Crime, in Film and in Real Life

Boyz N the Hood, the 1991 film directed by John Singleton that starred Cuba Gooding, Jr., Ice Cube, and Laurence Fishburne, and released by Columbia Pictures, dealt with the dangers prevailing in African American communities in South Central Los Angeles area during the years between the mid-1980s to the early 1990s.  In this movie, the themes centered not only on the immoralities and evils of the particular society, but more importantly on the reasons for the prevalence of such situations.  Perhaps most essentially, the movie dared to delve on several criminological issues and principles that it allows us the opportunity to practice several of these in practical and contemporary terms, as important tools for mastering the art and science of criminology. 
One of the more observable characteristics of the film is its clear description of murder.  Mostly, the examples given are not casual, but were a succession of cause and effect that attempted to explain the human reasons for involving in these despicable acts.  As such, several of the murders had been territorial in nature, as witnessed in the killing of Ricky Baker while some were of vengeance, such as Darrins revenge on his brothers death and yet others were simply the results of criminal and unexplained acts, such as the ones perpetrated on the abandoned corpses lying on the vacant houses of the suburb.

Criminological Thoughts and Theories
The Differential Association Theory postulates that an individual learns his criminal behavior from his interactions with his immediate and intimate group.  It involves such modalities, in relation to this interaction, as the frequency, priority, duration, and the intensity of his dealings with the group. This theory is most evident in the film, especially in the characterization of the brothers Darrin and Ricky Baker, that despite of their growing up in the same neighborhood and in the very same house, they were portrayed as having opposite dispositions that while Darrin was very much deviant of the societal norms surrounding his ethnicity, Ricky was goal-oriented, focused, and ambitious.  Perhaps this can be explained in the companies that they kept, as Darrin was frequently seen hanging out with his friends, while Ricky chose to spend most of his time with Tre. 

Furthermore, the four modalities can be incorporated into Darrins and Rickys relationship.  Because of the frequency of interactions between Darrin and his friends, he was highly exposed to the groups accepted norms and values and had in fact adapted these into his system, making his bond with his friends very much intense that they became his priority.  This eventually led him to integrate all these into a behavior that is highly susceptible to commit criminal acts.  The cumulative effects of the four modalities can also be evidenced in Rickys behavior, however, because of his deep friendship with Tre, this contributed for the frequency, duration, and intensity factors, that had a positive effect on his persona.  Mr. Styles observation on Ricky on how he seemed to distance himself from the other Black kids, aptly described his attitude, Rick, its the Nineties.  Cant afford to be afraid of our own people, man (Boyz n the Hood).  Also contributing for the positive influences in Ricky were his loving mother, his wife, and his best friend, Tre.

Folk Devils
The concept of the folk devils, as proposed by Stanley Cohen, was evident in the entirety of the film, Boyz N the Hood.  Apparently, the folk devils in the said film are the African American youths who were seen loitering on the streets, selling illegal drugs, and by-standing in liquor stores.  These were also the very people who committed murders. 

The emphasis of folk devils was evidenced in a scene where Furious Styles was lecturing Tre, Ricky, and a group of youngsters from their neighborhood.  A comment by one of the boys, that they are always blamed for everything untoward that happens in their neighborhood clearly illustrated the reality that they are perceived as the sources of these crimes, thus labeling them, perhaps unknowingly, as the folk devils.  This was likewise evident in the manner that Rickys mother perceived Doughboys friends, as always doing something to disrupt the neighborhood, and are always up to something awful (Boyz N the Hood). 

In relation to this concept, it is important to compare Cohens theory, that gang delinquency is not a rational act, but an emotional one, and that this stems as a reaction to their failure of living up to the middle class values.  Given this precept, the murder of Ricky can then be seen as an expression of the rival group to defendextend their territorial influence.  It is economic in nature, as the conflict arose from a public event where Darrens boasting of his stylish car seemed to preempt an unfortunate reaction from their rival group.  Likewise, the rivals act of roving around Darrens neighborhood signified their intent of displaying their power, which because of the lack of monetary resources, manifested instead in the form of firearms.  Thus, the economic measuring rod that is the middle class and the apparent failure of the respective warring factions to attain this, led these groups to result to sub-cultural deviances that eventually led to the murders. 

The Parent-Male subculture, which is characterized by a negative disposition towards other members of the community and an apparent absence of any career goals, was also very evident in the film.  Most obvious of which is Darren, who seemed to distrust everyone in the community except his immediate family and friends.  This is true despite of his seeming superior intelligence compared with the other members of his group, especially in being aware of the importance of college education.  Another is the Conflict-Oriented subculture, where there is an overwhelming tendency to resolve disputes only by conflict.  This was evidenced in the scene where the red car was roaming around his neighborhood, and in his reaction of throwing his hand up in the air, as if conveying the message that they are in his territory and is ready for hostilities. 

The central theme of the movie, Boyz N the Hood, was fatherly affection and its beneficial consequences to the life of a son, particularly in molding him to be a responsible, productive, and proficient adult.  In the course of my studies, however, what was most beneficial was in learning the theoreticalpsychological complexities that were the bases for the murders committed in the aforementioned film. 

Firstly, I was able to delve deeper into the story by learning the personal and societal motives for the crimes that were committed.  It has augmented my knowledge on the possible effects that a persons immediate environs may cause to a persons outlook in life.  It also became clear that ones territorial perception, especially if he were manifesting of a failure to reach a particular middle-class measure, may play as determining factors in his inclination to commit a crime, thus making a direct correlation between a persons economic stature and the transgression.       

Also, I learned that crimes, specifically of the territorial genre discussed in the film, are not based on logical reasoning, but are in fact emotional in nature that it can be categorized according to a persons seeming lack of self motivation for success and his overwhelming distrust on the general populace.  Hence, the film under discussion benefited me in ways that exceeded the desired themes included in the film.  Through my academic course, I was able to relate the conflicts to the contemporary realities prevailing in the society.  It had made me a better person by giving me a deeper understanding of the inner workings surrounding the murders, both in film and in reality.     

Democratic Policing

For as long as mankind has lived on earth, there has been continued tension between the desire for liberty and order. Not even the most advanced societies can reasonably claim to have achieved the optimal balance between the need for liberty and social order. A most important resource used to bring order, or a semblance of the same, is the police. While the administrations in various countries have used their police forces for different purposes over the course of their histories, the widely accepted functions of the police force are to maintain law and order and to protect the rights of the people. It is therefore commonplace for citizens to expect the police to control crime and take active roles in such undertakings as controlling traffic, responding to emergencies, and mediating disputes. Travis (1998) notes that  of all governmental functions, the policing function is arguably the most intimately involved with the well-being of individuals and the health of communities  (as cited in Skolnick, 1999, p. 7).

However, non-democratic administrations in many countries have used their police forces not to protect people s liberty but to suppress the very rights the police force is supposed to protect. The fact that the police force in most countries is armed and allowed in some circumstances to engage in such activities as wire-tapping, breaking into suspects  houses, interrogation, covert surveillance, arrests and incarceration, and the use of force (even lethal) means that the same people who are expected to protect the rights of the people can use the power and resources at their disposal to prey on the same people and to abuse their rights. Therefore, while there is a need for society to be protected by the police, there is a critical need for society to be protected from the police. This paper discusses the elements and characteristics of democratic policing and the applicability of the law in the fight against terrorism.

Democratic Policing
Democratic policing entails the protection of people s liberties and maintenance of law and order in a process which involves close collaboration between the police and society. Democratic policing changes policing from a process which has the police force as the service provider and the people as the consumers of the service to an inclusive process in which individual members of society, citizen groups, and government agencies participate actively in the policing. It is much of a process as it is the outcome of close and continued public-police collaboration.

As part of its mission statement, democratic policing prioritizes accountability of the police force to the people, restricts police intervention in citizens  lives to only when it is needed and within established controls, and ensures that the police force remains subject to laws which recognize and respect human rights and dignity. In a democratic society, the police force should team up with the public, as individuals or as groups, to protect the liberties of the people. It is not the role of the police force to abuse peoples  rights at the behest of despotic political heavyweights, a common trend in non-democratic states where the police force is used to crush opposition. In democratic policing, a police officer  serves as an agent of the community and hisher responsibility is to serve and protect community members  (Nalla, 2009, p. 521).
Hallmarks of Democratic Policing

Accountability to the People and the State
Mainwaring (2003) defines accountability as the situation  where a state institution provides information on its activities and responds to citizens  demands to explain its activities and account for discrepancies in its actions  (as cited in Moncada, 2009, p. 432). Democratization of the police means that police officers serve the community and should therefore be accountable to the same. As the closest manifestation of the state to the public, the police force must be seen to be accountable to the people it serves as  police accountability affects not only citizen security but also the broader dynamics of state-society relations  (Moncada, 2009, p. 431).

Between 1995 and 2006, the three mayors of Bogota, Columbia s capital, undertook an ambitious police reform plan which, among others, encouraged the city residents to cooperate with the then-discredited Bogota police to improve citizen security (Moncada, 2009). To improve accountability to the people, the police launched outreach campaigns targeting even populations which had been alienated or brutalized by the police previously. Community policing in Bogota encouraged close and continuous interaction between the police and society. To strengthen police accountability to the state, the police code of conduct was revised. Accountability to the state and society meant that the police followed some laid-down procedures in their work, encouraged and acted on feedback and concerns from members of society, and worked harmoniously with the public. Police accountability to the people and state changed Bogota police from a dreaded and poorly regarded state agency to one which attracted the confidence and cooperation of the people (Moncada, 2009). As in the case of Bogota, police accountability to the people and state should be a key feature of democratic policing.

A police force which is accountable to the people earns the confidence of the people so that society members take responsibility in policing by providing the police with information and other forms of support to the security agents. A survey conducted in 2006 in Bogota revealed that following a campaign to sensitize the city residents on the need for them to cooperate with the police  80 percent of citizens surveyed felt that maintaining citizen security in their neighborhoods was their responsibility  (Moncada, 2009, p. 442).

Rule of the Law
An important feature of authoritarian societies is the widespread use of the police force to humiliate and intimidate citizens who are opposed to the often-despotic leaders. From the Gestapo of Hitler s Germany to Russia s KGB, police officers have been known for unspeakable brutality against the people. Repressive regimes use the police to protect the politicians  and state interests at the expense of the people s liberties (Nalla, 2009). It is commonplace for police officers in police states to break the very law they should maintain and violate the rights of the people they should protect. Police officers should abide by the same laws that govern citizens and only in exceptional circumstances should they be allowed violate those laws. For instance, police officers may be allowed to break into a suspect s house or to intercept suspect communication, but only with the approval of the court.

Democratic policing requires police officers to uphold the law. According to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (2008), police operations should be within the provisions of both domestic and international law. Democratic policing should change policing from a control-oriented process to a service-oriented process with the people at the center. The fact that many police officers carry weapons and have access to resources such as bugs, surveillance cameras, wiretaps, and police databases means that there is the likelihood of such agents using the weapons and devices to victimize members of the public. For instance, police officers have been used to carry out extra-judicial executions against those whose interests are perceived to be in conflict with those of the police or state leadership. The police should not use their power to arrest and detain arbitrarily. Stopping and searching people should be based on strong suspicion and not a person s physical appearance, race or ethnicity. Celador (2005) observes that  professional police forces, operating within the law, and at the service of the citizen, are a hallmark of any decent, peaceful, civilized community  (p. 364) (italics added for emphasis).

Relations with the Judiciary
Both the police and the judicial systems are charged with the responsibility of protecting people s rights from abuse at the hands of wayward individuals or groups. While it is the responsibility of the police force and members of society to provide security and apprehend law-breakers, the judiciary should ensure that those arrested are punished or corrected accordingly. So important are these three elements of democratic policing that the absence or incompetence of one cripples all attempts at policing the society in a democratic manner.

Most countries deny their police forces judicial power and allow them no room to interfere with the court process. This is meant to ensure that judges are impartial and independent. For democratic policing to become achievable, the police must be stripped of judicial power. Reforming police without doing the same to the judiciary, or the opposite, renders any efforts towards democratic policing futile. An incompetent judiciary can be particularly frustrating to the police force as such judicial actions as releasing criminals or sentencing them to unfairly short sentences can demotivate the police, prompting police officers either to grow weary and apathetic, or to resort to such measures as extra-judicial killings and using torture to obtain confessions from suspects. Democratic policing must therefore entail close judiciary-public-police team-work.

Functions of the Police
Non democratic leaders across the world have been known for militarizing the police and deploying police officers to disperse, arrest, kill, and maim those who oppose their interests and leadership. Police officers are also sent to break into such people s premises to plant or search for incriminating evidence. Instead of encouraging public-police teamwork in policing, these leaders turn policing into a people-versus-state affair where the police represent and fight for the state. When police officers become law unto themselves and serve their own or the leaders  interests, a rogue state is created in which the police exist to protect the interests of the leaders.

Democratic policing requires that police join forces with the people to maintain law and protect the liberties of the people against assault. The police are expected to perform their duties in accordance with the domestic and international law enforcement standards. At the local level, police operations should not overshoot domestic criminal codes, police acts and the constitution, while at the international level, police must perform their duties within the confines of international law and human rights standards. The police exist to maintain the law and protect people s liberties.

Chain of Command
A well-established structure of command, to a large extent, explains why small contingents of police officers or soldiers are able to disperse large riotous crowds. Unlike the disorganized crowds, the police are more organized and take their instructions from one person, to whom the officers are answerable.  Chaos arise when the police force is divided, whether along political, religious, ethnic, or racial lines, meaning that some officers take their instructions from one head while others are loyal to another. Lack of a clear chain of command encourages clashes not only between the people and the police, but also within the police force. This was best exemplified in the Democratic Republic of Congo where during the last elections, the police and military were split between those who were loyal to the incumbent president and those loyal to his principal opponent. So tense were encounters between the two wings of the police and military that they often turned their weapons on each other. The biggest losers in that state d affaires were the people who were assaulted by criminals and police officers alike.

Democratic policing necessitates that police officers follow an established chain of command and remain fully answerable to one entity. A clear chain of command makes someone accountable for police actions and inactions. It also reduces the likelihood of police officers pursuing their political, ethnic, religious, or racial interests at the expense of protecting the rights of all people equally. When police officers are deemed to have acted wrongly or incompetently, an unambiguous chain of command makes it possible to pin the mistake on the most responsible persons. This motivates both senior and junior police officers to work professionally.

The United States and the War Against Terrorism
Not long after the deadly terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, then US president George W. Bush launched an aggressive military campaign christened Operation Enduring Freedom (Burnham, Doocy, Dzeng, Lafta,  Roberts, 2007). The September 11 strike on the Pentagon was a symbolic crime which was meant to show that the terrorists were capable of hitting stations widely perceived as the world s most secure. Operation Enduring Freedom would be a retaliatory attack and the target of the attacks would be suspected terrorist stations and elements in the Arab world. Terror suspects on the US soil, in Europe, and in Africa would also be pursued if only to ensure that no other such terror strikes ever happened again. Operation Enduring Freedom marked the beginning of a US-led anti-terror  crusade which continues to this day and which has attracted as much acclaim as it has attracted criticism. More than 3,000 US soldiers and hundreds of thousands of civilians have lost lives in the US war on terror. It is estimated that more than 600,000 people have died in Iraq since the US invaded the country in March 2003 (Burnham et al., 2007). Many more have been killed in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

The war against terror has driven American soldiers and police force to target locations and people within the US soil and distant countries including Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen, Somalia, and the Philippines. The willingness and the ability of the US military and police force to operate within the US and international law in their interactions with suspected terrorists has been tested by the complexity of the issue of terrorism. One feels confident to say that US police and military have grossly compromised America s most treasured values including freedom from unnecessary interference by police and right to the due process of the law.

No democratic society allows police officers or soldiers to stop, search, and arrest people on the basis of their religious or racial backgrounds. Neither do democratic societies torture and detain suspects arbitrarily and in detention camps outside their own national boundaries. Democratic policing would require that US military and police operate within the confines of US and international law, and respect human rights.

The existence of such infamous detention camps as the Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo Bay is testimony to the fact that the US has broken both its own and international laws which require that suspects have the right to due process. According to the International Committee of the Red Cross (2008),  tens of thousands of Iraqis  are currently in detention, often far from their homes  (p. 5). The torture and horror which has been associated with these illegal detentions outside the US soil speak of a country which abuses people s rights with abandon. By holding suspects outside the US soil, the military seeks to suspend its subjectivity to the US law and deny the suspects the rights which the US constitution would guarantee them on the US soil.

While the US administration believes that the US will win the war against both local and international terrorists, there is nothing to suggest that the victory will be earned easily. Experience from the past six years is strong enough to suggest that even though the US should win the war, she will have to compromise her basic values to a great extent. Both the US and the terrorists are to blame for this compromise. By dressing like, hiding among and attacking from among civilians, terrorist elements make it difficult for US forces to tell between terrorists and law-abiding civilians. The US military, on the other hand, assumes that all Muslims and people of Arabic background are potential terrorists, thereby justifying the arbitrary stops, searches, arrests, and detentions. Ethnic profiling has become a key feature of the war against terrorism. The effect of US military blanket hostility towards Muslims and people of Arabic backgrounds fans retaliatory hostility from even civilians who would otherwise support the US anti-terror crusade (Kasher  Yadlin, 2005).  The complexity of the problem of terrorism and the attitude of Americans towards the Muslim world make it impossible for Americans to fight terrorism within the dictates of local and international laws.

Democratic policing is a long process whose success is driven by the ability and willingness of both the police and the public to change their attitudes towards citizen security. For this to happen, the people must collaborate with the police while at the same time overseeing police operations to ensure the police do not assault people s liberties. Features of democratic policing include police accountability to the government and the people, maintenance of a distinct chain of command, a respectful relationship between the police and the judiciary, and non-interference of politicians in police work. As the US war on terrorism has shown, democratic policing is not easy as there are no guarantees that the intentions and attitudes of the police and members of the public are geared towards democratic policing. A disconnect between the attitudes and intentions of the public and those of the police make the process unbearably difficult.

Discussion Question

Analyzing the ideas provided by Tonry, it can be seen that indeed the capacity of shaping power and wielding policies revolve around interests. Here, it either undermines or promotes effective justice to a specific idea. Rather, it consolidates a common purpose and provides avenues towards its implementation and spread within society. Since the dynamics of the controlling or dominant group has always been to exercise control, the argument of incarceration and contact will indeed often happen. Due to this, it then brings about the question of how people ascertain these conditions in response to the preservation of interests among minority groups. This especially applies today in a post-democratic society.

Here, it can be seen that the actions towards inequality and correspondence represents something that is innate within the system. Given the traditions and history of oppression and prejudicial remarks and actions, the capacity of reinforcing change would always prove to be difficult. Seeing this, providing then representation among minorities to oversee and pursue the groups interests may prove to be essential. However, this then comes along with a specific price - one that involves abiding to specific norms and mandates the institution promotes.

In essence, achieving a fully equalized criminal justice system would be difficult to accomplish since the main elements that promote and create these standards are from the dominant group themselves. Here, it showcases the transmission and interplay of interests in creating specific means to exercise control and influence. Due to this, what is left among minorities is to compromise and seek to pursue their own needs in accordance to the mindset of the dominant group. Such realities then promote a justice system that is compromised and adherent only to what the society provides.

Focused Deterrent Approaches Occurring Within a Situational

Crime Prevention Framework
Crime is a voluntary act which any individual or groups may choose to commit or not. Commission of a crime is a rational act which means that a potential criminal examines his target, contemplates the success or failure of his planned act, and identifies the effects to be equipped to take advantage of the illegal opportunities based on the existing situations. An element of personal choice exists in the commission of a crime which is based on the concept of rationality. The concept of rationality is rooted on the fact that human being is a rational actor, he acts based on his rational calculations which involve the choice of pain versus pleasure, and his choice is directed towards achieving pleasure. Hence choice can be controlled or manipulated through the perception of potential pain or punishment attached to the crime. As a consequence crime may be controlled or eliminated by persuading potential offenders that committing a crime would only cause deprivation and suffering. Except for irrational individuals who would risk serious punishment and attack a well-defended target, most individuals would examine the target sites and situations and determine the factors which draw people to such sites and situations so that they can take advantage of the illegal activities which these sites or situations offer.

Hence it is only logical to agree that focused deterrent approaches such as altering the opportunity structure and motivations of a potential criminal by increasing the efforts, increasing the risks, reducing the rewards and provocations, and lastly removing excuses will prevent the commission of a crime (Tillyer, 2007). Such approaches work not only for individuals but also for groups because they usually commit crimes in a well-planned manner considering all the situational factors that may affect the success or failure of the potential crime.  However such manipulations or management is limited only to highly specific kinds of offence and does not include presumptive nature of motives for other classes of crimes such as sexual offences and violent crimes. In some instances, criminals are desperate individuals who suffer psychological disorders and innate emotional defects which render them incapable of perceiving the severity of the consequences of the crime committed, nevertheless crime may still be prevented by applying intervention measures designed to deflect not the assessment of a potential criminal but the act of crime itself.

Discussion Question

The process of establishing effective policing and criminal prevention emanates from the capacity of law enforcement professionals and agencies to come up with specific strategies geared towards exploring possible directions for change. Here, there is the ability to develop new inputs coming from experience and research with the overall goal of maintaining peace and order in a particular district or community.

Relating this to the idea of Tillyer and Kennedy concerning the creation of focused deterrence under a situation wherein situational crime is present provides better means for police enforcers of locating new approaches in redefining and ascertaining common goals leading towards development. Assessing its ability to occur within the real applications of todays criminal process, it can be argued that it may prove to be successful provided that there are available control mechanisms present to address external factors within a specific location. Such dynamics can then help stabilize and approach the issue effectively and justify its relevance in promoting crime prevention.

However, alongside its corresponding benefits, there are also constraints in the process. Particularly since targeting focused deterrence would mean expecting specific behaviours to be exhibited by individuals and groups. Since the degree of responsiveness may vary and subjectively be interpreted, it can lead towards limited opportunities and mixed reactions on the part of recipients. Such dynamics would then create occasions of varied inputs rather and may hamper specific objectives related to policing interventions.

On the other hand, in terms of communicating these sanctions towards groups, it is also crucial to realize the value of education and targeting specific sectors to induce deterrence related to crimes. Creating a specific campaign then would create opportunities to lay out specific directives and harness valuable justification for its promotion and development. However, careful consideration must be made within the realms of constructing meaning and deterrence towards groups since the aspect of analysis may prove to be varied and may create both positive and negative behaviour among these individuals.

In essence, the communication patterns that circumvent from this process revolves around establishing focus groups wherein representation covers different social and cultural backgrounds. By opening up diversity in the promotion of specific deterrence objectives, it can help harness better means of consolidating improvements related to addressing a comparative ability to induce programmes that are constructive and highly targeted to the needs of a specific group.

Overall, it is the ability to establish formal means of grouping, communication and interaction that the idea of focused deterrence can induce offender awareness within the community. Such directions, though may exhibit specific constraints, can essentially provide better means for analysis and compliance.

Professional Ethical Standards in Criminal Investigation

Criminal justice system is the most vital department in every nation and it comprise of various career fields. Criminal Investigation which is the main focus of article is among the several criminal justice career fields. Criminal justice system entails a complex and long process thus professional ethics in each career field are paramount. Criminal investigation is tremendously becoming popular each day as the levels of crime are also increasing. Several stepping stones are passed in pursuing criminal investigation the chief element is education. To qualify for these field one must at least acquire a degree in Criminal investigation and later subsequent fields such as criminal justice, crime scene investigation, forensics, psychology and sociology which prepares one not only for a Criminal Investigations career but a host of other careers fields in Criminal Justice as well. Investigators have responsibility of assisting individuals, businesses and attorneys by finding and analyzing information whereby they connect clues that will uncover facts about legal, financial and personal matters. Criminal investigators comprise of computer forensic, legal, financial, corporate and retail stores or hotels investigators (Bureau of Labor Statics).

Due to nature of criminal justice system and process, education qualifications only will not make career successful. There are other factors that must be considered since they are important in everyday delivery of criminal investigation service. For any work to be successful and satisfactory, professional ethic standards must be adhered to. The objective of the research is to identify professional ethical standards in criminal investigation both formulated and unformulated in criminal justice system. Though the professional ethical standards are virtues within the career, some vices and ethical dilemmas arise within the field. The article also discusses ethical dilemmas within criminal investigation.

Professional Ethical Standards in Criminal Investigation
The nature of work within criminal investigation is directly dependent on experience and area of field concentration.  New professionals in criminal investigation may be given tasks such as examining records, assisting the prosecution body in the preparation of pre-trial evidence, conducting investigations on felony and misdemeanor trials, operating police radios and other law enforcement equipments and testifying in court about the pre-trial evidence. As more experiences are gained, the roles and responsibilities of criminal investigators get increasing thus there is need for professional ethical standards.

Criminal investigators are entitled with fundamental duty to serve humankind, to safeguard lives and property, to protect all persons against deception, the weak against oppression, peaceful against disorders and to respect the constitutional rights of all people to liberty, equality and justice. Criminal investigators are expected to have characteristics such as strength, endurance, permanence, honesty, virtue and authenticity (The Institute for Law Enforcement Administration).  Professions of Judicial system are expected to have unfailing honesty, respect for the dignity and human beings as well as commitment in service delivery (American Correctional Association).  The following are professional ethical standards expected from the criminal investigation officials

Investigators must be attentive to the law while carrying out investigations by keeping up   with Federal, State and local legislation. Clear judgments must be made on how to pursue a case and to collect proper evidence in order for investigators not to compromise its permissibility in the legal proceedings. In addition they must be commendable by abiding in laws and regulations of the state and department (Bureau of Labor Statics). Those who enforce the law must not merely obey it, but they must have an obligation to set a moral example in which the protected individuals may follow (The Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics).

Criminal justice officials are expected to respect, promote and contribute safe, healthy and free of harassment working environment. The criminal investigator must refrain from any professional activity that jeopardizes personal health and safety (American Correctional Association).

Appropriate report shall be produced before the authorities if any corrupt or unethical behaviors are being suspected or detected when evidence is sufficient to justify information presented. The officials must be concerned in reporting any matter that will threaten the preservation integrity to authorities. (The Institute for Law Enforcement Administration) and (American Correctional Association). 
Investigators must practice fairness and compassion to ensure that each individual is treated with the highest regard to constitution, civil and human rights (The Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics).
Criminal investigators must not in any way breach confidentiality. Spoken or written information concerning an individual must not be shared with other people except indicated otherwise or used for purpose other than intention of information collected.

Investigators must not get involved in any form of discrimination against citizens, since all laws are applicable to all people regardless of creed, race, nation of origin, religion, sex, age, disability and social status. All citizens are protected by law and regulations therefore each individual is entitled to legal representation (Neff and Sullivan, 1998).

Investigators have a primary responsibility of protection of human life and property, maintenance of peace in community and to enforcement of laws equally and fairly in regard to all citizens. They must respect and protect the civil and legal rights of all individuals (Neff and Sullivan, 1998).
Criminal investigators must adhere to the objective and impartial search for truth by abstaining from any circumstance that undermines professional commitment. They must be  truthful and open in all communication regarding colleagues and the public except if communication is suspected to compromise confidentiality

Law enforcers must work only within the confinement of their authority and the power of arrest, search and seizure bestowed to them must not be abused.

Every professional situation must be treated with concern for the welfare of the individuals involved and not for personal intention for gain. Law enforcers should obey the law by being good examples, special privileges should not be granted to immediate friends and relatives. Law must not in way be used for personal gain of power. Legal positions should not be used to secure personal privileges or advantages.

Criminal justice officials must abstain from accepting any gratitude, gifts, services or favors from the public which will interfere with justice administration.

Investigation officers must always cooperate legally with other departments regardless of political affiliations.

While on private mission, officers must always consider the fact that they are public officials hence conduct in and out of official duty must be ethical. The law must be upheld both in public duty and in private life.

Officers must refrain from any undue legal process where force or violation of the civil rights of the public is used to maintain law.

During investigations, facts must be collected and analyzed to obtain the truth with aim of defending the innocent and taking legal actions on guilt criminals. Investigation officers must be loyal and faithful with the aim of acquitting the innocent and convicting the guilty.

Mutual respect and relationships with colleagues must be maintained with aim of promoting the profession and quality service improvement.

 Importance of all discipline within the criminal justice system and diligence in work to improve cooperation within each department must be adhered to.

Investigators have an obligation to report facts and make testimonies without prejudice or display any emotion and the information provided must be sacredly true to be used in legal purposes.

Ethical Dilemmas in Criminal Investigation
It is expected that professional ethical standards are upheld in criminal justice systems which may not be the case all the times. Sometimes ethical dilemmas arise during criminal investigation due to human, natural or technical drawbacks.

Despite the emphasis on ethical codes in criminal investigation, some investigators develop early prejudice concerning individuals perceived to be guilty.  Evidences are analyzed less objectively which may result to noble-cause corruption for conviction to take place. Witnesses and evidences are ignored to shore up case against individuals. Some investigations fail due to human ignoring evidence where true criminal are not identified while others are suspected, charged and convicted because investigators dint carry out collection and interpretation of evidence in a set protocol (Pollock, 2008).

In other cases lab examinations fails the investigations where the findings and samples are misplaced and misinterpreted. These arise when lab technicians are not scientifically objective or have conspired with investigators in favor of innocent or guilty party.  Despite the provision of correct evidence samples such as finger prints and DNA, the contamination may occur and justice may not be achieved (Pollock, 2008).  Those seeking justice faces discrimination in regard to their age, gender, race and social status, some investigators dont take seriously the evidence by witnesses and victims of injustices given due to high discrimination rates. Care and support given to rape victims are not prioritized and often the victims of rape dont get any justice since there are no investigations being conducted.

Criminal investigation is recognized as a  position and symbol of public faith where criminal investigators are  expected to accept position as a public trust to be held as long as the truth to ethics of the criminal justice system are highly upheld.  The code of professional ethical standards must entail responsibility, integrity, confidentiality and honesty to enhance successful criminal justice process. The core values for criminal justice must be fully understood, practiced, shared, defended and preserved with the aim of achieving professional ethical standards. Professional ethics helps in development of right conscience which guides law enforcement officials to conduct successful justice.

Code of ethics is indispensable in any profession and lack of it leads to profession extinction. Rules and regulations formulated must adhere to the highest ethical standards of criminal investigation and no room of compromise must be tolerated. For code of ethics to be effective, all areas of judicial system must be covered with the basic objectives being embraced.

Treatment Strategy for Gangs

Although there is still no single agreed-on definition that has been developed to apply exclusively to gangs, a gang can be described as a continuous group of people who have come together under a common identity be it a name, symbol or sign. Members of a specific gang are also united under a common loyalty and engage in criminal or unlawful activities. Most youths or young adults are involved in street gangs. These are groups of individuals who identify themselves under a common leadership, exert control over specific territories in their communities and carry out criminal activities. Such groups meet over time and the criminal activities involved can either be carried out collectively or on individual basis. The term street gang is very often used to refer to youth gangs which are made up of young people between the ages of 12 and 24 years, who also share a similar style of symbols such as hand signs, clothing and graffiti. These gangs also display a considerable degree of permanence and a tendency to be organized as well as a high level of involvement in criminal activity or delinquency. Gangs are also very diverse in nature and can either be small or large more or less criminal in nature more or less territorial as well as short term or long term among other characteristics. But gangs should not be accepted as permanent and a lot should be done to prevent and reduce them considering that their presence misguides the young people in society therefore leading to the moral and social disintegration of communities (Hess 2009, p. 200).

Profile and Risk Factors
To society and law enforcement officials, juvenile gangs are made up of very dangerous offenders most of who have gone through a series of arrests and also spent considerable time in one or more juvenile facilities. Every year, millions of youngsters get involved in unlawful behavior or criminal activities. In the U.S, criminal acts committed by juveniles have been on the increase and the issue has been one of Americas major social problems affecting both the public health and the social sectors. The media is saturated with reports about criminal activities by individual youths or gangs being committed in homes, in the streets, in schools and even in parking lots (Roberts 2004, pp.6-7).

Many youths belong to gangs and this is not an illegal thing to do in the U.S. Nevertheless, the activities that most of these gangs participate in are purely illegal. Gangs have been known to commit such dreadful criminal activities as robberies, shootings and various types of assault. It is gangs that have always had to blame for such unlawful activities as drug trafficking, extortion and other forms of felony as well as terrorizing neighborhoods. Youths and young adults were initially often involved in petty crimes but when these crimes went unchecked, these groups gradually with time, turned into organized and very powerful gangs which became a symbol of some kind of domestic terrorism. For a long time, gangs have existed in almost every community in the U.S and elsewhere. In 2004, the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) in its data estimated that 41 of youth gang members in the U.S were juveniles and 59 fell in the category of young adults of age 18 years and above. The existence of juvenile gangs has warranted various efforts by the government, states as well as individual communities to help in the prevention and reduction of juvenile gang activities and in so doing help the youths involved to reconstruct their lives (Hess 2009, p.199).

Youths join gangs for a variety of reasons and it is therefore essential to put into consideration various factors when designing treatment strategies for the prevention and reduction of gangs. Youth rehabilitation officers and social workers should consider such factors as individual, family, peer, school or community pressures that may have pushed a young person into identifying and eventually joining a certain gang. Most youths join gangs because of the presence of such groups in the communities they are living in making the activities of these gangs attractive to the youth. Peers influence lures the youth into such groups as they seek to fulfill a need for recognition as well as a sense of belonging. This includes a desire for group rewards such as identity, status, self-esteem and protection. Most youths join gangs in search of acceptance and the protection offered by such groups. Gangs also provide them with a sense of belonging as well as importance that such young people fail to get from their families or communities. Other attractions include material reasons, physical protection, recreation as well as defiance towards parents or society (Krisberg 2005, pp.205-207). Normally, the kind of youths who identify with gangs are those who have failed to achieve a good education and therefore try to seek other ways of making them feel established in society. Unstable families that are riddled with myriad problems and those that have a history of criminal activities are also a determining factor for the involvement of their young ones in gang activities. Most gang members have unfortunate backgrounds often coming from poor, broken, single or abusive families where they grow up without any guidance and with no one taking any responsibility for their upbringing. Those who have been victims of violent victimization and also experience a limited attachment to their communities also tend to join gangs. Drug and substance use also lures the youth into gangs by reducing the young peoples reasoning capacity or inhibitions in such way that they become prone to joining those who engage in criminal activities. Those youths who have a history of conduct problems and pattern behaviors which they were unable to overcome in early adolescence also have a high tendency to be attracted to gangs. These are behaviors such as aggressiveness, chronic stealing and running away from home (Regoli, Hewitt  Delisi 2009, pp.54-115).

Guiding Principles
An effective treatment strategy must be able to address the youngsters belonging to gangs as individual persons who may often be very bitter and angry about the kind of lives they lead. Offering a listening ear to these youngsters creates an intimate relationship between them and the youth rehabilitation officers or social workers who are able to use the availed information to explore the private world of these youths. In such way, the reasons behind their involvement in gang activities are brought into the limelight. A good example of such an initiative was conducted by Jerome Miller who by then was Commissioner of the Massachusetts Department of Youth Services. Jerome organized press conferences throughout the state and invited his young clients to expose to the invited media the kind of brutality that they were being subjected to in the corrupt youth rehabilitation systems. As a result of this effort, all the barbaric training schools in the State of Massachusetts were closed and most of the youths were taken back to the community based programs which were not only smaller but of high quality. Smaller correction facilities are better placed to give more attention to their young clients. Redemptive justice should be highly valued for its ability to bring hope to the young people by helping them to restart as well as improve their lives (Krisberg 2005, pp. ix-x).

An effective gang treatment strategy should be able to address other factors as well. One most important guiding principle is the involvement of many segments of the community in which the treatment is being carried out. Those involved could be the youth, parents, educators or school administrators, faith groups, law enforcement officials, social service providers as well as various community representatives and others who may have an essential role to play in the reconstructive programs. Parents and other adults are a must in any treatment strategy because they know the target individuals or groups better than the worker (Hess 2009, p.394). An effective treatment strategy should also be subjected to serious research and evaluation in order to determine the effectiveness of the particular strategy in addressing the problem at hand as well as producing the desired results. Youth correction officers and social workers should get into the field with confidence that whatever they are investing their effort in is capable of bearing good results. It also essential to identify a target population, evaluate their numbers, motivations as well as risk factors  in order to be able to design appropriate programs. Working with a target population also makes it easier to assess the effectiveness of any treatment program as well as to easily identify their problems and possible solutions to the problems (Klein and Maxson 2010, pp.92-167).  While laying down various redemptive strategies for youth gangs, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment strategy against its weaknesses. While some strategies may be relevant, others can make the gangs to become more cohesive and violent. It is good to avoid any form of approach that may use any form of force to put across suggested opinions. Pressure only makes gangs to grow stronger (Krisberg 2005, p.166). Different youths have different reasons that attract them to different types of gangs. It is therefore very essential when developing any treatment strategy to put into consideration these different factors. By addressing the gang members as individuals, by their families, peer groups, their schools or communities, workers involved in any particular redemptive program will easily get a limelight of personal lives of their subjects and will certainly get wiser in their approach to the treatment strategy. A good knowledge of the risk factors involved in the formation of a gang helps to develop an equally good approach towards a successful and fruitful rehabilitation journey for the young gang members (Hess 2009, pp.208-209). Treatment strategies should involve a combination of intervention, enforcement as well as prevention. It is also very essential to create and sustain an active network of trained leaders who are willing not only to work with the youths but also to learn from them as a way of advancing their local anti-gang approaches. Programs and policies should be drawn upon easily identifiable and documented practices (Hess 2009, p.226).

Treatment Strategy
Juvenile criminal gangs can be helped into the path of recovery by training and assigning workers to various gangs through a detached worker program. Through such a program, individual workers are sent from the office into specific neighborhood set ups where therapeutic models can be applied to the redemptive process. Workers can inconspicuously enter gang territories and make contact with them through their usual meeting places such as street corners, pool rooms or candy stores. Such proposals as offering jobs to the gangs as well as recreational activities can be an effective forum for persuading them out of their gangster lives. The fact that gang members are not accustomed to encountering sympathetic adults can be quite attractive to them. Since it is difficult to catch the attention of all gang members, the worker can work towards securing the attention of a few gang members and especially those in leadership positions. Gangs are run under very authoritative and unquestionable leadership and catching the attention of such leaders can bring tremendous changes to a whole gang.  These leaders are used to being heard and obeyed without questioning and the same can apply when they bring new reformative ideas into the group (Hess 2009, p.212). It is also quite easy to catch the attention of gang members who have been initiated through victimization by other gang members because these may be very willing to find their own way out. Investigations can also be carried out to find out the economic needs of gangs and programs initiated through which gang members can be financially assisted to start income generating activities. Gangs have their own established and controlled social set-ups and it would be quite easy to involve all members in controlled social action (Krisberg 2005, pp.49-53, 100).

Prevention Programs
Gangs are characterized by a very strong leadership and one which is also more identifiable than the types of leadership found in other delinquent groups. The older gang members are usually the leaders and normally rise to such positions through some sort of initiation. They are more violent, commit crimes and also demand a high level of obedience from those surrounding them. Initiating such leaders into the treatment program can be a very promising strategy not only towards the rehabilitation of a whole gang but also towards prevention of gang formation. Those youths who aspire to be gang members usually begin by imitating such leaders such as their style of dressing, walking and other characteristics. Since gangs have initiation rituals, reformed leaders can help to change such rituals from criminal activities into worthwhile and productive activities. Youths finding their way into such gangs will be joining reformed groups instead of finding their way into criminal gangs. Preventing gangs will undoubtedly have a tremendous effect in the control of gang-related violence. Youth workers can work in conjunction with law enforcement authorities to enforce new behavior codes whereby bans are placed on such gang identifiers as dressing codes, gang colors as well as gang signals. Such a program will prevent recruitment of new members by removing those identifiers that help new recruits to identify members of existing gangs. For such an approach to realize considerable amount of achievement, it is essential that those enforcing such bans encourage cooperation and friendliness from gang members and also reward such cooperation (Hess 2009, 212-214, 226).

Corrections and Detention
Correction can also be applied to the gang treatment strategy. When youth workers infiltrate into gang groups they are able to easily identify those gang members who are willing to change and those who are not. Often, those who are unwilling to change are the ones who are also involved in criminal activities. Youth workers can conspicuously help authorities to identify those gang members who pose a serious threat to the rehabilitation process and to the community at large. These threat groups can be separated from the rest of the gang by removing them to rehabilitation facilities or other places that will isolate them from the rest of the group and give the gang room for reconstruction (Gaines  Miller 2008, p.452).

Juvenile Courts
Most juvenile courts have caseloads of youths who are charged with minor property crimes, incorrigibility, violation of probation, running away and curfew violations. On the other hand, most redemptive programs have a tendency to concentrate on dangerous gang members while ignoring the vast majority of minor offenders. Such youths can be recruited into productive redemptive programs that will earn them some income and prevent them from going back to criminal activities (Krisberg 2005, p.164).

Gang treatment is a very noble course but one that can also be very expensive and risky. It requires a lot of commitment from the workers and a high level of discipline that demands one to be very careful with gang information. This is because any detection of betrayal from the gangs can lead to a lack of trust and subsequent failure of the whole program. Service providers who are able to understand gang culture develop a good experience at working with at-risk youths and their families and in such way become valuable in gang prevention and reduction programs. The results are not only beneficial to the gang members but to their communities at large.

Mapp v. Ohio

 Facts Mrs. Mapp was convicted for possession lewd and lascivious materials prohibited by an Ohio statute. Cleveland police officers approached Mrs. Mapps home under the pretext of a searching for a person who has been charged for a recent bombing and is believe to be hiding in the place. Upon her attorneys advice, Mrs. Mapp initially refused to entrance to the police officers. However, the police returned three hours later and gained entry in the house by use of force. When Mrs. Mapp demanded for the search warrant, the police officer merely brandished a piece of paper to her without letting her read its contents. A struggle ensued when Mrs. Mapp forcibly took the paper and placed it inside her bosom, which led to her being handcuffed due to belligerent behavior. Mrs. Mapps lawyer was also prevented from seeing her or entering the house. The police officers then conducted search of the entire house and eventually discovered the prohibited articles.

Issue Whether or not the evidence obtained through unreasonable search and seizure is admissible as evidence

Holding No, the doctrine in Wolf v Colorado is overturned such that all evidence obtained through an unconstitutional search and seizure are inadmissible in a criminal trial not only in federal courts but also in state courts. 

Majority Opinion delivered by Justice Clark
The decision revolved around the interconnection between the Fourth Amendment right of citizens to privacy and protection against governmental intrusion on his person, house, papers and effects and the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination. Admitting evidence acquired through unlawful means reduces into powerless words the constitutional protection against unreasonable search and seizure. Such measure requiring strict adherence to the constitutional requirements of warrant will likewise act as a deterrent safeguard for the right. No other formula is acceptable in determining the reasonableness of the search so there is a need for a uniform measure. In this light, the decision overturns the ruling in Wolf v Colorado and reinstates the validity of the exclusionary rule which was first enunciated in the Weeks case. The Court further related the Fourth Amendment rights to the Due Process clause found in the Fourteenth Amendment in that the right to privacy may be enforced against the State by invoking due process rights. The application is intended to avoid double standards wherein neither party (prosecution or defense) may benefit from the evidence under consideration.

Concurring Opinion of Justice Black
Justice Black has expounded on his support for the reinstatement of the exclusionary rule. However he believes that the said rule is not contained in the plain wording of the Fourth Amendment rather, a judicially created rule of evidence that evidence may negate. Consistently with his stand that the Fourth Amendment alone does not justify the exclusionary rule, he opined that it may nevertheless find constitutional basis if the Fourth Amendment is taken in conjunction with the Fifth Amendment rule. He cited Boyd v United States wherein constitutional protections should be liberally construed.

Concurring Opinion of Justice Douglas
Justice Douglas placed more emphasis on the applicability of the exclusionary rule for both the state courts and federal courts in order to eliminate the danger of double standards. He further stated that the Wolf doctrine downplays the crucial role of the guarantee against unreasonable searches and seizures.
Dissenting Opinion of Justice Harlan joined by Justice Frankfurter and Justice Whittaker

In his dissent, Justice Harlan believed that the integrity of the Wolf doctrine is supported by the proper and stricter application of the stare decisis rule in constitutional cases. The majority of the Court was also mistaken in determining the main issue in the appealed case. Instead of the propriety of recognizing the exclusionary rule, it should have been whether  2905.34 of the Ohio Revised Code, making criminal themereknowing possession or control of obscene material, and under which appellant has been convicted, is consistent with the rights of free thought and expression assured against state action by the Fourteenth Amendment.

Family-Oriented Pre-Trial Intervention

Pre-trial intervention (PTI) has been shown to be more effective when the family is involved in the process.  Most PTI programs focus on the treatment given before release from confinement.  Family-oriented PTI programs look beyond the prison set-up and attempt to establish a community for the accused to return to (Dembo, 2003).  The reality is that the social stigma against persons released from prison facilities poses a strong hindrance against re-integration into the community efforts towards rehabilitation (Tate, Reppucci,  Mulvey, 1995).  By conducting regular and in-depth discussions with the family regarding rehabilitation, the basic social support system of the accused is assured (Dembo, 2003).

The present study will replicate a family-intervention system conducted by Dembo, Schmeidler, and Wothke (2003) wherein families were trained to address the rehabilitative process a family-member was undergoing with the end goal of improving PTI.  However, in the study conducted by Dembo et al., the dependent variable was measured through self-report data.  The present research will use indicators of reintegration into society along with repeated delinquent acts to assess whether or not family-intervention is indeed a rehabilitative process.  The succeeding sections will reflect the design and method of the research.  The research questions to be answered by the present study will also be clarified in order to show a clear direction of the research being conducted.

Research Questions
The present research will attempt to answer the question as to whether or not family-oriented pre-trial intervention programs improve rehabilitative efforts by increasing the incidence of community participation and integration as well as decreasing the incidence of delinquent behavior.  This question may be answered by looking into the activities engaged in by the offender upon release and with the introduction of family PTI.  The research has several hypotheses
That family PTI will increase community involvement
That family PTI will decrease delinquent behavior and
That family-oriented PTI programs are more effective in fostering rehabilitation than offender-centered PTI.

Evaluation Population
The main thrust of the research is to assess the efficacy of a proposed pre-trial intervention program.  A family-oriented program will thus be administered to one experimental group while a non-family-oriented program will be applied to another group.  These programs will be administered to one group of individuals and their families.  By doing so, there will be greater parallelism in the comparison of the two programs.  Considering that the family set-up is most relevant in the case of minors, the present study will limit its population to juvenile delinquents (Alexander  Parsons, 1973).  In particular, this research will limit its population to minors still living with their parents.  In order to obtain a sufficient number of participants, several penal facilities will be asked for consent for the participation of their detained juvenile delinquents who have not yet started with their PTI programs.  This will control for confounding effects of other PTI programs which may be administered by the penal facility.

Evaluation Design
The design to be used in the present research is the experimental design.  The experimental design has been lauded as the most rigorous design.  It is essentially the gold standard of research designs because of its ability to isolate the independent variables being studied and their relationship with the dependent variables (Creswell, 2009).  This is the most appropriate design for the research to be conducted because the juvenile delinquents who will give consent to participation in the experiment will be randomly assigned into two groups.  These two groups are the experimental and control groups.  Moreover, previous research has shown that rigorous methods provide the best results with respect to reduced recidivism in studies of juvenile delinquents (Latimer, 1999).

The experimental and control groups will be identical in all regards except for the presence of family-intervention in the experimental group.  In both groups, the juvenile delinquent will undergo identical PTI processes wherein they will receive treatment and training regarding rehabilitative practices.  However, in the first group there will be an added intervention wherein the researchers will actively foster a dialogue with the family of the juvenile delinquent in order to help them understand and cope with their childs rehabilitation.  In order to assess whether changes have truly resulted, a pre-intervention assessment will be administered to the participants and their families.  After a period of six months the assessment will be administered again in order to track any changes in disposition and placement of the juvenile delinquents.

Population and Sample
The study will limit the number of participants to forty due to the longitudinal nature of the study and due to the need for in-depth counseling to be undertaken with the families involved.  Time and resource constraints would not support a study involving an experimental group of more than twenty families.  The participants will be chosen primarily based on their prior reception of PTI treatment and the fact of residence with family members.  Demographic factors such age, gender, social status and family situation will be recorded and assessed but will not serve as criteria for acceptance into participation.  By doing so, the experiment retains a higher external validity.  However, the recording of these factors will broaden the discussion and interpretation of results as the effect these factors play on the rehabilitation of participants may emerge as serendipitous findings.

Variables and Data Collection Methods
The independent variable in this study is the type of PTI program being applied.  The particular program to be studied is a family PTI program.  This means that the family will receive counseling and treatment along with the juvenile delinquent family member.  The dependent variable is the rehabilitation of the juvenile delinquent as expressed by the increase in community participation and involvement as well as the decrease of recidivism and juvenile activities.  The data will be collected using written assessment instruments to be administered to the juvenile delinquents and their family members both prior to and after the experiment period.

A family-oriented PTI program is hypothesized to decrease juvenile activities and increase community integration and participation in juvenile delinquents.  The study will collect data through an experimental design wherein the family-oriented intervention program will be administered to one group but not in another.  In order to assess whether or not there has been an increase in community involvement and integration or whether or not there has been a decrease in juvenile delinquency, an activity survey will be administered prior to the administration of the intervention and again after a six-month period.  The assessment will be administered to the juvenile delinquents and also to their family members.

Domestic Terrorism in the Philippines

Executive Summary
Terrorism is a worldwide issue. When nations attack nations for political aims and when religions start threatening other religions, terrorism happens. The world has known about terrorism especially since the 911 attack. As the terrorist planes crashed on the U.S.As Twin
Towers, the war on terrorism became a global reality.

But in the Philippines, terrorism continues to be a reality ever since it started decades ago. The Moro people living in the second largest island cluster in the Philippines have been fighting for their independence since the colonialist era. They have fought out both the Spanish and American conquerors that invaded the Philippines hundreds of years ago. This helped them maintain their identity and beliefs.

Today they are fighting for their liberation and separation from their own country. When all political efforts have failed them, they chose the brutal path. The Moro  National Liberation Fronts (MNLF) aim was to free the Bangsa Moro or the Land of the Moros. They fought for this by waging an all-out war with the government.

On 1976, when the peace talks started, the MNLF agreed to the governments offer of autonomy in exchange for peace. The MNLFs decision angered some of its members. Because of this, new groups were established the Moro  Islamic Liberation Front and the Abu Sayyaf or the Bearers of the Swords.
The Abu Sayyaf, especially, has committed brutal acts of terrorisms such as mass bombings, kidnappings, shootings and beheadings.

Peace talks are still on-going. Countries like Malaysia, Libya and U.S.A. has helped the Philippines in hopes of eradicating this issue. But a solution still is not within sight. Gunshots could still be heard in Mindanao almost every day and their provinces still have high poverty. The Philippine government needs to do more for their people in Mindanao. This could be the solution to achieve peace and regain the peoples trust. This should be done to unite their nation.

Domestic Terrorism in the Philippines
Terrorism has often been defined as a political war. They are acts of violence or threats of violence based on political aims and motives. Countries attack other countries for reasons only they understand. But in todays world, it has become more very obvious that terrorism is not just a political warfare. It has now become a fight for beliefs and religion.

Religion is one of the oldest reasons people have given for wars and acts of terrorism. Many in the past have sacrificed other lives for what they believe is right.

Terrorism became a word we often hear in the streets. People start to fear random acts of violence because they believe it could be the next big terrorist attack. Their fears are very understandable. The 911 attacks took the world by surprise. It brought extreme fear, anger, pain and tears.
But even before the terrorists planes hit the Twin Towers, the Philippines has experienced terrorism. Domestic terrorism has been happening in the Philippines for more than thirty years now. It has affected its development greatly. There is a huge divide in their country. It started as a geographical divide, which grew into a religious divide and has even reached political divide.

A terrorist group called the Abu  Sayyaf is the root of terrorism in the Philippines. They live in the southernmost island of the Philippines and are mostly Muslim. Another Philippine terrorist group is the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). Both groups have been found to be related with the Al Qaeda and the Jemaah Islamiyah, two of the most feared groups of international terrorists. Another terrorist group that is still operating in the Philippines is the New Peoples Army (NPA) who live in the northern provinces. They used to be guerillas who fought the Japanese. Another Philippine domestic terrorist group is the Moro  National Liberation Front (MNLF). They are the group that started terrorism in their country but they are not very active now.

Tracing the Roots of Terrorism through Philippine Geography and History
The Philippines is an archipelagic country. This means that their country is made up of many islands, seven thousand, and one hundred and seven (7,107) to be exact. They have three main island clusters. The northernmost part is Luzon, Visayas is the middle cluster and Mindanao is the southernmost cluster. When you look at a Philippine map, you will see how far these three island clusters are. The central government of the Philippines, Manila, can be found in Luzon. This kind of geography can help us understand easier why Filipinos living in Mindanao feel great inequality with the government service in Luzon and even Visayas.

The Philippines was colonized by three countries, Spain, America and Japan. The Spaniards successfully colonized parts of Luzon and Visayas, which is why the religion in that area is mostly Catholic Christians. This is the root of the Philippines being the biggest population of Catholics in Asia. Mindanao, however, was no not colonized at all. The distance both geographically and ideologically from other parts of the country to Mindanao has made them feel like outcasts.

Bangsa Moros Cry for Independence
Bangsa Moro is what Muslim Filipinos in Mindanao call their island clusters as a whole. The first word, Bangsa, means land. The second word Moro is an old Spanish term for Arabs and Muslims.

Mindanao is the second biggest island, only next to Luzon when it comes to the size of land area, with a population of 18 million people (2001). 5 of who are indigenous people, 28.23 Muslims and 71.77 Christians. The currently growing percentage of Christians is caused by the migration of other Filipinos and people from other countries.

The Moros have fought many wars just so they could continue having their political freedom. Even before the Spanish colonialists came to their shores, they already had political systems called sultanates. Because they already had an organized system, no matter how many times the Spanish government tried to conquer them, they continued to fight back.

When the Americans came, the Moros still fought for their right to freedom. Though they were not as united as before, they still planned attacks and fought through rebel groups called guerillas. Because of this, even the U.S.A had a hard time making them part of their conquered land.

When the Americans finally decided to give back the freedom of the Philippines and grant them statehood, the Moros did not want to be part of the Philippines.  To voice out how much they disliked it, Bangsamoro leaders suggested that they remain as an unorganized territorial colony of U.S. They hoped that their petition would be approved because they knew that eventually, the U.N. would ask America to free their colonies. If this would have happened, they could have enjoyed their freedom.
On May of 1968, different political groups in Mindanao got together to form the Mindanao Independence Movement (MIM). Their aim was for the Moro people to have the right to self  determination or the right to decide on their own from the Philippine supreme rule.

Aside from the MIM, Moro leaders have tried other political ways to regain the freedom of their people. Congressman Ombra Amilbangsa filed House Bill No. 5682 during the fourth session of the Fourth Congress which requested the recognition and Independence of Sulu, one of the Bangsa Moro provinces. Congressman Amilbangsa filed this bill even though he knew that there was a very little chance that it could be passed because they were only a very small number of Muslims in congress and they were not enough to get the bill passed. When all political efforts have failed them, the MNLF decided to use arms to free their nation.

Creation of the Moro National Liberation Front
Headed by Nur Misuari, the vigilante groups aim was to fully liberate the Bangsa Moro people from the Philippine government. They were funded by other Muslims from Libya and Malaysia.

On 1976, because of the peace talks between the Philippine government and the MNLF, the Tripoli Agreement was signed. This agreement granted autonomy to the Bangsa Moro government.

The Tripoli agreement stated that
First The establishment of Autonomy in the Southern Philippines within the realm of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of the Philippines.Second The areas of the autonomy for the Muslims in the Southern Philippines shall comprise the following Basilan, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu ,Lanao del Norte, Tawi-tawi, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga del Sur, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, South Cotabato, North Cotabato, Palawan, Maguindanao

This brought about the creation of a new region in the Southern part of the Philippines. Up until now it is called the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao. The Bill for the autonomy was called the Organic Act (Republic Act 6734 of 1987).

Having autonomy meant that the Muslims were given the right to create special courts that will implement and follow the Islamic Shariah laws. Also this gave the Moros their own administrative unit that can allow them to build schools, colleges, universities and other projects for the ARMM.

However on 1977, only a year later, the agreement was broken. The whole Philippines went under the dictator president, Marcos. It was then found out that the initial autonomy agreement was not followed at all. This meant that the cease fire also ended. When President Marcos was forced out of the presidency and President Aquino took over, the agreement was revived through a plebiscite. But, it was too late. A group of Moros, who were confirmed to be part of the MNLF, attacked the government.
The Rise of the Moro - Islamic Liberation Front and the Abu Sayyaf

Because they felt betrayed by the MNLF for agreeing to make them merely an autonomous region, new terrorist groups were formed. The Moro  Islamic Liberation front (MILF) and the Abu Sayyaf vowed to fight for their separation of Bangsa Moro from the homeland.

The Abu Sayyaf or the Bearers of the Sword was established in 1991. They were headed by Abdurajak Janjalani who fought along-side the Islamists in Afghanistan during the Soviet occupation. He truly was a son of war. Their first act of terror was the killing of an American Evangelists by throwing a grenade on a public place.

The rage of terror in the southern region of the Philippines only got worse. Both the MILF and the Abu Sayyaf has waged open war with the government and the common citizens are affected greatly. But both of them are denying having any relations with one another. According to the MILF, they detest the brutal killings of the Abu Sayyaf and that they are only fighting for freedom.

The Abu Sayyafs acts of terror continued. On 1995, they attacked a southern Filipino town and took thirty people hostage. Aside from those thirty people taken hostage, fifty three other people and soldiers were killed. On April 2000, they kidnapped twenty one people from a resort in Malaysia. Libya paid for their ransom.

On May of 2001, one of the most talked about kidnappings happened. Twenty people, including three American missionaries, were kidnapped from an island resort in the Philippines. The Abu Sayyaf sent the government a video asking for ransom. When what they demanded was not given, they beheaded one of the American hostages. They then brought the other two missionaries and a Filipino nurse as captives in Basilan, another southern province. U.S. trained Filipino soldiers were finally sent to rescue the captives. In the end, the other two captives were killed in the shoot out. Only Gracia Burnham was saved.

It is evident that their reign of terror is not limited in Bangsa Moro. They have affected tourists and natives alike in a lot of other provinces. A year after they have beheaded the American missionaries, they also beheaded 2 Filipino Jehovahs Witness out of the 6 they have kidnapped. So far, they seem to be targeting Americans and missionaries of other religions.

Recently they also took hostage Red Cross volunteers who were helping a town in Jolo, Sulu.  Swiss national Andreas Notter, Italian Eugenio Vagni and Filipina Jean Lacaba were on a medical mission in Western Mindanao when they were kidnapped.

From the provinces, they also went to the cities with their attacks. They detonated bombs in the countrys capital. In 2007, there have been numerous bomb scares in Metro Manila. Bombings in malls have killed hundreds and wounded many more. These kinds of terrorist threats leave the citys policemen at an ever watchful state. They became stricter in inspection in public places. They always warn the people to be wary.

As with every terrorist group, they target areas with big population sizes. This is why on Valentines Day of 2005 they detonated a bomb at a busy train station. Since then, every mere train malfunction has caused big stirs.

Not even the government is safe. In November 2007, a bomb was detonated at the House of Congress. The explosion killed a congressman and several of his staffers. On 2005, a plot to kill the president was foiled by the military. It was also planned by the Abu Sayyaf.

There have been talks about the link between the MILF and the Al Qaeda. Some have said that Janjalani, their founder, once fought with Osama. It is also believed by some that Al Qaeda helps fund the MILF.

Why Do They Want Their Freedom
Issues of Biases
According to studies, most Filipinos have negative views about their Muslim countrymen. In 1973, a study done by Filipino Foundation showed that 54 of their Filipino respondents had bad comments about Muslims. Even though 24 years has a passed, a similar study done by the Philippine Human Development Report in 1997 showed no change in the negative bias Muslims received. 40  46 of them the survey takers would choose Christian house helpers, while only 4  7  of them said they would not mind hiring Muslim workers.

Government Failure
Because of their distance from the central government they have had difficulty developing. The government has not been able to effectively take care and protect the people in Mindanao. The lands they have owned are being stolen from them. Whats worse is that the government is sometimes even the reason why they lose they farm lands over northern migrants. The poverty incidence in Mindanao is also very high. More than half of the families in Mindanao have incomes below the poverty lines. In 1998, according to the U.N. Human Development Report, Basilan and Sulu (southern provinces) rank as seventy third and seventy sixth poorest provinces out of seventy seven. The government of the ARMM believes that they can run the Bangsa Moro better than the Philippines government.

Bangsa Moros Own Identity
It could be seen in their history that have survived and battled out for their own survival. They have not been part of the colonies nor have they helped the homeland to free the country.  Their history and culture seem to be distant from that of the other islands in the Philippines. They have always wanted to be separated from the Philippines.

Peace Talks
Autonomy is the most that the Philippines has given them so far. Yet, they seem to really want more. We have to take note though, that Mindanao today is not only composed of the original Bangsa Moros and the government needs to take them into account too. They have not opted to liberate Mindanao because the other half of their population seems to not want this to happen. This is why the Philippines resorted to continuing Peace talks. The government keeps on telling the people that the MILF will agree to autonomy. But the truth is that the MILF has not agreed to it, but they might be open to it.
Other countries have tried to help the Philippines out to create peace in Mindanao.

Many have helped through conciliation. This is where the countries discuss the issue and a third party becomes an unbiased judge to aid in the peace talks. The U.N., on the other hand, has helped through consultation. They have helped analyze the situation and give constructive criticisms and possible solutions.

Malaysia and Libya has aided the peace process through consultations and arbitration. The U.S.A. on the other hand has played a big role in the peace process. They have even sent military powers when needed. These three countries have offered specialists, consultants and even financial aids. All these, and yet the war against domestic terrorism in the Philippines continues.

Lately, there have been talks about the E.U. or the European Union wanting to help in the peace talks. This is one of their ways to help the world get rid of terrorism. The Philippine government is glad. Because they know that other nations are supporting them to fix the issue. The Philippine government hopes that other countries such as Qatar and Indonesia would also be interested to help.

The Future of the Bangsa Moro
Ampatuan Massacre
In November 2009, a mass massacre caught the country by surprise. 5 vans that belonged to a Moro politician in Maguindanao were ambushed. Beside the vans was big and deeply dug hole. That was where 46 victims of massacre were found. The bigger shocker was that this was not a terrorist attack. This was not done by the Abu Sayyaf, nor was the MILF suspect. The suspects were the political rivals of the massacred family.

How would a countrys government entrust their people to such politicians
Lack of Development Policies
It is not that the government does not have policies, programs and projects for the Mindanao. It is the poor execution and implementation that affects their development. The constant war in their region is not helpful either. Imperial Manila needs to be more accountable to the Bangs Moro. It is about time for the central government to reach out further south.

Unsuccessful Peace Talks
The peace talks might seem to be going nowhere but with the continuous work of the government it just might. It is good to take note that the Philippines has conducted their first electronic election last May 10 and it remained peaceful.

Many would find it odd and selfish for the Philippine government to not let the Bangsa Moro be. As I have said earlier, not only Moros live in Mindanao. There are more people that the government needs to protect. The Moros or Muslims have their own identity, but who would care for the other groups living in Mindanao The government still has a responsibility to the people.

Many people still have a strong sense of nationality and territoriality when it comes to Mindanao. It would be like U.S.A. losing Texas, or Australia losing Perth. The Philippines would never be the same again.

Mindanao also has a lot of natural resources like oil and plantations that could help the Philippines especially in todays economic crisis.

Also the government has to consider if the government right now in Bangsa Moro would be able to create a kind of government that would be respectable and acceptable worldwide and if they would be able to take good care of everyone in that region. But with the wars and crimes happening there, it does not seem like it is attainable at the moment.

We may still wonder if all these are worth it compared to the terrorism that the Abu Sayyaf and other liberation seeking groups have brought. And we may feel compassion for the freedom seeking Moros. But the fact of the matter is that they might not survive without the central government, even the United States and international organizations, like the United Nation and most recently the European Union feels like this is so.

They do have a strong sense of who they are and what they want to be, but the process they have chosen to get to their destination shows immaturity.

The Philippine government needs to take better care of all the Filipinos so that the whole nation would trust them.

There needs to be more sense of nationhood in the Philippines. If the island clusters of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao would only be united, then the problem of the Philippines could end. They all need to see themselves as Filipinos not as separate groups.

The Impact of Victimization

Whenever an individual is charged with a criminal offence, what are of concern to the magistrate are the acts, intentions and circumstances of the victim and the offender. In other words, the judge seeks to capture the morality of the acting agent so as to determine if hisher actions are legal and legitimate. Crime and morality are fundamentally intertwined since crime is nothing but morality.

The case of Ryan Allyn Mcculloch is nothing but a moral problem. The dynamics of the case require a rigorous moral judgment in relation to human acts. It can be seen from the case that judge Cuthbertson declares the defendant guilty for his reckless driving. The judge exercises leniency to the defendant, but still sentences him to jail for a period of two years and eight months and not for three years and six months due to the defendants pleas of guilt. The judge literally says that due to the defendants pleas of guilt, he legitimately avoids giving a ruling as per the draconian provisions of s.32 (5) (ba) of the Criminal Law (Sentencing) Act which requires a non-parole period of four-fifths of the head sentence. He sentences the defendant pursuant to s. 18A of the Criminal Law (Sentencing) Act.

The essence of the case is that Ryan Allayn McCulloch pleads guilty for causing death by dangerous use of a vehicle. It was noted that Ryan was driving intoxicated, with an alcohol concentration of greater than .08 g per 100 ml of blood. This study seeks to give a critical analysis to this case guided by Wallers effects of crime Blocks theory about a criminal event and the states view of the role of victims in sentencing offenders. Some of the arguments for and against the use of victim impact statements in the context of this case will be discussed. The challenges and benefits of incorporating restorative justice practices with traditional punitive sentences within the context of this case will also be discussed.

Wallers Effects of Crime
In the case of Ryan it can be considered as a case of victimization. Von Hentig notes that many crime victims are responsible for their own victimization by either inciting or provoking the criminal or by providing favorable circumstances to the commission of the crime (Fattah 2000). It is also asserted that victims may be responsible for their victimization due to carelessness, recklessness or imprudence, consciously or unconsciously (Fattah 2000).

It is worthwhile to spend sometime in trying to understand the meaning of victimization. Victimization can imply cheating, tricking, defrauding, assaulting or robbing. However, broadly speaking, victimization can be termed as the process of causing injury, harm and loss to others. From this understanding the case of Ryan is indeed, within the scope of victimization.  As mentioned earlier, his reckless driving due to intoxication led to the loss of lives of others. It is believed that victimology only covers victims of crime, what one would call penal victimology. Mandelson (1956) says that victimology ought to encompass victims of accidents, natural disasters, human rights violations, oppression and discrimination, and government corruption just to mention a few. According to other scholars, victimology should go beyond victims of crime but specialize more on victimization caused by human actions. In this sense victims of accidents and natural disasters are not considered.

It is important to note that the cause of victimization could be natural or as a result of the human action or could be caused by misfortune including crime. So, Ryans case revolves around the whims of victimology due to the following reasons the judge weighs the variables in the event that would have altered the undesired results the judge considers all parties involved including the victims of the accident the judge dwells much on the cause and what precipitated the crime, for instance, use of alcohol by Ryan and there is an invitation to restitution and compensation.

All are victims of crime, either directly or indirectly. If a person is the object of a crime then she can be regarded as the direct or primary victim. However, if partners or family members or close friends whose quality of life is endangered as a result of their loved ones (primary victims), then they can be regarded as the indirect victims or secondary victims. Note once again that secondary victims imply those who are psychologically or emotionally attached to the primary victim. It can be argued further that there are tertiary victims, where this refers to the broader community. For instance, citizens get information about the suffering of others through media and this subjects them to vicarious suffering and anxiety.

Therefore, the impact of Ryans reckless driving does not as such invite the notion of direct victimization but, it inclines more on indirect victimization. It is clear that Ryan is accused of driving carelessly under the influence of alcohol and two, because his recklessness led others to lose their lives. It is unfair to say that Ryan intended to cause the accident or to kill the people around him. Evidently, the judge notes a deep sense of contrition in him as to even reduce the required jail term fro such an offence. This, in wider sense, reduces the chances of direct victimization but, the people who died as a result of this accident are direct victims. Of course, the loved ones to the direct victims in this case must have undergone through deep loss and sorrow hence being the indirect victims. Morally speaking, the acts of Ryan in causing the accident are not direct acts but indirect acts. As mentioned earlier, he did not intend to cause the accident, but due to alcohol he caused it. It can be foreseen that driving while drunk is dangerous and risky. It is because of this fact that Ryans act of committing the accident remains an indirect voluntary act.

Situational Theories
The Lifestyle Model developed by Hindelang, Gottfredson and Garofalo
(1978) is considered to be one of the first and most important models explaining the differential risks of victimization (Fattah 2000). The main proposition of this model is that lifestyle is related to the risk of becoming a victim of certain crime. In other words, the activities in which we engage, both vocational activities (work, school, home duties et cetera) and leisure activities will influence whether we become victims. For example, smokers are believed to be more prone to cancerous diseases, particularly lung cancer or a person who spends prolonged periods of time basking in the sun without sunscreen may increase their risk of skin cancer. As applies to Ryan, it is believed that a person who drives under the influence of alcohol increases their risk of injury.

There are attempts to reconcile lifestyle theory and victimization. There are several conditions that must be met for personal victimization to occur. The offender and the victim must have opportunity to intersect in time and space there has to be some sought of dispute or claim between the offender and the victim the offender must be willing and able to threaten or use force in order to achieve the desired end and finally, the offender must view the circumstances as advantageous to attain the desired end. 
It is stated that lifestyle is related to the probability of these conditions being met. Furthermore this model highlights that the risk of becoming a victim is more evident in particular places at particular times under certain circumstances such as whether a person is alone or not. The model also asserts that it occurs disproportionately among victims and offenders who have some prior connectionrelationship and offenders with particular demographic characteristics. Lifestyle directly affects the probability of victimization since it relates to whether we will be in particular places at particular times, under particular circumstances, interacting with particular kinds of persons, lifestyle affects the probability of victimization.

Looking at the essential tenets of this theory, there is big dissimilarity with the case of Ryan. Now, the case of Ryan is simply reckless driving and alcohol, period The leniency conferred to him by the judge makes it clear that what happened was merely unintended accident. There is no purported intersection no disputes between Ryan and the victims no use of force and finally Ryan does not seem to have intended the undesired results. It is clear that he was under the influence of alcohol. On the contrary, there are some fundamental cultural backgrounds that would not take lightly the implications of the lifestyle theory. In Australia, it will not be taken lightly by the so called hoon drivers whenever one tries to deprive of them their driving license. This also extends to the so called boy racers in the case of England. They have attached greater value to their driving license they consider it a right that cannot be violated whatsoever. Therefore, in the case where the judge orders Ryan to surrender his driving license for a period of ten years would not be taken so easily. It is tantamount to denying Ryan his right to life.
According to Richard Block (1981) a criminal event has got three components namely the victim or target the offender, and the environment. The situational factors involved in the event of the commission of crime can be spilt into micro and macro environments.  The former encompasses features such as the social relationships, availability of weapons, physical structures, and the immediate network of events. While in the latter, it encompasses the history of the social relationships, dangers, ideas of violence, social class, economic and community structures and segregation (Block 1981). In the context of the criminal event, the distinctiveness of both the victim and the offender remains intact and therefore, the actions and resulting consequences can never be fully predicted. The perceptions of the offender and of the victim involved in the crime event bring about another dimension to the interaction.

The Role of Victims
It is believed that they were first used in California, USA in 1974. Their use has grown widely in different states. South Australia was the first Australian state to provide administratively and legislatively for the use of victim impact statements in sentencing courts. Every state and territory in Australia now allows victim impact information, that is, the effect of a crime from a victims perspective, to be furnished to assist in sentencing. In those moments when there is the sentencing process, it is important that the court considers certain range of factors together with circumstances of the victim and the circumstances surrounding the victim. This kind of information is acquired during the life span of the case and before a court passes sentence.

Section 10 of the Victims of Crime Act 2001 and Section 7A of the Criminal Law (Sentencing) Act 1988 facilitate a victims entitlement to have the impact of the offence considered by a sentencing court. It is believed that the victim impact statement should not be entrusted to officers on probation, but it would be worthwhile in involving the police in its preparation. A sentencing court ought to consider the circumstances of the victims of the offence or any loss or injury resulting from the offence.

It is believed that active victim participation in the criminal justice system may alter the desired fairness in the due process of the law. Their participation is seen by many as a major victory for victims and their advocates. On the other hand, it is believed that victim impact statement have done less to augment the criminal justice response to victims. The most crucial focus should be on victims services and victim support. It is impressive that the judge in the case of Ryan passed a fair verdict which favored the victims.

Victim Impact Statements
A victim impact statement is a very vital document since it gives a chance to the victim to express to the court and the offender how the crime affects himher. This information on the effects of the crime committed against the victim becomes very useful in fact it is taken into account when considering the sentencing of the convicted person. However, one is not obliged to produce a victim impact system if she is not willing. It remains a free choice for the offender at all times. It can assist the court in ordering the convicted person to settle some compensation. The offender may also be entitled to Criminal Injuries Compensation, which is somewhat separate from the process of hisher case in court. The statement contained in this document becomes a very strong tool in expressing ones plight such that it can be reported in media. This only happens if the court reads it out.

Victim impact statements make the legal process more focused without unnecessary delays or additional expenses it does not aggravate existing problems within the criminal justice system it has facilitated quality processes of justice especially as perceived by the victims of injustices it assists the courts together with the prosecutors, in resolving compensation issues it does not interfere or alter the courts verdict, although at some point, it can hasten the likelihood of prison sentence and it provides the judges with objective in formation which they find useful in the administration of justice to the offenders

Victim Impact Statement increases effectiveness of sentencing   the process becomes more democratic and points to the communitys desires it recognizes the wishes of the victim and promotes their dignity it nurtures cooperation with the criminal justice system it ensures proportionality and accuracy in sentencing it ensures fairness since the offender is giving time and opportunity to defend himself. This can be seen from Ryans case as he was granted opportunity to explain his situation. This is what law experts refer to as habeas corpus. It cannot be purported that the victims were not happy with the judges verdict.

Victims Impact Statement may undermine the courts insulation from unacceptable public pressure may substitute the victims subjective dispositions for the objective one practiced by the court it attracts a sense of inconsistency and disparity in sentencing it hinders smooth flow of cases without delays and additional expenses for an already overburdened system it makes the law take account of the harm done by the victim in definition of crime it leaves the victims with the feeling that their needs have not been adequately addressed it makes the offender succumb to rights deprivation and retributive and repressive instances it can personalize the concerns of the state and hence fail to address the common good and finally it may lead to the exploitation of the victims anguish.

Compensation or restitution involves making up for or making amends for a debt, a loss or an injury. It involves giving compensation for loss, damage or injury caused.  However, compensation is when the state provides money andor assistance, whereas restitution connotes an offender restoring a victim. Now, looking at restorative justice to a case whereby an offender is accused of taking life of a victim, like in the case of Ryan, it appears a bit absurd. If restorative justice implies restoring a victim, then it cannot be possible for those victims who have died out of the offenders malice.   Such restoration can only occur in the material aspect of it like clearing a debt or fixing a mechanical failure. Otherwise, matters of life are beyond human restoration. In cases where a victim has died only divine means can restore the situation.

In deed, there is need to distinguish the distinction between criminology and victimization. Normally, people do confuse criminology for victimization and victimization for criminology. The judicial system should be well versed with these two concepts since their legal implications are very different. I believe that cases of victimization should never be treated as if the were crimes and the vice versa. I believe that the penal code of any state considers such proceedings very different in approach. The Lifestyle theory somewhat, serves as the most used theory in the legal system since it hypothetically prohibits certain human inclinations. The law, by virtue of the fact that it is supposed to limit or regulate, finds itself conditioning people in given circumstances. For instance, like one should not drive while under the influence of alcohol. Restorative justice is possible in cases where there is material loss. In those instances where the offender destroys the life of another, like killing, it is had to fix such thing to normalcy.