides at home.  The suspects may be allowed to go to few places like hospital or work but the rest of the time they should be at their homes.

Other terms of service at the pretrial process may include mental treatment incase the client requires to be ascertained on mental disorder for the purpose of court jurisdictional process they may be subjected to this process under supervision of the pretrial officers.  Parole, a process by which the inmate of their prison may be released after the completion of a certain fraction of their imprisonments term and punishment, is also an applicable process in the pretrial and probation process (Leipond, 2005).  When the inmate is released they are subject to the supervision by the probation officers.

The pretrial process allows for the client to make any necessary arrangements for a lawyer or to obtain any legal assistance form the jury.  The client may have their case retried if their right to obtain legal advice from the jury is denied.  In short it is the right of the suspect to get a lawyer for their case if they need one.

The prosecutor on the other hand is entitled to the disclosure of exculpatory information that concerns the suspect.  It is this information that helps to make correct and fair judgments on the presented cases.  The prosecutor has the duty of issuing charges to the suspect after they have been arrested. In fact heshe is called the lawyer to the government (Clifford, 2002).  The suspect may be charged of the commission of a crime through a documented process by the prosecutor.

The bail process is the deposition of some form of payment usually money by the defendant if they would like to be released from the courts custody so that heshe may report to the court on the prosecution day for trial.  Usually in the first appearance before the court the suspect is given advice and made aware of their rights while the trial process progresses. The bail serves to assure the court that the client will report for the trial on the stipulated date.  Never the less, most of those who wish to pay the bail are not released due to the fear that they may never show up again for trial. The bails are also found to discriminate against the poor since they may never afford it so they are forced to remain gander police custody until the cases are heard.  More so the acceptance or rejection of the bail is depended on whether the crime is a serious one or it could be pardoned by the law.

In fact the majority of severe cases never get the bail due to the preventive directives on the bail.  The preventive detention is a way of controlling crime commitment by the rich and especially to those suspects implicated of violence and other cases of not appearing for trial at the stipulated time (Liepond, 2005). However, in some cases there are some convicts who would have been allowed to pay a bail but they dont get it so easily due to crime rate and underestimation by judges.

In conclusion, the pre trial process is important for thorough investigation of the suspects background and also to allow fro any of their rights to be catered for in the right time.  The bails are good especial if the convict is not involved in serious offenses that would need them to be detained for long.  Unfortunately the poor may never have a chance to apply for a bail since it may be too expensive for them.

Book report

Computer technology and specially internet, has brought about a great impact on the current aspect of the contemporary society. The book being reviewed deals with one very important aspect of the computer evolution and development The emergency of cyber crime and other activities that are harmful to the society that carried out over the internet.
These activities have continued to increase because of internet and are posing a big challenge to the authorities concerned as far as their control is concerned.
David wall is professor of criminal justice at the University of Leeds in the UK. He has authored a lot of work in the last decades on the many aspects of cyber crime and its management. One of the works is crime and the internet published in 2001.
Wall attempts to deal with the several competing discussions that are related to the cyber crime. Media approach to cyber crime in addition to the difficulties experienced in gaining data or statistics on cyber crime need to be addressed first. The writer explains the difficulties that face both the individuals and corporate business in reporting cases of cyber crime and the response from the criminal justice systems.
The inclusion of the question pertaining cyber crime on large scale victimization survey (both in USA and UK) is a very recent development. As a result several types of claims concerning cyber crime are open to the challenge and the current struggle to check and monitor cyber crime has brought about varied reactions to such criminal activities.

Prosecutors who try to deal with allegations of criminal activities in this realm always encounter difficulties, since there is no clear distinction between civil and criminal wrong doing.
Wall gives a very clear distinction between first generation cyercrime (the use of computers for criminal activities) ,second generation of cyber crimes (use of computers in criminal activities) and third generation cyber crime (crimes that are automated and fully controlled by the internet technology). The distinction between these types of the cyber crime as essentially useful to some extent they are a bit abstract. Wall again goes ahead to differentiate the range of criminal activities carried out on the internet. First he deals with phising. This is the crime of getting personal information online.
Secondly is the automated version of  Phising known as Pharming which has received much attention in the relevant time .All in all many criminal activities are carried out in cyber space including misleading adverts, fraudulent actions  and deceptive investment schemes. The Nigerians have come up with an advanced fee fraud. This is by sending an email telling the recipients that he or she can claim a large amount of money usually millions of dollars lying idle in some bank.
Intellectual property piracy in many categories is all over. Wall deals with what he calls computer content crime. This touches on phonograph and cyber violence. The cyber space has resulted in the cyber stalking and has enabled asexual orientation on children. The perceived mystery of the victims offender relationship is a remarkable character of this and types of cyber crime.
Spam is another issue that has been addressed by Wall. Spam messaging is one activity that is carried out over the internet and far more annoying to all who receive spam messages. In some areas spam messages are criminal offense. It is a way of committing crime. These spam messages are normally solicitations that are source of annoyance and irritation to the users of the internet. With regard to the increasing level of spam messaging it is disturbing that the real culprits appear to be quite small .But there are sophisticated ways that are on the increase of ensnaring the victims. Since spamming does not require direct human contact there are fears that unchecked growth of spam based infections will run across diverse operating systems.
The last three chapters deal with the effective measures of dealing with or controlling cyber crime. It is true that the level of individual victimization is often less recognized, underreported and in some cases not regular. The law itself in this case is very insufficient and its jurisdictional scope gives the criminals a chance to do forum shopping. (Wall 2007)
Since cyber crime is executed and guided by technological advancements it goes without saying that the fight or policing of such crime will also be done through the use of technology as opposed to normal legal procedures.
The traditional approach of policing does not have the necessary training to deal with this type of crime effectively and plays an insignificant role in fighting it. Cyber crime is not fully against the law and disordered as some times it is thought to be, but control in cyberspace is mediated by a complex of different forces(Reid 2008)
Some methods of checking cyber fraud like centralized payment systems are to a greater extent very effective but the basic argument arising out of this is how to come up with effective measures of prevention and control that are effective and that do not threaten all the other genuine online transactions.
Wall concludes that the cyber crime is leading people to think again about security and privacy issues. Lasting solutions to cyber crime cannot be addressed by technology alone but through a complicated consideration of balancing of social, legal and economic dimensions in a very quick conclusion Wall wonders whether the requirements for a more open internet will set a stage for 21st century witch-hunt. His solution of a digital realism definitely requires a complicated and holistic approach to fight cyber crime and may not be tenable. Although Wall deals with the political aspects of law making in relation to cyber crime and society in which the crimes are perpetuated this is not the main focus of his book. But basically the book lays down the foundation for those who will require exploring fully the political, legal and social aspects of cyber crime. This is unlike Sue Reids book that mainly focuses on substantive instead of procedural criminal law. In some cases Reid deals with principles of constitutional aspects that touch on criminal law.
Walls book unlike Reids in laced with high tech language and for a reader who is not interested, it may be impossible to have an enjoyable reading experience although it is quite informative and useful. It basically written to assist people to have the knowledge of understanding cyber crime(2007 p4)  Reids writing style is to the point and generates reader interest though its coverage of crimes such as abortion, cyber stalking, terrorism, pornography, child abuse and domestic violence

White Collar Crime Grand Jury Considerations and Parallel Proceedings

Any systemic understanding of white collar crime demands an extraordinarily nuanced understanding of procedural issues which attend a variety of white collar criminal investigations and proceedings.  Two of the more hotly debated issues involve whether the American grand jury actually continues to serve valid and ethically defensible public policy objectives and the extant to which parallel proceedings in white collar criminal cases implicate important constitutional rights as a consequence of prosecutorial cooperation and the potential sharing of information.  A review of the substantive arguments underlying these debates illustrates the fact that the issues have become increasingly intense and polarized even among normally calm legal and criminological scholars.  Some view the grand jury mechanism as a valuable buffer before criminal charges are filed HYPERLINK httpwww.questia.comPM.qstaod5000761789(Neely, 2002)  whereas others characterize it as an ineffectual rubber stamp to be easily manipulated by prosecutors HYPERLINK httpwww.questia.comPM.qstaod5007028748(Kuckes, 2003).

In the same way, some view parallel proceedings as an efficient mechanism for streamlining related legal issues whereas others warn of the dangers these more comprehensive types of conceptual proceedings pose to certain constitutional and individual rights HYPERLINK httpwww.questia.comPM.qstaod5002005038(Bortner  Miller, 2003).

What is needed is a more objective type of analytical discussion of the proffered benefits and alleged dangers in order to determine whether grand juries and parallel proceedings positively impact the administration of criminal justice or whether they instead contribute to substantial countervailing negative impacts such analyses suggest that the dangers and abuses associated with grand juries in white collar cases tend to outweigh the ostensible benefits and that parallel proceedings are in fact very useful so long as they conform to certain criteria and limitations which respect the same types of rights guaranteed in non-parallel proceedings.

Grand Juries  A Comparative Analysis
As an initial matter, there is a great deal of tension surrounding the propriety and the effectiveness of grand juries in white collar contexts because of serious differences between theoretical purposes and practical applications.  There can be no doubt, for example, that the grand jury does not always function in practice in the ways articulated theoretically.  One legal scholar has even gone so far as to list the disdainful characterizations attributed to the grand jury as a tool of the Executive, rubber stamp, total captive of the prosecutor, prosecution lapdog,  ignominious prosecutorial puppet HYPERLINK httpwww.questia.comPM.qstaod5000761789(Neely, 2002, p. 176) and to further note the frequent quotation cited in law reviews to the effect that the prosecutor could even get the grand jury to indict a ham sandwich HYPERLINK httpwww.questia.comPM.qstaod5000761789(Neely, 2002, p. 176).

Given the severity of such commentary, it is necessary to more closely examine whether and the extant to which the grand jury ideals are actually achieved in practice unfortunately, it would appear the modern grand jury practices fall well short of the historical and theoretical ideals.

From a theoretical perspective, a grand jury mechanism tends to derive its fundamental legitimacy and praise from three premises.  First, a grand jury is frequently praised as a constitutional benefit designed to protect common citizens from unjust or tyrannical government prosecutions.   Second, a grand jury is often portrayed as an important pre-charge mechanism for ensuring that criminal charges are not initiated unless a proper factual framework for the charges are established before an the independent individuals which comprise a grand jury.  Third, a grand jury is designed in theory to function as a buffer between potential abuses by government authorities and individual citizens.  At the federal level, for instance, The Fifth Amendment provides that an individual cannot be held to answer a felony offense unless the grand jury has rendered indictment or presentment on the charges HYPERLINK httpwww.questiaschool.comPM.qstaod5000761789(Neely, 2002, p. 171).

The grand jury, at the federal level, is therefore an explicit constitutional guarantee and benefit.   This constitutional guarantee is intended to require prosecutors to present an evidentiary framework based on factual information through which a grand jury weighs whether there is probable cause to believe that a crime has been committed this probable cause burden of proof is lower than in an actual criminal case and is intended to allow independent grand juries to protect individuals from criminal charges when the prosecutors cases are weak.  There are therefore a number of alleged benefits.  First, it is hoped that government will be prevented through the grand jury mechanism from using the threat of criminal prosecution in cases for which the evidence is weak or circumstantial.  Theoretically, this will compel prosecutors to conduct more thorough investigations and to refrain from oppressive measures or abusive uses of the criminal justice system.  Second, and more generally applicable, it has been argued by some that The constitutional lore, nurtured by the Supreme Court, is that the federal grand jury is a protective bulwark, whose central mission is to protect civil liberties and shield citizens from unfounded or abusive criminal charges HYPERLINK httpwww.questiaschool.comPM.qstaod5007028748(Kuckes, 2003, p. 1).

The grand jury is therefore theoretically described as a procedural means by which to safeguard individual rights, by which to maintain the broader legitimacy of civil liberties socially, and by which to check potential abuses by misguided or oppressive government prosecutors.  From a purely theoretical perspective, in short, the grand jury seems a truly worthwhile and beneficial feature of the criminal justice system the problem, however, is that the grand jury does not function in a purely theoretical world in which these idealistic notions are ever realized.

A review of the academic literature clearly demonstrates that few explicitly provided constitutional rights are as controversial as the grand jury.  This is basically because grand juries do not seem in practice to generate the desired benefits quite the contrary, grand jury proceedings are often viewed by knowledgeable practitioners and interested scholars as procedural hurdles easily traversed and manipulated by prosecutors.  Although prosecutors are theoretically portrayed as being required to persuade a grand jury, the research instead suggests that grand juries tend in the majority of cases to accept the prosecutorial cases rather uncritically.  This is associated with one proffered shortcoming of the grand jury more specifically, it has been argued that the procedural and structural nature of the grand jury is such that a prosecutor is able to lead a grand jury without being check by defense attorneys in ways that would be true in an actual criminal trial.  One leading scholar argues, for instance, that the disconnect between the rhetoric and reality of the grand jury is not a coincidence, or a historical vestige, but a central and important feature of the modern federal criminal justice system. Most knowledgeable observers would describe the federal grand jury more as a handmaiden of the prosecutor than a bulwark of constitutional liberty HYPERLINK httpwww.questiaschool.comPM.qstaod5007028748(Kuckes, 2003, p. 2).  It is this notion of a disconnect between theoretical ideals and practical realities which lends credence to the assertion that the grand jury mechanism is far less beneficial to individuals and civil liberties than its advocates  would have the American public believe.  An additional shortcoming is the dominant role played by the prosecutor.  An irony is that the grand jury is characterized as a buffer when in fact the knowledge received by grand juries is carefully controlled and manipulated by prosecutors in order to secure indictments.

To be sure, a grand jury cannot properly perform its constitutional mandate unless it has access to fair and objective information and the research strongly suggests that prosecutors frequently present information favorable to their positions while downplaying or simply withholding information which might exonerate the individual.  The grand jury is therefore not a balanced or even an objective procedural protection because of the way that prosecutors are able to control access to relevant facts and information.  This has been especially true with respect to the treatment of exculpatory evidence and has led one researcher to suggest that  A prosecutorial obligation to present substantial exculpatory evidence to the grand jury that would oppose a finding of probable cause is essential to an independent and informed determination of probable cause  HYPERLINK httpwww.questiaschool.comPM.qstaod5000761789(Neely, 2002, p. 184).  The truth, it would appear, is that more safeguards are needed if the grand jury is going to be able to achieve its stated objectives in practice because the abuses it intends to prevent are nevertheless occurring.  The benefits of the grand jury, though noble and worthwhile, are fundamentally illusory in practice.

Parallel Proceedings  Conceptualization and Cooperation
Conceptually, in a white collar criminal context, parallel proceedings essentially refer to a multilayered type of potential criminal and civil liability.  More particularly, Many white-collar crime statutes contain provisions authorizing both criminal and civil proceedings against the accused HYPERLINK httpwww.questiaschool.comPM.qstaod5002005038(Bortner  Miller, 2003, p. 942).  These statutory provisions can create special types of implications or consequences in white collar criminal cases.  First, although criminal defendants are generally most concerned with criminal sentencing concerns, the parallel proceedings phenomenon adds an additional dimension or concern because white collar criminal defendants must also be concerned with potential civil damages as well.  Such multilayered consequences arise, for instance, in white collar cases involving alleged securities fraud in which federal prosecutors pursue criminal penalties and regulatory agencies such as the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuer civil penalties.  Another common illustration is the situation where the Internal Revenue Service becomes involved in related criminal investigations and prosecutions. These civil consequences may be civil in nature or quasi-criminal in nature and involve such penalties as making restitution, forfeiting certain assets obtained in violation of the law, or the loss of various licenses or other privileges.  Second, the aforementioned statutes do not state which case has precedence as a result, it is not uncommon for white collar criminal defendants to be forced to defend themselves in closely related by separate legal proceedings.  Problems and debates arise from this reality because Concurrent litigation raises significant discovery,  constitutional,  and strategic issues for the both the defendant and the government HYPERLINK httpwww.questiaschool.comPM.qstaod5002005038(Bortner  Miller, 2003).   Closely related to these concerns are questions regarding the propriety of cooperation and information sharing between the criminal prosecutors and the regulatory agencies pursuing litigation against the white collar criminal defendants.

Disclosure issues are especially contentious and these issues arise from both grand jury proceedings and discovery procedures.  As a general rule, grand jury proceedings are secret and disclosure is not intended.  There are also important discovery rule differences in criminal cases and civil cases that raise important issues in parallel proceedings.  The discovery rules in civil scenarios are much more generous than in criminal cases where important constitutional rights can be invoked to limit discovery in important ways.  A white collar criminal defendant, for example, might invoke the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination in a criminal proceeding but have more difficulty preventing the disclosure of the same or related information in civil proceedings.  This type of issue often arises in parallel proceedings involving the Internal Revenue Service.  Indeed,
Many parallel proceedings involve the IRS because, although the IRS cannot try its own prosecutions, the governments interest in collecting unpaid taxes continues even after a criminal investigation is commenced. To assist the IRS in civil actions commenced to collect outstanding taxes, Congress has given the Service broad powers to issue summonses that authorize the IRS to examine books, papers, records, or summon an individual to give testimony under oath  HYPERLINK httpwww.questiaschool.comPM.qstaod5002005038(Bortner  Miller, 2003, p. 935)

These congressional authorizations can therefore function to circumvent traditional protections provided to criminal defendants when certain types of white collar crimes are involved.  Although the case law strives to create good faith rules in order to maintain the integrity of the separate proceedings, the reality is the information is disclosed in unique ways and that the accused is vulnerable in special ways in white collar criminal cases.  Improper sharing of information can lead to the undermining of fundamental constitutional rights such as the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination interestingly, the United States Supreme Court has upheld these congressional statutes providing special powers to regulatory agencies in parallel proceedings.  Information sharing is allowed so long as each proceeding pursues its evidence collection properly and does not seek to abuse the parallel proceedings in order to circumvent disclosure limitations and restrictions.  This is especially true in the evidence collection stage proceeding a grand jury because this evidence can later be shared even though grand jury proceedings are secret if an indictment is secured and criminal charges filed and criminal proceedings initiated.  Both prosecutors and regulatory agencies must seek to avoid bad faith actions because these are likely to be viewed negatively by the courts.

In the final analysis, white collar criminal cases are distinguishable in important respects from more conventional types of criminal cases.  The grand jury rules, both federally and in many state situations, seem beneficial to white collar criminal defendants but they also pose certain illusory benefits because of the dominant position of the prosecutors.  The research suggest that important reforms need to be made to the grand jury mechanism if its stated objectives are very to be realized in practice.  Parallel proceedings also raise special issues in white collar criminal cases.  The need in this case is the exercise of good faith to ensure that information sharing is not improperly used to circumvent civil liberties and fundamental constitutional protections.

Right to Counsel

The right to counsel is regarded as a fundamental right in the criminal justice system. The right is clearly defined in the provisions of the Sixth Amendments of the American constitution which gives a defendant the legal right to have a counsel during their case trial (Crawford, 2001). Although the Sixth Amendment applies to defendants in federal courts, it is found to apply to state court through the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment (Crawford, 2001). However, during the case of Miranda v. Arizona, the Supreme Court found right of counsel necessary in enforcing the right to be free from self-incrimination as provided for in the Fifth Amendment (Kelly, 2009).

Through its interpretation of the sixth amendment, the Supreme Court makes it a mandatory for a court to appoint a legal counsel for defendants faced with financial andor psychological impairments (Tomkovicz, 2002). This makes right to a legal counsel a fundamental right for all during any criminal justice proceedings. This paper is written to identify the various aspects of the right to a counsel, how it developed and its role in the criminal justice system. The author also gives a discussion on the role of attorneys as it relates to the right to counsel and the legal provisions on right to self-representation.

Aspect of right to counsel
The right to counsel is termed as one of the basic tools, which have helped in mitigating unfair treatment of crime suspects in our criminal justice system. As the guiding rule for the realization of equitable justice to all in the criminal justice system, a crime suspect is not guilty until convicted during a court trail (Gardner, 2000). Therefore, the key aspect of the right to counsel is to protect a defendant against unfair practices by the prosecution.

This concern is based on the fact that some members of the society have little of no knowledge of the constitutional rights, which serve to protect them during a criminal proceeding. Indeed, the right to counsel is made more exclusive in protecting American citizens against misconduct by law enforcement by dictating for the right to counsel while in police custody (Crawford, 2001).

Development of the right to counsel
The sixth amendment of the US constitution is the root source of the right to counsel (Crawford, 2001). This amendment of the constitution clearly states that a defendant has a constitutional right to have the assistance of a legal counsel from the beginning of formal charges against them. Such a constitutional provision on the right to counsel is legally applicable to both federal and state courts through the due process clause found in the fourteenth amendment of the American constitution (Crawford, 2001).

However, the Supreme Court asserted that the right to a counsel is provided for in the fifth amendment of the constitution dictated for the right to counsel. This was identified during the Miranda v. Arizona case were the court reasoned that the right to counsel was the best tool to effectively enforce the constitutional privilege of being free from self incrimination (Kelly, 2009). It is this case which is seen as the source of the protection against violation a crime suspects right of counsel during arrest, while in custody and during interrogation.

When the right to counsel attaches to criminal procedure
According to the Supreme Court, the right to counsel is a constitutional right that is applicable to criminal suspect during a criminal proceeding from the time of arrest all through to their first appeal (Kelly, 2009). From the Supreme Courts interpretation of the sixth amendment, criminal justice courts are legally bound to appoint a legal counsel to defendants who are economically or psychologically challenged.

Based on the Fifth Amendment and its reflection on the right to counsel, law enforcement are dictated by the law to ensure that a crime suspect is informed of their right to a counsel assistance as well as a right not to be compelled to self incrimination (Gardner, 2000).

Legal provisions on right to self-representation
Although, the constitution dictates that a defendant must have the assistance of a legal counsel during any criminal proceedings, this provision can be waived by the defendant. This is because the same laws dictating for the right to a legal counsel provide for the right to self-representation (Crawford, 2001). Nevertheless, based on the Supreme Courts ruling in the Miranda v. Arizona, waiving the right to a counsel by a crime suspect must be deliberate, and based on information and intelligence. This means that a prosecution providing evidence against a defendant collected without the presence of a legal counsel must sufficiently proof that the suspect intentionally waived their right to a counsel (Kelly, 2009).

On the other side, the sixth amendment allows a defendant to voluntarily and intelligently waive their right to counsel during a case trial. Therefore, the prosecution and court can only claim that a defendant waived their right to counsel if the act was intentional and the suspect had been sufficiently informed of this right. This means that the law enforcement must inform a crime suspect of the importance of the right to counsel and the potential legal implications of waiving it (Kelly, 2009).

Since the sole purpose of having in place the right to counsel is to ensure justice to all, the provisions self-representation are limited. The mentally impaired as well as juveniles face much legal opposition to waiving their right to counsel. Such are based on the fact that these two categories of crime suspects are perceived to potentially lack intent, knowledge and intelligence (Tomkovicz, 2002). This is why states like Illinois and Texas prohibit juveniles from waiving their right to counsel while other states call for the involvement of attorneys consultation before the suspect waives their right to counsel.

Role of attorneys as it relates to right to counsel
The role of attorneys as it relates to the right to a legal counsel by a defendant is to oversee the realization of fairness and justice to the defendant (Gardner, 2000). To realize this, the attorney serves to provide legal advice to the defendant on the legalities involved in their case. Such include informing the defendant of their rights and what they should expect at the various stages of the criminal process against them. The attorney also serves to ensure that the constitutional rights of the defendant are not violated (Kelly, 2009). The attorney therefore engages in identifying and mitigating any form of misconduct by the law enforcement during the criminal proceeding.

Another role of an attorney is acting as a defense for the defendant during a criminal proceeding (Kelly, 2009). To achieve this, attorneys must investigate and proof the accuracy of facts and allegations brought as evidence against the defendant in court. They dictate the technicalities involved in the court process of formulating, asking, understanding andor answering questions by the defendant (Crawford, 2001). Based on this, attorneys serve to object improper questions and evidence to the defendant as well as presenting any other possible legal defense for the defendant.

All in all, the right to counsel is a fundamental right for all American citizens that aim at enhancing the provision of equitable justice to all in our criminal justice system (Crawford, 2001). The right to counsel is applicable to both federal and state courts through the legal provisions in the due process clause of the fourteenth amendment of the US constitution. It has been identified that the right to counsel has its sole purpose in ensuing justice to a crime suspect all through their criminal process. It is however worthy noting that the right is not applicable to criminal proceedings involving civil cases.

Criminalization of Crack versus Cocaine

Cocaine is a white or colorless crystalline alkaloid that is extracted from the leaves of coca plant. Although it is sometimes used as a medicinal compound, it has widely been abused because of its stimulating and euphoric effects. Cocaine occurs either in the form of crack cocaine or cocaine hydrochloride. Both the two forms of cocaine have been abused in the United States and their uses have been criminalized.

The abusers of the drug often snort the powdered hydrochloride form of cocaine or dissolve the drug in water and inject themselves intravenously. The street name given to another form of cocaine is crack which is processed to yield a rock crystal that when heated produces the vapors which can be smoked. The name crack refers to the type of sound produced when the rock crystal is heated (Platt, 2005). This sound produced is of crackling nature hence the name crack cocaine.

The psychoactive and physiological effects of cocaine share significant similarities and it does not matter if the form of cocaine taken is crack cocaine or cocaine hydrochloride. However, some slight variations range from the duration, immediacy and magnitude of the effect of the form of cocaine taken.

The frequency as well as the amount of the drug forms smoked or injected also has some variations in the psychoactive and physiological difference in the effects.

The form of cocaine used does not have any important variation in the general effects in humans.

Cocaine was prohibited in the United States in the wake of the 20th century. Journalists and writers used the terms Cocainized Niggers and Negro Cocaine Fiends to zoom the sales which caused a nationwide panic about the raping of the white women by the black men who were high on using cocaine (Elbert, 2010). Consequently, the 1914 saw the enacting of the Harrison Act that required all the cocaine and opiate sellers to acquire a license. However, these licenses were only distributed among the white people and the blacks were never allowed to have the licenses.

The Harrison Act, 1914 was originally intended to require persons to have paper trails of all drug transactions between the drug stores, doctors and patients. However, this changed afterwards and the Act became a prohibitive law. This shows how the wording of the law was rather vague since the Harrison Act, 1914 was initially intended to be a mechanism for revenue tracking which required opiate prescriptions.

The penalties that are induced on the use of the two forms of cocaine vary. For instance, the federal guidelines for sentencing the possession of cocaine are a hundred times more than those for crack cocaine. Therefore, in triggering compulsory minimum penalties is believed to be excessive. Crack cocaine has been associated with crimes to a greater level than the cocaine hydrochloride form. However, majority of these crimes have been associated with the cocaine addiction and not the form of cocaine used.

Racial Disparity in Cocaine Sentencing
Apart from war on terrorism and nuclear war, the attitude of Americans on drugs has also become an important problem that the country faces today. Particularly, the problem of racial disparity on cocaine sentencing has increasingly drawn a debate and caused a growing controversy. In the early 1980s the politicians and the United States at large entered into an important era that accorded much focus on the problem of drugs.

In 1984, the Congress passed the Comprehensive Crime Control Act (CCCA) that gave guidelines on how federal defendants were supposed to be sentenced. In the recent past, the amendments to the CCCA provided for the 1001 ratio of enhancement between crack cocaine and powder cocaine.

The October 17th, 1986 became the first time racial disparity was shown in the sentencing of cocaine possession (Keith, 1999).  Crack cocaine is mainly used by blacks while the powdered cocaine is used among the whites. The minimum imprisonment period for crack cocaine was set to be 10 years with the possession of 50 grams while the minimum imprisonment period for powdered cocaine was set to be 10 years for 50 grams. The rationale here was that it was a more criminal offense to possess crack cocaine than powdered cocaine shining light into racial disparity among the blacks and the whites.

In this direction, the war on drugs has been perceived as the war on blacks. This observation has been made from the reports that there are more black males in prisons than there are in colleges. The crack cocaine provisions have clearly been seen as unconstitutional and violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fifth Amendment to the US Act.

Although crack elicits more immediate addiction responses than powdered cocaine, the rationale for imposing punishment on its users 100 times more than the users of powdered cocaine does not come out clear. It is the question of racial disparity that is presented in the differences in sentencing. It should be noted that sentencing has to be standard. If too short sentencing is provided, it may cause more crime to ensue and if too long sentences are provided, it may as well lead to reinforcing criminal tendencies of defendants. The fight on erasing the disparity in cocaine sentencing has gained significant success and is expected to end the controversial ratio of 100 1 disparity between the sentencing of crack and powder cocaine.

The legacy moment of Alexander as a County judge as Hennepin started in 1990 with her strong ruling to dismiss the charges against the five men who were brought forward concerning the possession of crack cocaine. Alexander ruled that the laws of Minnesota that differentiated between the two forms of cocaine, crack and powder were discriminatory (Gross, 2001).  At her time during the 1990s, crack possession which was the drug of choice among the blacks, led to the sentencing of a number of individuals for 20 years. The disparity was seen in the difference in the sentencing of powder cocaine possession of five years. The suggested reason for this difference was racism since powder cocaine was the drug of choice among the whites.

Alexanders arguments were validated by the Supreme Court at Minnesota and the state legislature positively responded to her claims.

The US Sentencing Commission validated the decisions by Alexander in 1990 that voted to lighten the sentences that were imposed on the possession of crack cocaine in the federal system. This effort was made to remind the courts should not be sensitive in defending the whites. Alexander refused to be elated about the Supreme Courts ruling identifying that the pace at which justice was moving was much slower and called for some action.

Alexander felt that she was lucky not to become a federal judge since the federal judiciary is largely bound to follow the guidelines of sentencing that seem to be mediated by the regional politics.

The Office of the National Drug Control Policy actions continues to increasingly draw a controversy on the rhetoric of a change away from the principal enforcement-based reactions to the illegitimate cocaine abuse. The compulsory minimum penalty for crack cocaine is a hundred times more severe compared to the penalties for powder cocaine. Despite the Congress having knowledge of this, it has failed to change these sentences. Although the Sentencing Commission and other commissions have sent recommendations to the Congress, the actions have not been implemented and these differences in sentencing of crack cocaine and powder cocaine

It is a great contrast that it takes only 5 grams of crack compared to 500 grams of crack to warrant a drug user individual a 5 year compulsory minimum sentence. In another equivalent, 50 grams of crack is enough to warrant a person a compulsory minimum sentence of ten years. Contrary to powder cocaine, 500 grams of the powder is the agreed quantity that can warrant a person a ten-year compulsory minimum sentencing. These differences have been shown in a number of cases in the United States.

An example of some of the cases that have been decided without justice was the case that involved Calvin Williams in the year 2005. Williams pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy in distributing crack cocaine breaching the United States Constitution, 21 (846) and 18 (2) pursuant to the agreement in a plea. The district court after granting Williams a motion for downward departure, it sentenced him for 235 months imprisonments that were based upon his own status as a career offender. Afterwards, Williamson appealed to the court and was remanded for the re-sentencing pursuant to the United States v. Booker in 2005.

While on remand, Williams was sentenced to 144 months imprisonment by the district court according to the agreement on the plea. This duration was increased after subsequent considerations that Williams was a career offender. Although Williams filed a motion to modify his sentence according to the constitution, the district court did not respond to such a claim for evidentially hearing.

Another case that showed disparity in sentencing which involved the decision of the court on powder cocaine and crack was the United States v. Hamilton, 2006. The case was decided on the 30th March, 2006. The court found that the chemical compound contained in crack and powder was the same both in structure and effect. The compound that was under investigation was C17H21NO4 which was found to be common in both forms. The compound is naturally present in the leaves of coca which are processed and imported into the United States. The processing of the compound takes place by the dissolution of cocaine base in a water and hydrochloric acid. This then creates cocaine hydrochloride salt, C17H22ClNO4 also known as powder cocaine. The powdered cocaine can be converted into the base form by heating it with a mixture of water and baking soda.

The court declared that there were no major differences between crack and powder cocaine using the results that were obtained from experiments that were carried out by the governments forensic chemists. The forensic chemists found out that there were no major differences between crack and powdered cocaine in terms of chemical composition and all had a potential to cause the same effects in the psychology and physiology of humans. (Di Iulo, 2004)

The powder could easily be converted back to the original base compound through chemical reactions.

Despite of the courts ruling in the United States v. Hamilton, 2006, there is a great disparity in sentence fashioning that is imposed on the defendants who are found guilty of the offenses associated with crack cocaine and those offenses related to powder cocaine. For instance, there is a commonly known ratio of 1001 that refers to the ratio of powder to crack pursuant to which a defendant who possesses a certain quantity of crack will be given the similar compulsory minimum sentence like the defendants possessing 100 times powder cocaine amount.  The adopted guidelines have integrated the ratios such that the 5kg of powder cocaine is perceived equivalent to the 50g of crack cocaine they are scored at similar level.

Rationales of the Disparity in Sentencing
The disparity of sentencing has received wide criticism and the United States Sentencing Commission has itself repeatedly suggested that it is more appropriate to have a ratio of 201. There are a number of rationales that have been reported to be based on weak grounds by the Sentencing Commission. These rationales that were initially relied upon to generate the disparity between the crack and powder cocaine have been reported to be unsupportable.

These Sentencing Commission claims that the harms that are associated with crack do not give good reason for any substantially ruthless treatment (Nicole, 2007). The second claim to disapprove the rationale of the disparities in sentencing in crack and powder cocaine is that the increased addictiveness to crack does not result from any pharmacological difference between crack and powder.

The development of addiction has instead been observed to be caused by the differing manner in which the two forms of drugs are administered and used. Crack is widely used by the drug users which make it to cause more addiction than powder cocaine. Equally, the intravenous administration of crack makes it to cause addictions more easily than powder cocaine.

The Sentencing Commission also identifies that the harms that are connected to crack are not as very severe as they were initially feared and are no more serious than the harms that result from powder cocaine exposure. The fourth observation by the Sentencing Commission is the larger numbers of the defendants who are subject to the increased penalties do not fit the mold of high-level or serious traffickers that the Congress intended to target when it was initially establishing the penalties. Contrary to the intention of the Congress, majority of the offenders of crack cocaine who receive the harsh penalties are low-level offenders.

The Sentencing Commission also identifies the crack cocaine as the only drug that has such harsh penalties imposed on low-level offenders and finally, the sixth claim by the commission proposes that the high penalties particularly for small amounts of crack cocaine have been seen to divert the federal resources thus avoiding the high-level traffickers and directing the resources and energy to low-level drug dealers (Tonry, 1995). In general the Sentencing Commission suggests that the injustice which exist in the sentencing of defendants should be done with justice and respect for equality. Lastly, the disparity in crack versus powder brings about a disparate impact along the lines of racism with the black offenders getting harsher penalties than their white counterparts.

In the year 2007, the Brenna Center for Justice at New York University School of Law gave a report which was a product of the meeting that was hosted by the Brennan Center and the National Institute for Law and Equity, NILE. In the report, the issue of the effects of racial disparities in the sentencing of communities, long-term incarceration and the public confidence on the enforcement of the public law were discussed.

On November 1st 2007, the new amendments to the guidelines were set in place and the sentencing ranges were lowered for crack crimes by about two levels. On December 11, 2007, the US Sentencing Commission passed a decision to make the decrease in sentencing retroactive. The September 9th, 2008, the district court ruled out that the reduction on sentencing does not apply to career offenders but for other cocaine possessions (Jeralyn, 2010).

The discriminatory and arbitral disparity between crack cocaine and cocaine powder implicates the United States constitution. This observation is made by the argument that unless someone assumes that the penalties for powder cocaine are too low, then the far-reaching crack penalties are at the odds corresponding with the offense seriousness. The lack of a logical rationale for the disparities of crack sentencing and disproportionate impact on one disfavored race enhances the abuse of law and suggests that the preceding sentences are all done unjustly (Sher, 2003).

There are three forms of arguments or rationale used for criminalization of cocaine. These arguments are paternalistic, protective and perfectionist arguments.

The paternalistic argument is based on the fact that the nature of the detrimental effects a drug has and which the users of the drug risk is the function of the drugs which they use. The most important effect of cocaine and especially the crack cocaine is the addictive nature of the drug. Crack is more addictive than any form of cocaine hence the heavy sentence given.

The protective argument is based on the harm the drug may cause to other people apart from the actual user. The use of cocaine causes the strangers to be harmed by making collisions and shooting as well as other problems to which the overly aggressive and the impaired are always exposed to them (Wisotsky, 1996). The drug deprives the family of the peace that can enable the family to live with cohesiveness.

The children may be subjected to neglect and continue to difficulties. The third argument is the perfectionist reasoning. This argument holds that there is a broad consensus about the many factors which determine the good and evil.

Other people hold that it is illegal when to find people stumbling through lives with a distorted and blurred view of the reality

Efforts to Decriminalize Cocaine Possession
The Attorney General Eric Holder has strongly defended the use of cocaine and allied substances for medical purposes. Holder held a senior position as a legal advisor to President-Elect Obama. For instance, he defended that the Justice Department should not raid the medical marijuana clubs that are legally established under the state law. The declaration fulfils the president Barrack Obamas campaign promises and marks a significant shift from the earlier Bush administration that criminalized the use of cocaine even for medical reasons.

While it was noted that the Drug Enforcement Administration still carried out such raids, Holder defended that the raids were not part of the American policy that would be embraced in the future. Despite hostility in the legalization of medical uses of cocaine and marijuana, the movement for decriminalization has been growing for decades and it is expected that the Obama administration will have lots of changes.

In another effort, the Attorney General directed the federal prosecutors to stop pursuing cases that involved medical marijuana patients paving way for the decriminalization of cocaine that is used for medical reasons. This has been seen as a broad shift in policy that a number of drug reform advocates have interpreted as the initial stage in the decriminalization of cocaine and marijuana medical uses. This marked the changes through which the efforts would be heightened against the fight to make medical use of cocaine acceptable.

The Council on Crime and Justice is non- partisan, independent and a non-profit organ that has made possible the provision of innovative solutions and leadership to the social and criminal issues of concern related to justice in the state of Minnesota for over five decades.
At the height of a growing controversy in disparities in sentencing involved in two substances, cocaine and crack, the Council through its advocacy roles have become imperative in the establishing policy and system change. The advocacy is mainly focused on identification of the collateral statutory effects and the further quantification of the impacts of all the arrests.

The initiative of the Council on Crime and Justice is aimed at the helping the offenders to succeed and thus reduce the rate of recidivism among the cocaine and other related drug offenders. The efforts of the Council on Crime and Justice will also address the disparities in the sentencing of the offenders in terms of color as the sentencing show some racial differences. The Council on Crime and Justice made a step to accord Judge Pamela Alexander a high-profile platform which provided a chance to be outspoken concerning her apprehensions. In the current status, the council has carried enormous research on the bare truth of disparities based on racism particularly in the state of Minnesota.

It been observed that in recent years, a number of white prisoners who have been convicted of methamphetamine-related offenses has gone high. However, over the last 18 years, the major drugs-related offenses leading the offenders in prison were caused by cocaine and crack. The Council on Crime and Justice identifies that majority of the offenders who have been sent to prison due to crack and cocaine was among the minority group members. For instance, in 2006 alone, up to 90 percent of the prisoners who were sentenced for the offenses related to crack were members of the minority. This percentage of the crack offenses was higher than the 71 percent which was the percentage of cocaine prisoners (Council on Crime and Justice, 2010). The statistics from the Council on Crime and Justice clearly indicate the disparity that exists between the sentencing of crack and cocaine prisoners.

The council also identifies that there have been severe penalties and aggressive law enforcement for drug offenses with the majority of the arrested individuals, convicted or imprisoned for such crimes being non-whites. It has also been noted that huge numbers of disadvantaged blacks are being imprisoned and serve long sentences in jails to reduce the attractions and drug use among the non-whites. The council also found out that Minnesota had the most unfair judgment when the Minnesota sentencing laws were compared with other states. In Minnesota Sentencing Guidelines Commission report, it was found that 10g transaction in crack or powder cocaine triggered a 30-year punishment in Minnesota. Other states have higher threshold amounts of cocaine. For instance, Illinois allows up to 900grams while Iowas allows 5kg.

In general, the criminalization of cocaine has taken different direction since it was first extracted from cocoa leaves. While the use of cocaine is illegal and subject to his prosecution, crack cocaine has been heightened. This uncalled for expectations have made the punishment to be more severe in crack cocaine than compared to powder cocaine. The Sentencing Commission has created a new hope for the road to justice. In addition, the Obama administration is expected to cause great transformations in the perception of the two substances, the powder cocaine and crack cocaine. In the future, the existing disparity will be a story to talk about and sanity in the judicial procedures will have a place among the judges.