What does the word Jurisdictions stands for

Jurisdiction is a term used in the field of laws to define the legitimate authority or the powers that are exercised by the government or the courts in any given Nation or State. Jurisdiction can also be used in judicial authorities to determine the fate or the power to judge and the limits of the court. The government through the legislators or the judiciary has the legitimate authority to make and enforce the laws since the government has the jurisdictionpower to come up with the new laws and its sovereign (Coakley  Cass, 2003).

The term jurisdiction is used by professionals especially those that are more concerned with the legal issues to define the area of influence without interfering with others or usurping powers of the other State or Nation. During the colonial days, the word jurisdiction was basically used by the colonial powers to determine the area of influence and to respect the other colonial powers for instance, Britain and Germans drew a map to separate the coastal line of Kenya and Tanzania in order to avoid conflict and to be able to enforce laws and policies in the area of influence (Fawcett, 1995).

Different types of court jurisdiction
Jurisdiction can be categorized in three main areas personal jurisdiction that is more concerned with individual act, territorial jurisdiction that deals with cases to do with boundaries and cases within a given boundary and finally subject jurisdiction is more concerned with the authority or powers to judge or to comment on legal issues that arise during hearings in court. The court is therefore divided in three categories depending on the subject matter or the type of jurisdiction granted to them by the State. The three categories of jurisdiction help in determining the type of court to preside over a given case depending on the type of the case (Nasheri, 2002).

Criminal justice
According to Walker (1993), jurisdiction is the power to make judgment and to translate the laws that are well defined by the State. It is as a result of crime and other cases in courts that led to formulation of laws and regulation to deal with the cases that were increasing day by day. Crime therefore is any act or action that is against the stated laws of the State. It is doing what is not right according to the law or engaging in an activity that is of danger to peoples lives or the State, for instance killing, terrorism and robbery with violence. Justice on the other hand refers to the terms that are expressed to the offenders in line with their wrong doings without being bias or fair to the parties involved.

Criminal justice is therefore the act of maintainingcontrolling crime or criminal cases through a given system by punishing those who violates the law and upholding good moral standards based on practical ideals such as rehabilitation programs (Walker, 1993).

Criminal justice and the possible changes in future
Criminal justice system is an active authoritative system with three major roles or branches that play a great role in maintenance of law and order in any given State. The law enforcers or the police is one of the major branch that deals with ensuring that the laws are followed by the subjectscitizens, with the rise of crime in most countries, the role of policemen is becoming more and more crucial in a State and in the coming years, many countries will spend more on security than in the past years.

The need for self defense among the citizen as a result of increasing criminal cases may force many people to equip themselves with defense techniques and to buy weapons to protect themselves from dangerous criminals. The other branch in the system that plays an important role is the courts. It is where the laws are interpreted and the judgments are carried out in the criminal justice system of any given State. With the humanitarian movements on capital punishments and the legal awareness in most countries, the role of courts are diminishing and  programs such as rehabilitation centers for the offenders are on the rise. However, in the future, the society may transformchange the operation of the courts by creating community based courts to deal with the issue of  increasing cases and delay in judgment hence many courts may be formed to fight the challenges expected in the near future and to enhance governance. The last branch of justice system is the correction centers such as prisons, parole and rehabilitation centers for the offenders in ensuring that order and good moral standards are maintained in the society (Coakley  Cass, 2003).

Even though several transformations on prisons and rehabilitation centers have been recorded in the last decade, for instance, beating the offenders is no longer common in most modern prisons and rehabilitation centers. The living standards of the prisoners have been improved and in the years to come, prisoners will no longer be treated with the kind of disrespect that has been experienced before. Chances of major breakdown in the correction centers are higher in the coming decades as a result of improved education system, rehabilitation programs and legal awareness among the people in different societies.

Rights of an offender and how the rights are legally determined
An offender cannot be judged unfairly without following the legal provisions of the court and without being given a chance of hearing or explaining himselfherself before the judge. An offender cannot be sentenced to jail term if heshe is not allowed to go to court or to seek an advice from a professional or to have a witness before the judgments day (Bui, 2004).

When judgment is given to the offender, heshe has the right to ensure that the judgment is in accordance to the law. For instance, one cannot be sentenced to death for stealing a car without fighting or violence. When the offender is sentenced to death without proper consideration of the law, heshe has the right to defend or hire a lawyer to defend himher in court. However, when making judgment, the judge must put into consideration the public interest and the seriousness of the case in relation to maintenance of law and order in the State (Stark,  Goldstein, 1985).

Community policing
Community policing was a method of governance in the police organ to incorporate the police force and the members of the community to fight the increasing rates of criminal cases in the community. For instance, this was applied in Chicago city by American government to fight crime in Chicago by creating a link between the police force and the locals thereby reducing crime and enhancing security along the coastal lines of Chicago. Community model of fighting crime was implemented on two principles to receive information from the community members and to reduce crime within the community by arresting the culprits. The difference between the community policing and the incident-based policing model is that, community policing is more accurate and not based on analysis of the problem in general but based on valid evidence that are based on facts gathered from the community members who assist in fighting crime(Skogan, Hartnett, 1997).

Philosophy behind community policing
The philosophy behind the community policing was based on certain ideals that were believed to be more practical and fitting in the society in fighting crime. It was common in most insecure places such as the United States of America in the 20th century, when crime was on the rise in different states. This was a threat to governance and development policies of the community as a whole. The philosophy was that the community could easily get used to the police patrols that were once feared by the locals and as a result most of the criminal acts were not revealed to the security officials especially in areas such as Chicago and New York City before the community policing was implemented (Skogan, Hartnett, 1997).

Community policing was meant to enhance awareness on crime rate in the community by organizing community members to be aware of dangerous points and training people on how to identify the criminals in the society. As a result, many people volunteered to offer assistance to the policemen that were patrolling and organizing meetings at strategic points such as religious centers and sports grounds. The philosophy turned to be of great benefit to the community members and hence the security was enhanced in most places in the community.


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