Prevention of crime through physical design is a set of design principles that are used to discourage crime. Generally, buildings and properties are designed to prevent damage from natural disasters and force of elements, but they should also be designed to prevent crime. This helps to create sense of security, well being among employees and tenants. When there is a good physical design, the environment in the workplace will discourage criminal behavior. To achieve this, there some concepts of defensible space like natural surveillance, design guidelines and cited strategies that need to be put in place.

Natural Surveillance
    According to Fennelly (2004) criminals do not like to be recognized so they choose places they can hide easily and escape. There are several ways to use natural surveillance in a workplace and this includes keeping all areas well lit especially in the building entrances. Eliminate hiding spots by trimming hedges, removing trees and fences that are creating hiding spots. Encourage low thorny edges around the windows because they do not obstruct view and they are not comfortable places to hide. Use of Closed Circuit Television in areas with no natural sight lines is very important therefore, it is good to put up monitors in public places so that criminals can be aware that they are being monitored.

Territorial Reinforcement
    This principle creates a clear distinction between public and private property. This is important because legitimate occupants or the workers of network operations have a sense of ownership and will be in a position to know and challenge intruders and therefore those people who do not belong will have a hard time to blend in. Receptionist should have clear sight lines to all entrances and also be able to call for help quickly without being noticed. Security signals should be clear in all entrance points and visitors should be provided with identification badges.

Natural Access Control
    This reduces chances for a crime to occur by clearly differentiating between public and private spaces. Reid (2005) found that, this can be done by use of single entrance and exit point, fencing around the windows with low thorny bushes, locking gates between front and back yard to do away with designs that encourage access to roof tops and upper levels and also to have proper lighting in all dark areas to avoid creating entrapments which are used by criminal to attack workers at network operations.
Informal Surveillance
    This is a casual observation of activities and people in public, by other people engaged in legal activities. Whether surveillance is coming from inside or outside building, the way to reduce crime is to increase eyes on the street. Placement of windows and doors especially on the ground floor is important to enable workers to observe crime on the street. If workers at network operations are willing to act when they observe an unruly behavior by reporting such behaviors to the authority or by intervening directly then informal surveillance can be used to decrease number of crimes taking place in the workplace.

Formal Surveillance
     It is a systematic supervision of the building by other people whose main objective is to maintain security. These people include the police, receptionists, or private security firms. Surveillance  can be in form of alarms, cameras, personal visits or overview. Advantage of using formal surveillance is that, chances of crime being noticed while taking place by the security personnel for them to intervene immediately are very high. Criminals avoid committing crime in an area they are aware it is under surveillance because they would not like to increase any chance of being caught.

     Good lighting is important because it allows people to see and to be seen. Well designed lighting system combined with other anti-crime measures can prevent crime from occurring. It also reduces opportunity for crime to occur and make working places to be safer at night for workers who like working late. Lighting should not be applied in areas which are deserted because workers will have an impression that those areas are safe and end up leading them to dangerous situations.

    According to Nadel (2004) overgrown vegetation, blinding corners and large projections can obstruct visibility along pedestrian routes. This may lead to creation of sites for committing crimes. Places that provide concealment decreases the effectiveness of surveillance measures hence leading to crime being committed without being noticed. Some workers of network operations at times prefer to have some privacy and therefore, they go to areas like garden or recreational walkways and mostly these areas are isolated. It is important to make sure that route through these areas are safe and do not create an opportunity for concealment.

    Small confined areas may be used by criminals to trap potential victims. These entrapment spots are selected by offenders as a site for robbery, assault or rape to the workers. Enclosed spaces should be eliminated in workplaces to reduce crime. Entrapment can be actual where by a space is defined by physical barriers inhibiting the targeted person to escape for example, an enclosed room or stairs down to a basement. On the other hand, entrapment can be perceptual where people feel trapped but there are no physical barriers. Areas that cause both physical and visual entrapments are tunnels, stairways, pedestrian bridges, foot path and streets. All enclosed areas should be modified to prevent workers at network operations from being trapped by criminals and be assaulted.

    These are physical elements of a building and their susceptibility to damage. Existence of damage also influences how easily a building can be broken into by offenders. A building should be publicly accessible and at the same time resist damage from any criminal activity. Building owner should make sure the walls, windows and doors are well fitted with materials that can resist damage and workers should use the all facilities of the building responsibly.

    Poorly maintained buildings shows signs of abandonment and lack of ownership. This may provide convenient locations for criminal activities. A place that is neglected can be a criminals hide out and can provide suitable environment for a crime to occur. Damaged buildings that are poorly maintained and they are not in use but have accessible spaces indicate lack of ownership. Criminals hide in this buildings and it becomes extremely dangerous for people living around such areas. These buildings should be maintained to prevent workers working in such building from being attacked by criminals.

Physical design in a work place is very important because it determines how an organization can prevent crime. As discussed above place of work should have surveillance which can either be formal or informal, this helps the workers at network operations to notice intruders in case they are captured on the surveillance cameras. When there is good lighting, buildings are well maintained, and efficient surveillance workers feel confident and safe in their working environment.


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