Security 1

Q1. There are a number of advantages and disadvantages which can be achieved by vesting police and intelligence operations under one agency. Police officers are the legal law enforcement agents who have the authority to arrest, detain and prosecute suspects. This has the implication that combing police and intelligence operations will enhance effectiveness and acceptability of service (Chalk 2004, p.43). Such will resolve the problem of conspiracy involved in evidence collection thus making the prosecution process more reliable through enhanced admissibility of evidence in the criminal justice system (Chalk 2004, p.44). Still, combing policing and intelligence improves information dissemination (Chalk 2004, p.44). The sole aim of law enforcement is to ensure effective counterattacks measures even to the least internal security threats. Thus, by unifying the operations of police and intelligence, exchange of information between the two entities will be enhanced for the good of improving responsiveness to security theories (Chalk 2004, p. 46). Also, such eliminates conflict of interest between the two forces thereby promoting accountability on the war against homeland security threats.

Nevertheless, combining policing and intelligence can negatively impact on the process of identifying and destroying terrorist operation cells. A separate intelligence agency devotes its resources in collecting terrorism information through longtime surveillance of suspect activities as opposed to the case- specific approach used by the police (Chalk 2004, p. 48). Still, an independent intelligence unit is more likely to engage local communities for enhancing their information gathering process. This can enhance the participation of the public as they will get informed and appreciate the nature, rationale and purpose of intelligence. Another disadvantage of combining policing and intelligence is that it can compromise the effective approach for identifying and countering terrorism (Chalk 2004, p. 46). Intelligence engages in human-sourced data gathering activities as such help them in enhancing their capabilities and abilities in learning the dynamics involved in the identifying and destroying terrorism operation bases and logistic cells (Chalk 2004, p.46).

Q2. Any actionable intelligence requires adequate knowledge of the target, timing, and the type of attack being planned (Derksen 2005, p. 225). It has been established that almost in all incidences of terrorist attack intelligence at least one of the three elements of intelligence is missing. This is first because an effective counterterrorism process must be prompted by an eminent knowledge of danger (Derksen 2005, p. 225). Just like in any other institution, intelligence practices as a method of finding a lasting solution to insecurity can only be triggered by the evidence of a potential or real problem. It is due to this reason that law enforcements engage in contacting many surveillance activities in the process of trying to identify and qualify terrorism threats. This is quite crucial in the process of identifying the actual target of a terrorist attack as it serves to promote accuracy in the process of planning an effective strategic counterterrorism measures (Derksen 2005, p. 256).

A major problem facing actionable intelligence is qualifying the time of a terrorist attack (Derksen 2005, p. 258). True to the letter, timing of terrorist activities if well known serves to ensure an effective crime prevention plan. It remains illogical for anyone to claim of failed effectiveness by the law enforcement simply because without accurate timing, fluctuation in law enforcement efforts is normal overtime. Clear knowledge of the type of terrorist attack is equally important (Derksen 2005, p. 258). This is because it serves to ensure reliability on the selection of the correct counterattack plans to be used (Derksen 2005, p. 259).  Different types of attacks dictate for different preventive approaches. Therefore, it can be concluded that, without adequate information of the three elements, intelligence remains un-actionable (Derksen 2005, p. 258).  Security beep-ups must require accurate timing while knowledge of specific target and type of attack serves to mitigate undirected approaches in the process of preventing or responding to terrorist threats.

Internal Security

What has been the impact where police and intelligence operations have been vested under the one agency Vesting a single agency with the task of policing and intelligence gathering had brought mix impacts and results, both positive and negative. Integrated agencies of both policing and intelligence gathering are less prone to the lowering of the democratic threshold. The MI5 of the United Kingdom for example is often accused of working independently even without ministerial permission. As stated in the article, this can encourage governments to contemplate unwarranted departures from customary civil judicial practices (Chalk, et al 2004 p. 50). Another strength of an integrated police and intelligence force lies on its ability to relay or pass intelligence to relevant authorities. Contrary to agencies like MI5 and CSIS, these specific intelligence agencies have been accused of inability to pass necessary information to relevant authorities. This brought success to different terrorist incidents that could have been prevented only if the necessary information had been passed to relevant authorities (Chalk, et al. 2004 p. 52).

On the other hand, the weakness of an integrated agency will lie on the distraction brought by a case-oriented investigations of the law enforcement agencies. Separated intelligence agencies will have more time, resources and expertise that can be used in tracking criminal actions both short term and long term (Chalk, et al. 2004 p. 43-44). Another notable weakness of an integrated police and intelligence agencies lies on a limited pool of professionals and personnels that will be interested in working in the law enforcement agencies. Unusual professions like linguists, historians, psychologists etc. that can really bring development in solving and preventing crimes are less likely to join law enforcement professions because of the certain restrictions of domestic policing environments. (Chalk et al. 2004 p. 46)

Can intelligence be actionable when one of the three t elements is missing
Though it was agreed by many agencies, sectors of governments and neutral investigators that it is really difficult to stop an imminent terrorist attack without the presence of all three T elements of an actionable plan (Derksen 2004 p. 265), I would still like to argue that these three elements does not have the same weight in providing a decent course of action. Analyzing the table (p. 262 or Appendix 1) provided by Derksen wherein he outlined the availability of information of the three Ts, the type-information became the most disclosed element in terms of its number of sources. The type of attack element comprises 4 out 6 of all the intelligence sources. The other two elements namely target and timing were only disclosed once by one individual source.

Analyzing the disclosed information of the target and timing of attack, we can argue that it brought more success despite its limitation of the number of sources. Rick Rescorla for example who who was cited in the article is the one who managed to extract the information regarding the target building of the terrorists. With his vigilance due to his knowledge of the target building, he pushed for the relocation of the Morgan Stanley to another building. Though his appeal had failed, it can be still stated that his vigilance had managed to save more than 3000 employees of the said company (Derksen 2004 p. 258). The NSA discovery of the timing on the other hand can still pose a greater importance in the production of a viable plan if only the agency managed to extract the information earlier than it had (i.e. the information of the timing was extracted on September 10, 2001, one day before the event).

From this discussion we would like to argue, that it is still possible to produce a decent actionable plan and course of actions even though we lack a single element which is the type of attack. Though certain situations like a nuclear attack will definitely require the knowledge of the nature of attack, some attacks such as the 911 can be prevented with the knowledge of only two elements namely the location and the timing of the attack.

Doctrine of probable cause (case analysis)

This paper examines an article that appeared in the Seattle Times Newspaper in 2009.This article reported a traffic police stop check that happened in the county of Skagit. According to the article, the court was united in it verdict that the smell of pot does not entail probable cause to guarantee arresting and even searching everybody who was in the car. (Jones 2009).I will evaluate the requirements of warrant in relation to this case and to some extent, the works that cuts across probable and criminal procedure. (Jones 2009)
The probable cause in this case was in relation to the vehicle and the people it was carrying. It is important to note that the ruling in this case has changed future approaches pertaining to similar cases.
The judges said that, although bhang can continue to smell for several days, the police officers should not leave a vehicle alone that smells pot. The court said although the smell of marijuana may have been a good reason to arrest the occupants in the car there was need for the police to gather some more supporting evidence. This was because the smell alone may result in arresting innocent people. The court observed that the smell can remain for several weeks and at some point an innocent person may board the car without this knowledge and get arrested. The police officer had a probable cause to search the car, but not to arrest the driver or even the occupants according to the Supreme Court ruling. (Jones 2009)
But what might change in future is how a search in such a scenario is approached. Many people are not comfortable with a search that does not have a warrant. Nevertheless, if there is a reason that justifies probable cause or if it falls under the plain doctrine, then it is likely that no warrant will be required, and in most cases the judges will uphold it. (Jones 2009)
It is important to understand that probable cause means there is a good reason to believe that somebody has committed a crime. (probable cause 2009).Again, the doctrine of plain view (plain view 2009)can be defined as things that fall in the plain view of police officer who is rightly in a position to have a clear view of them are subject to arrest without any warrant (plain view 2009). This means that a police officer is legally required to arrest somebody without any warrant or evidence of any illegal goods (like marijuana in this case) that are found in the plain view in a lawful operation. (Jones 2009)
As it can be observed from this case, the smell of Marijuana is not enough reason to justify probable Cause. This means that the police officer should find extra legal means so as to have a strong case. The police should have sought a warrant first and then use the smell of marijuana as a just cause. This way the police would have been able to search and arrest all the people in the car. (Jones 2009).Indeed this would have made it easier for the people to be easily convicted. Even the police spokesperson was quick to point out that the police, in the future the police would be required to be careful in their investigations. (Jones 2009)
In summary, it can be said that the two doctrines, probable cause and plain view are valid for the police to use. But what is required is that they be used correctly. In some cases like this one, the two doctrines cannot work independently. Therefore there is need for the police to be careful and sharpen their investigation skills

Head Jails

Jails are institutions used to rehabilitate people with behavior that is not acceptable within the society. They are established by the legal systems of a country as centers of punishment to people who have disobeyed the laws of the country. Jails are used to take away the freedom of the people convicted of illegal activities to enable them change their behavior (Tonry, 2000).

The purpose of jails in society
They serve as correction centers. They are established to keep people convicted of crimes for a long period of time. Jails have the authority to hold detainees as well as lawbreakers who commit crimes. These institutions are used to house inmates as they wait to be transferred to federal or state prisons (Tonry, 2000). Jails serve as centers for counseling and treatment to people to prevent them from committing crimes in the future. They are institutions which are used as correction centers for behavior that is not acceptable by the laws of the country. It is an obligation of the jail to prevent the jailbirds from becoming tomorrows prisoners. Jails operate community-based corrections programs, for example, home confinement and electronic monitoring. Jails are used to keep excess prisoners when the state and federal prisons are saturated (Tonry, 2000). Jails are used to hold people charged with crimes as they await trial. They receive individuals as they wait to be tried, convicted or sentenced. Juveniles are detained in jails before they are transferred to juvenile authorities. The mentally ill persons are held in the jails before they are transferred to health facilities (Tonry, 2000).

Effectiveness of the current jail system
The current system is not effective. The population of the jails is expanding at an alarming rate and most of the inmates are former prisoners. The jails have failed to serve their purpose to correct the behavior of the inmates. Jails are overcrowded and the inmates become worse than before. The management of the jails is unable to handle the increasing number of inmates and few corrective activities are being done.

The jail terms are too short and the prisoners do not benefit from the rehabilitation process. There are few treatment facilities for the rehabilitation process. Some jails lack such facilities and do not rehabilitate their prisoners at all (Tonry, 2000).

Jails are used for rehabilitation for people with behaviors not acceptable by the laws of a country. They are used to hold people awaiting trials, the insane and juveniles as they wait to be taken to their respective authorities. The jail system has failed to be effective in accomplishing its mandate due to the few facilities as well as the increasing population of the jails.

The Prison System

This paper discusses and analyzes the history, purpose, and other aspects of American prison. It is addressing the effects of the great penitentiary rivalry experienced between Pennsylvania and New York prisons in the current prison system in terms of design and how the inmates are housed. It also explores the effect of the rivalry on the peoples thinking on the roles of prisons. The paper also has comparisons between private and publicly funded prisons.

Brief history
The prison system in America was quite different to that found in England. The justice system then preferred corporal punishment to other forms of punishment. William Penn did not like the system and went ahead to adopt the Great law in Pennsylvania in 1682. This code of William condemned the use of torture and mutilations as a way of punishment. The criminals in this code were forced to pay their victims by properties of goods while those who could not pay were locked in prisons which were more or less like a workhouse. However, capital punishment was only passed on intentional murderous. The state of Pennsylvania proved different, but the rate of reform in other states and England moved at a snails pace (Gaines, 2006).

William Penn passed on in 1718 and there after the Great law was repealed to incorporate harsher punishments for the criminals in Pennsylvania just as other states. During the American Revolution, Quakers played a significant role in changing the prison system from serving as a punishment institution to offering rehabilitation. In 1776, a law was passed in Pennsylvania stating that the offenders should be rehabilitated through treatment and discipline instead of beatings and execution. Other states like Massachusetts and New York adopted the style of Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania became the first state to open penitentiary wing in the Walnut Street Jail in 1790. It was assumed that silence and hard labor was the best way to make criminals change their ways. Silence would force the criminals to meditate about their offences and therefore would feel guilty and repent. Idleness on the other hand, was known to be the main cause of involvement in criminal activities therefore by providing hard labor, idleness will be eliminated. Apart from labor and silence, the offenders were kept in solitude and kept busy by menial jobs (Greene, 1997).

The impact of Great penitentiary on the current prison systems
Although the penitentiary at Walnut Street was bogged down by some problems, the concept did not disappear. Most states struggled to correct the problems which were facing the Walnut street prison Penitentiary by building new penitentiary units. Each and every state tried to interpret the roles of silence, labor, and solitary differently. The penitentiary of New York and Pennsylvania acted as the models for running prisons. The penitentiary models in Pennsylvania were based on transforming inmates into honest people while that of New York was based on obedience. In Pennsylvania, the principle of separate confinement was withheld while in New York, congregate system was adopted. The New York model proved popular and most prisons were build in copied their lead (Greene, 1997).

The emergence of different types of prisons today can be attributed to idea of penitentiary. The various examples of prisons include maximum security prisons, medium security prisons, and minimum security prisons. Some of the prison designs are carried from that of Pennsylvania and New York, but also some new designs have emerged. The new designs include radial, the courtyard, telephone pole, and the campus style designs. Radial design is meant for separation and control. Courtyard design takes the shape of a block and inmates are forced to walk across the courtyard to reach the other side of the prison. Telephone pole is aimed at keeping some particular activities at separate area (Gaines, 2006).

According to the penitentiary, the prison was to serve the purpose of reforming the wrongdoer by separating them and giving them work to avoid idleness. These thought have continued to affect peoples thinking on the purpose of the prison system today. People believe that prisoners should be separated to avoid them influencing one another and also be involved in providing labor to serve as a punishment for their offences.

Comparison between publicly funded and privately funded prisons
Publicly funded prisons get their entire funds from the government, which is they are run by tax payers money while privately funded prisons are managed by private individuals or organizations that are contracted by the state. The private prisons at times look more flexible and less effective in terms of rehabilitation of the inmates. Private prisons are involved in economic activities like garbage collection to enable them foot their bills (Greene, 1997).

The issue of privatizing prison has elicited a heated debate. The main reason for privatizing prisons is financial. By privatizing the prisons, the government cuts on the maintenance cost for these facilities. Services like garbage collection and road maintenance are also left to them so that they can get money from such jobs. The outrage on the issue of privatization was caused by the mentality of the citizens that may be the government is trying to exploit the prisoners by making money through them.

Private prisons have been supported on the grounds that they help the government to cut off extra expenses for their maintenance. Private prisons can be run cheaply as compared to public ones because the labor costs they incur are much lower as compared to those of public prisons. This is as a result of law wages paid to their non unionized workers (Gaines, 2006).

The arguments of those opposed to privatization are the possibility of the companies to try by all means to cut costs thereby denying the inmates crucial security assurance. Financial concerns associated with the private correction facilities include the possibility of increasing the days of the inmates for the state to continue paying for space occupied. On philosophical grounds, critics argue that correctional facilities should not be turned into industries like garbage collection and road maintenance. They argue that it is the role of the government to offer punishment but not any other body (Greene, 1997).

Budgeting issues in criminal justice administration (California)

California as a state has been faced with various challenges in the administration of justice. Because of this, the local government together with the state has opted for notable policy improvements that will help in addressing some of the challenges. This paper is going to look into the proposed changes and how they will help them overcome these challenges and deliver good results to the citizens.

Current budgeting issues in administration of criminal justice in California
The state of Californias success in rehabilitation of juvenile offenders and adults who are addicted to drugs has been poor for years despite the huge amount of money that is being used in the exercise. It is approximated that 200,000 is spent in a year to take care of a juvenile offender in a correctional facility. Although it meant to rehabilitate them, almost 50 percent of them are brought back to the state facility 3 years after they have been released. Poor results have also been recorded from the states in-prison substance abuse programs for adults. This is due to poor local government programs and policies that could not be able to properly address the underlying issues (Nafisi  Conner, 2005)

According to Champion (1994), to address the issue, notable policy improvements have been made over the last 20 years through review of state and regional government programs and rearrangement of duties to different levels of government that are able to deliver high-quality result .The Governors budget proposal for 2009-10, intend to shift funding for some programs in the criminal justice department to a local level. It has come up with a policy-driven rearrangement of approximately 1.4 billion US dollars state duties to counties to be put in place. Particularly, the proposal proposes that the young and adult offenders charged with crimes of drug trafficking be moved to the counties. These counties could be charged with the responsibility of taking care of the programs aimed at both juvenile offenders and adult drug addicts (Bouza, 1990)

Its recommended that financing of the programs is to be achieved through increase of vehicle licensing fees (VLF) rate by 1 percent. This could result in an increase in revenue by  1.1 billion and out of the already existing VLF revenues 359 million will also be redirected to the program. The department of motor vehicle is also expected to increase the annual registration fees by  12 which will be redirected to a new criminal justice realignment fund. This proposal will see a shift of responsibilities between the state and local justice. As a result, the government will be able to reduce the annual expenditure by approximately 1.4 billion US dollars. This could lead to delivery of better services for both young and adult offenders and a more reliable repayment stream to local management for mandates could be able to be put in place (Mameli, 2005)

Under this realignment program, counties will be fully responsible for juvenile offender programs and corresponding financial responsibilities. They will also be responsible financially in paying back the division of juvenile facilities (DJF). In adult offender account, punishment and treatment of the adult offenders will also be under the counties. They will use the resources in the account to cater for expenses that arise while these individuals are in jail or being rehabilitated in treatment facilitiescommunity.

Currently, juvenile justice programs are managed partially by counties and the government. County test departments mainly oversee all juvenile offenders brought to the justice system and more often than not control majority of juveniles who are determined to commit crime. They are usually supervised in group homes or in secure facilities such as camps during probation supervision. Responsibility of taking care of most serious offenders is left to the state where by it houses them in facilities that are managed by Division of Juvenile facilities. After these juveniles are released, the division of juvenile facilities parole agents supervises them (Moyer, 2004)

Funding of juvenile justice programs is equally divided between the government and the counties. Counties partly incur the costs used in running probation departments and the rest is taken care of by the   division of juvenile facilities. The state on the other hand pays for most of the division of juvenile facilities costs and supports various grant programs run by county juvenile division. The shifting of key juvenile offender programs to counties together with the general decline of juvenile crime rates has seen a steep decline in the population currently in the Division of juvenile facilities by almost 8,300 (Friedman  Fisher1997)

Under the proposed program where the government will shift full responsibility of young offenders to local government, the juvenile offender programs will change in many ways.

They Include
Identification of effective and ineffective programs will be made easy. This will make sure that necessary measures are taken to ensure that those programs that are not of benefit to the offenders are gotten rid of.

It will facilitate closer supervision of offenders due to the decline in the number of case loads. In addition, the county officers will be able to acquire more knowledge about the neighboring community and the type of treatments available for victims of drug abuse. It will also expand resources that juvenile offenders may be in need of such as education together with job placement resources.

Counties will have full control of their finances something that will give them an opportunity to come up with long term plans aimed at improving their programs and facilities. As a result of financial control being shifted to the county level, it will be able to have a long time plan that could enable them improve on their programs and facilities in general.

Currently, the state and the counties share the responsibility of taking care of adults who are convicted of drug abuse. Majority of the victims that are found guilty are sentenced to jail within the counties, put into probation or given other types of penalties. However, some offenders who are eligible for state programs and sanctions are sent to state prisons (Reamer, 2003)

Under the proposed criminal justice realignment, the responsibility of punishing or treating victims who are convicted of drug abuse will be changed from the state to counties. Also those offenders under civil narcotic addicts and those (DUI) driving under influence will also benefit from the program. Its recommended to the government to change the law to allow above crimes (narcotic addicts, drug possession and driving under influence) can be classified as misdemeanors. It is suggested that individuals guilty of the above crimes should either be put under probation, allocated to residential treatment or be held in county jailsother relevant facilities within the county. This will give counties an opportunity to expand their services to offenders with substance abuse problems and thereby determine their funds are used in imprisonment, alternative sanction and drug alcohol treatment (Baer  Moore, 2003)

According to Nagel (2000), shifting of responsibility from the government to the counties will see an increase in the safety of the general public and reduced substance abuse through combined program accountability together with encouraging innovation. This is likely to lead to reduce offender recidivism, counties will have more finances to provide the much needed services and it will also prioritize prison space by detaining more aggressive and stern offenders.

It has been found that in order, to improve public safety, crimes should be able to be prevented before they occur. Through well run programs that are aimed at rehabilitating drug and young offenders, future crimes can be prevented. Hence it is important for the government to consider Legislature realignment and improve state-county relationship as this could help in bringing the required reforms in the justice system.

Terrorism in the modern world

According to Bennett (2007 pp.1), the word terrorism was derived from the Latin word terrere meaning to tremble. The U.S Department of State in the United States code defines terrorism as a premeditated violence which is politically motivated against non-combats targets carried out by groups intending to influence an audience. Terrorist attacks are in most cases random and indiscriminately and intentionally target noncombatants. It is criminal in nature, motivated politically, and premeditated, with a vast scope of motives including religious, political, ideological or cultural. It assists an organization to further its ideological ideas. In this world of terrorism, targets include physical assets like people, services, information, and property. Terrorist attacks are normally designed to create disturbance and at the same time influence a wide range of audience apart from the victims of the actual terrorism.

The relationship between terrorism and the media is in most cases defined as symbiotic and to an extent of mutual benefit (Hauner, 2009 pp.3). Looking at it in one perspective, the media by increasing the viewing figures and circulation can ultimately make huge profits. Looking at in another perspective, the terrorists will have achieved what they wanted as the media will have already broadcasted the propaganda of the deed will have consequently instilled fear among the target groups. Worse still the terrorist can even at this point mobilize more support from other sympathizers and in the process influence their enemies political decisions. Some theories have emerged and claim that terrorists are what they are today because of the media coverage they enjoy. Despite the amplification effect however, censorship is not desirable nor can it be realized in western societies. This leaves the media with task o weighing the options of what is right and appropriate to air and what is not.
Take for example the terrorist network of Al Qaeda. Communication plays a vital role in order to adhere to net war strategies. Contrary to other hierarchical organizations which apparently are quite easy to run, a network form such as that of Al Qaeda requires dense and constant information. A communication system that is profound is essential as it allows the group which normally decentralized to manage the actions of its scattered cells. In the beginning, all the propaganda of Al Qaeda was meant for internal consumption only. The appeals to declare a global jihad did not in fact go beyond Al Qaeda sympathizers. They were only addressed to those Muslims who were living in nations with Islamic majority and also those who were living in western nations. The cell was by then protected by a network of cloudy information that frustrated the efforts of international penetration.

According to a report by the Centre of Excellence Defence against Terrorism (2007 pp.10), some researchers claim that terrorism would not exist if the media did not deliver the terrorists messages. On the other hand however, the war against terrorism has to be won without losing freedom in short democracy, like in every other war, has to make concessions of both political and civil rights in a bid to preserve freedom.  For a case like Iraq, it is apparent that the information campaign is more difficult than ever before, having its battles fought not only in the western and Arab Medias, but also in the global cyberspace. The insurgents have been able to extensively use the internet to recruit new fighters in their cells, attract support from their sympathizers, to gain technological advantage and to be able to sustain the global Jihad. The deaths of two British presspersons in Iraq is a good illustration of the manner in which media from all over the world has been covering events n Iraq. The media has been seen to have very sophisticated equipment that is able to relay live scenes as they actually happen. Yet with all this sophistication, the media in Iraq is not able go beyond the green zone and hence are not in a position to report on issues and event on the ground as the situation is deemed dangerous. The report also gives an account of how hostage takers make use of the media. In one particular Jihadist manual, it clearly stated that the media coverage is a very important goal in itself. The author states that it is a successful tool as it is able to capture international attention. Terrorists are now able to broadcast videos of their activities to their congregation. It has often been mentioned, that global terrorism would be close to impossible without the involvement of the mass media. Without mass media, terrorism would be just local or merely regional. Terrorism acts are designed to be fascinating news such that any journalist following their journalistic instincts will end up giving mass coverage to terrorist acts.

The use of the media according to Fawaz Gerges is very crucial for Al Qaeda. Many in the cell have said that Osama Bin Laden is addicted to the international media and is already obsessed with the applause and fans that come with it (Gerges 2005 pp.194). Apparently, he happens to be not the only one who values the media this highly. Al-Zawahiri is believed to have said that half of this battle takes place in the media battle field. One Islamic magazine is recorded to have written encouraging jihadists to film everything they think is good advice for mujahideen. He advices them that every shot they take is as good as firing a missile to the enemy and his puppets. According to the author, without the coverage of the media, terrorism would amount to almost being helpless, and would thus limit it to the immediate victims of terrorist attacks rather than reaching the intended wider audience.
Terrorists would resemble the proverbial tree that falls in the forests. Any terrorist incident would be as if it never happened if at all if the media did not cover it in the first place. Terrorists are not in any way interested I the deaths of twenty people, or two hundred people. They let the imagination of the target masses do the math for them. Terrorists could even carry attain their objectives without even having to carry out any attack. The broadcast of declarations and threats through the radio, television, internet, and interviews would produce the desired panic just by using such crude psychological warfare. A terrorist will always try to be in the media and spend as much time as possible there. The objective is simple. To gain attention. They try to influence the media outlets, which in turn spreads the word on the existence of the organization, thereby influencing their audience. Creating fear among the audience is the major reason behind this. It is seen as a very important factor in any terrorist organization as the whole concept of terrorism is based on fear.

Mark Danne adds that the power exhibited by todays media and especially the television facilitates this particular violent road to legitimacy. The terrorists lure the journalists who then air the kidnappings and hijackings to the rest of the world, and by this they manage to make strong political statements. The media though not directly becomes a partner in terrorist productions when they provide the terrorists with a podium in exchange of a photo opportunity and when they replace what the terrorists do with what they say.

Sociology of Crime

The role of planning and implementation of effective standards related to public housing and security remains to be an important principle shaping and cultivating new dynamics related to sustenance and growth. Using Shaw and McKays theory of disorganization, it illustrated the capacity to apply the ability of institutions to interact and communicate with one another. By fostering these elements altogether, it can create better dynamics in providing change and reinforcing the strategies to prevent the occurrence of delinquency.

Looking at the particular case, the analogy provided by the minister of housing coincides with proper enforcement of rules and standards. It goes along with the efforts of the neighborhood in Fitzroy to create a renewal of their commitment towards assuring safety and security (Minister of Housing, 2005). With such dynamics, the group was able to overcome familiar hurdles and look into patterns that can reduce the occurrence of delinquency. Through such efforts, the neighborhood was able to overcome its problems.

Analyzing the media release provided by the minister of housing, it can be argued that in coincides with the value of establishing concrete patterns of social involvement within organizations and the community. Here, McKay and Shaws argument holds ground in portraying the essentials of how organizations can serve to lower or improve urban housing process of delinquency (Wong, 2001). Such dynamics then help create greater attention of the government or local authorities in increasing communication with neighborhoods and facilitate greater inputs in valuing the principles of interaction and enhanced partnerships.

Ethics of using Human Test Subjects of Medical or Scientific Research

Part A The Belmont Report
The Belmont Report talks about the importance of the subject when it comes to research and experiments. They report categorized its discussions to into three parts. The first part distinguishes three very important concepts when it comes to the field of medicine, namely practice, research and experimental. Practice refers to actual interventions that are widely known and standardized in the field and applied to patients. Research on the other hand is an activity that is designed to test and validate claims and hypothesis in order to be able to generate conclusions and to contribute to the pool of knowledge. Experiments are the act of using new or radical methods in order to address certain problems and circumstances. It does not follow that experiments are automatically Researches. Clinical researchers still have to follow basic protocol when conducting research or implementing experimental procedures.

The second part explains the 3 basic ethical principles involved when talking about using humans as test subjects. These three are respect to persons, beneficence and justice.  Respect to persons means respecting their autonomy or their right for self-determination.  The report especially pushed for the protection of those who have diminished ability for autonomy. The second ethical principle is the Beneficence which related to the Hippocratic Oath especially the phrase Do not harm as well as the idea of maximizing possible benefits and minimizing possible harm to other people. The third concept is the concept of justice. This concept raises the questions of who deserves and whether or not there is fairness in distribution. It is important to note here that there are instances where people who do not necessarily deserve to be used as test subjects are used as test subjects. Here we can also talk about the inequalities present in our society in where circumstances predict who test subjects become and who are those that are not.

Also included in the report is an overview on how to properly invite possible test subjects for the study. The report here tells us the requirements before conducting the experiments on the test subjects. The report tells of imparting necessary information about the study to the potential test subject in a way that they can properly understand what will transpire during the course of the procedure. Researchers should explain to the patient the Nature and the scope of both benefits and risks that are scientifically determined. The most important part in this portion is the voluntary consent of the test subject where they should be given the option to reject the proposal as well as terminate the experiment in any time they choose to.

Part B Guidelines for Writing Informed consent documents
This part simply outlines a guideline to make sure that all the important parts of informed consent when preparing these kinds of documents. It is an exposition of the Application portion of the Belmont Report. Any document should disclose specific and necessary information comprehensible for to the patient or their representative in order for them to properly make a decision of participating or not.  The general principles important to a good Informed consent document are that it should reflect in writing the researchers intentions(s). It should also show in writing, that they are willing participants in which everything about the procedure from its advantages, disadvantages, risks and benefits and the probable courses of action in case the test subject actually suffers any kind of side-effects or injuries. These documents should always be prepared and should also be always properly explained to them in a way that the test subjects and their representatives properly understand its implications.

Informed consent documents should give people a good idea of what they are going to going to expect during the experimental procedures as well as include the studys justification of having to use human test subjects especially if there is more than minimal risk to the subject. It should also explicitly state whether or not the test subjects will be given some kind of compensation one way or another.

The important part to remember here is that the document should show a detailed and clear description of the experiment as a means to get the subjects informed consent as well as create a means for legal accountability for the researchers of the study.  Documentation is also seen here as requirement that is as necessary as that of the voluntariness of the test subject since it will stand as the proof of having adequately satisfying the requirement of informed consent.

Part C Benefits of the Many does justify the sacrifice of the few
The chance to benefit thousands and millions of lives as a result of using and sacrificing a few people is justified. The fact of the matter is there is that though these experiments and procedures may seem a little bit unethical and indeed there are also instances in which it sometimes becomes immoral, it is also for the benefit of the people. In this regard I will be stating my arguments in three fronts The test subject voluntarily gave informed consent and thus understand the implications of being involved in the study together with its risks and benefits, with the option of rejecting or terminating the procedure in any time they wish. The second is that test subjects are somehow compensated, and the third argument I will be making involves the understanding that slow or indeed no medical discoveries was ever made possible without a certain kind of risk.

Test subjects are given all the information that they need to properly make the decision and they themselves are the ones to decide whether or not the y will participate in the study. This means that they know exactly what they are going into and that they have the option of not accepting the proposal. A possible test subject andor their representatives are rational people who are capable of self-determination where they are able to know, understand and make important decisions for themselves. When a person gives their informed consent, this means that they know the possible outcomes of being involved in this kind of research and are prepared to face its consequences.

The second argument comes from the fact of the people having justly compensated for their contributions. Though providing compensation is another way of saying that they are commodities and that their potential sufferings are given a price. Let us understand before we go further into the argument that there are also benefits in store for the test subject. Experimental procedures are usually done to individuals who can be benefitted by the new experimental method or procedures. This is seen when standard intervention is not enough and is already useless. This may be the compensation referred to and not necessarily the monetary compensation. If there is a chance that the person to be treated for an illness presumed to be a hopeless case in terms of the standard procedures, then the only hope lies with experimental and radical procedures.

The third argument will deal with the fact that in the larger view of the medical field there is little or no development without certain sacrifices. Various treatments we enjoy now are the result of, having in one way or another sacrificed the few. If this is not done then these certain sicknesses will not be treated adequately and thus the same millions of lives that could have been saved now will until now not be sufficiently addressed.

If it is not moral or ethical to be able to sacrifice yourself for the sake of the greater good, then what is moral What is the use of morality if it means the sacrifice and turning a blind eye to the pleas and cries of the people who are suffering now and those who will suffer in the future

Corporate Criminal Liability

In criminal law, corporate liability is the determinant to the extent at which a corporation as an artificial legal person is liable for acts of natural persons it employs. In certain circumstances, employees such as government officials, police and other civil workers commit mistakes. The mistakes by these people turn out to be liability to the artificial body as is observed in the case of corruption of public officials, police using operation ABSCAM and Mollen Commissions investigation of the New York police department (Paul, n.d). This results to a white or blue collar criminal conduct in which the former means a criminal conduct by high ranking officials in public offices while the latter means criminal conduct by lower social class individuals.

The description of criminal conduct in the above case fits white collar crimes because police officers considered to be of higher social class are involved in corruption. The conduct of the officials in this case are very much involving and it is very hard to trace the main criminals in such situation because it is an inside job. Higher social class officers in public offices engage in corruption because of poor pay and perhaps poor working conditions. These makes such officers to act against the provisions of law and are charged with miss use of public funds for self benefit. White collar crimes involve violation of trust and aims at significant monetary gain for the perpetrators. Such crimes include fraud, bribery, forgery, embezzlement and insider trading. To expose white collar crimes is a very difficult task and requires formation of a commission. For instance, in the case of Mollen Commission, it was recommended that a permanent watchdog with power and authority to oversee internal affairs of public offices should be incorporated. This is one of the most important aspects of criminology in which thorough investigation should be done before an individual is charged with white collar crime. Resistance from internal forces is a major challenge in dealing with white collar crimes (Paul, n.d). One major form of resistance is blue wall of silence. In this case, officers refuse to testify about others in the case of corruption and make it hard for investigators to acquire adequate information. One best measure that should be used to eliminate white collar crimes as in the mentioned case is to improve working conditions and provide good package.

Report for Chief of Police on Street Racing and Underage Drinking

Peace and order are prerequisite for development in any community.  They are important aspects that help in maintaining peaceful coexistence of community members.  However, the role of maintaining peace and order in the community is solely the responsibility of law enforcement agencies (Larry, 2003).  In the recent past, there has been a major shift in policing from reactionary to preventative approaches which are being propagated by community-oriented policing and problem solving (COPPS philosophy).  This philosophy has provided framework for community and police working together to address various security threats facing their community.  This report is presented to Chief of Police on proposed strategies to tackle the problem of underage drinking and street racing which have been on the rise in Westwood community. The report is presented in line with SARA methods through lens of COPPS philosophy.

COPPS philosophy
To effectively deal the problem of underage drinking and racing in Westwood community, law enforcement agencies must work together with community. This means that COPPS philosophy is indispensable to address the problem.

The COPPS philosophy lays down the framework that facilitates police agencies and the community to work together to solve problems confronting them.  It sets out crime prevention strategies which allow police force to use hands-on strategy in policing.  The utmost objective of COPPS philosophy is providing paradigm which establish partnership between police service and community members (, 2009).  This is a core paradigm in crime prevention and widely viewed as collaborative efforts between law enforcement agencies and the community members. The underlying principle on this philosophy is the sociological interpretation for crime which perceives crime to be a product of the environment. In line with social learning theories, this philosophy perceives crime to be learnt through interactions and associations with others.

In order to tack the problems of underage drinking and street racing, there has to be a concrete plan that helps the community members to work in liaison with the law enforcement agencies. The SARA model provides an analytical framework that describes different phases in tackling the problem (Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 2010).

Underage drinking is a universal problem faced by many societies. It is among major challenges facing law enforcement agencies. There have been calls to lower legal drinking age from the current 21 years to proposed 18 years, but this has been met with challenges.  Statistics shows that about 47 of individuals between the age of 14 and 20 years consume alcohols more compared to individuals who have attained legal drinking age (Larry, 2003).  This clarify that fact that the current laws directed to tackle the problem are not working right.

Street racing has been identified as another major challenge facing law enforcement agencies.  Street racing is associated with speed and recklessness. It is a part of pop culture associated with rebellion. It results to related injuries and deaths. This means that street racing does not only pose a major risk to those involved in the race but also to road users and other pedestrians.

Bother underage drinking and street racing are major security problem in Westwood community. They not only pose risk to individuals but to the whole community as a whole. They are problems which need to be dealt with in the most appropriate with in community involvement.

Underage drinking is an obscure social problem but it can be dealt with effectively with collaboration between policing agencies and the community.  Underage drinkers are a part of the society and people interact with them now and then. This means that more than the policing agencies, the community in Westwood is in a better position to tackle the problem. However, because they lack enforcement mechanism, they have to work in liaison with the police in order to effectively tackle the problem from the roots.  Underage drinkers and street racers carry out their vices because they find the environment enabling.  The community has not done enough to show them that their actions are not permitted in their immediate environment.

There are many factors which contribute to persistence of the two problems in Westwood. Most important, social access and commercial access can be identified as two major factors that increase the risk of individuals committing the two crimes.  This means that the community is a part and parcel of the problem since they provide the ground for the vices. For example it is community members who sell alcohol to the youths. On the other hand, street racing takes places because the environment is not effectively supervised (Larry, 2003). There are not officers visible in Westwood which gives a perfect opportunity for situational crimes to take place.

In order to deal effectively with underage drinking, there is need for collaboration between the whole community of Westwood and the police force.  This will ensure that commercial and social access to alcohol is minimized. The main response to prevent underage drinking would involve sensitizing the Westwood community on the legal drinking age and the liabilities that commercial distributors will assume in case they are suspected of selling alcoholic beverages to underage drinkers.  This information drive should also be targeted at the police to ensure that they understand the legal framework of the crime.

On the issue of street racing, there must be collaboration between the police force and the community in general.  This collaboration should be directed towards controlling the environment under which the activity happens.  There must be effective strategies that will be implemented through police-Westwood community collaboration to minimize incidences of street racing. This would include additional bumps on community roads and carry out a campaign for the community to report incidence of street racing.

In order to understand the effectiveness of this strategy, it will be important to carry out timely assessment.  The effectiveness of the strategies taken can only be assessed by their impact in reducing the prevalence of both crimes.  This means that the most effectively assessment tool will be the number of crimes reported for underage drinking and racing.

In conclusion, it is expected that the above strategies will reduce incidence of underage drinking and street racing in Westwood. However, the plan must be implemented swiftly and contingency put in place to avoid drift in strategy.

Doing Qualitative Research

A Critical Evaluation of Methods of Data Collection and Analysis of Their Applicability to the Research Question, How has corruption affected the cultural development of the people of Thailand  or How did the rates of corruption in Thailand reach their current astronomical levels

Corruption has been a major hindrance for developing countries such as Thailand (Phongpaijit 2000). Recorded evidence of corruption in Thailand dates back to the 16th century. It is a social vice that is so deeply entrenched in the Thai social structure that it has become a seemingly normal part of life. Corruption is engaged in by individuals, businesses, and government entities and has caused a near halt to the economic development of Thailand (Transparency Thailand, 2009). The mounting number of court cases in recent years has placed a strain on the countrys economy and its social structure as the justice system grapples to deal with international pressure to reform (Jareonthanawat nd). For many years now, Thailand has been unable to achieve any significant development, neither democratically nor economically because of the skyrocketing rate of corruption (Transparency Thailand, 2009). Corruption is so deeply ingrained in all aspects of society that it is becoming difficult to make any type of gain without offering a bribe. According to the recent Transparency Thailand (2009) reports on national bribery indicators, Thailand was ranked 2nd in the Asian corruption index. The public sector within the country itself was ranked among the top, with the police force and the Ministry of Finance being among the top five most corrupt institutions in the country (Phongpaijit 2000).

Widespread corruption has been blamed for a number of issues, each of which has had severe repercussions on the countrys social and economic well being. Some of the most common and perhaps most appalling aspects of this widespread corruption has been the large amount of corruption involved in the processes of police investigation, interrogation, and subsequent prosecution of suspects.

I will be using qualitative research methods for this project. Qualitative research is not based on numbers but with issues of morality and ethics (Corbin  Strauss, 2008). This research will attempt to uncover the extent of corruption among the countrys police and other government agencies. The existence of corruption within these entities makes it nearly impossible for the citizens of the country to obtain help. It will take assistance from outside the country to combat corruption by investigating the actions of the police, investigators, government officials, and the justice system (Phongpaijit nd).

In order to better understand the level of corruption that Thailand is in the midst of and the disastrous effects on its social structure, this paper is devoted to the qualitative research methodologies and analysis of the data retrieved to analyze the origins and current magnitude of corruption and how severely it affects  the people of Thailand.

Historiography Methodology
Research for this paper will involve qualitative research methodologies to provide an understanding of the cultural behavior of the Thai people and the reasons behind the severity of corruption.  In order to answer the research question presented here, it is important to know the countrys history of corruption and why it has escalated.

This can best be accomplished using Historiography research. Historiography is a qualitative research method provides the means of gathering and analyzing historical evidence. There are four types of historical evidence primary sources, secondary sources, running records, and recollections. Primary sources are archival data that can be found in archives and libraries. Secondary sources are the works of other historians writing history.  Running records are documentaries maintained by private or nonprofit organizations (Hornblower, 1996). Recollections are autobiographies, memoirs, or oral histories. Deductions about intent, motive, and character are common, with the understanding of appropriateness to the context of the time period. For the purposes of this research, I will be utilizing primary and secondary sources for data collection. I will also integrate a lesser known form of historical research called Prosopography (Stone, 1972). Prosopography is the study of biographical details (e.g. background, catastrophic events, education, and religion, etc.) that are found to be in common among a particular group of people. This method will be used to find commonalities among government officials, society elites, well know crime bosses, and other political office personnel. The biographical details of high profile people can be located using Prosopography. Prosopography has the ability to render valuable insights into the how and why by comparing biographical profiles.

Data Collection Methods
A Sample of Primary and Secondary Sources that will be used to Gather Data
Chai-Anan Samudavanija 1977, Problems of Bureaucratic Corruption in Thailand
A Study of Legal Codes, Administrative and Institutional Arrangements, Paper
presented at the Bureaucratic Behaviour in Asia Project, Pattaya, Thailand, 18-23

Borwornsak, U 2001,DepoIiticising Key Institutions for Combating Corruption
The New Thai Constitution, in Peter Larmour  Nick Wolanin (eds), Corruption
and Anti-Corruption, Canberra Asia-Pacific Press.

Banerjee, A 1996, Can Anything Be Done About Corruption in M G Quilbria
 J Malcolm Dowling (eds), Current Issues in Economic Development An Asian
Perspective, Hong Kong Oxford University Press.

Straits Times (Singapore) 2002, Police Chief Admits Yes, Thai Cops are Corrupt,
What Do You Expect 5 June.

2003, Arroyo Accepts Graft Checks on her Family, 19 August http
www. transparency, o rgcg i-bindcn citID70414
Barbara Leitch LePoer, ed. Thailand A Country Study. Washington GPO for the Library of Congress, 1987. Table of contents retrieved from httpcountrystudies.usthailand
Schlueter, Georg. Combating Corruption in ThailandPaper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 24, 2007 Not Available. 2010-01-24 httpwww.allacademic.commetap181708_index.html
(Hamburg, Institut, Germany) Germany), and Dokumentations-Leitstelle Asienkunde). Sdostasien aktuell. 2006-01-01, 2006. Print.
Bhargava, Vinay, and Emil Bolongaita. Challenging corruption in Asia. World Bank Publications, 2004. Print.

Grounded Theory Methodology
Grounded theory is based on the assumption that a theory can be discovered from data. There are several versions of grounded theory which are full vs. abbreviated, subjectivist vs. objectivist, Struassian vs. Glaserian, realist vs. social contructionist (Willig, 2001). The researchers concern is in the subjects recollections and the social context with which they originated. A study of both the experience of the subject and the wider social processes would be needed to gain a full understanding of the social and psychological repercussions (Willig, 2001).

Data Collection Method
The data collection method that will be used for this research method is semi-structured interviews. Semi-structured interviews are conducted with a fairly open framework which allow for two-way communication. I will contact and interview some of Thailands local reporters by telephone. I will then ask them if I have their permission to record the conversation. Recording someone without their permission or knowledge is illegal and immoral (Gillies et al, 2005). Any information obtained by illegal means cannot be used as data in research (Reavey  Johnson, 2007). Permitted voice recordings would be a vital part of the research due to the fact that the recorded voice is documented evidence that can remain unchanged by events (Radley, Hodgetts,  Cullen, 2005). I will contact reporters from several media outlets that contain news of crime in Thailand. The contacts will consist of phone calls (for those that are willing to be recorded). For those who do not consent to voice recordings then emails, and written correspondence will be utilized. All of these methods will produce documented data for analysis (rose, 2001). The interviews of local reporters will be the source of data regarding the reasons for the current rate of corruption, the main types of corruption, and suspected causes. The interviews will also add insight to the strength or weakness of the social structure, as well as, the general disposition of the people.

I will also conduct written interviews in the form of lettersquestionnaires sent to many inmates in Thailand prisons. Generic written interview forms will be sent to inmates until I (using a factious name) receive (through a post office box) enough responses to form a data analysis. The interview questionnaires will be semi-structured to enable the inmates to add any additional information that they would like to share. This additional information may or may not be relevant to the research but could possible make the inmate more willing to answer the provided questions. As a result of research for this paper, I have discovered that the prisons in Thailand have web sites that list all inmates and instructions on contacting them, specifically through mail. As these are people who have taken part in corruption, the information they provide should be taken as eye witness accounts based on facts (Hesse-Biber  Leavy, 2004)

Ethical Issues
Information regarding corruption can be difficult to obtain from innocent members of society due to the risk involved (Glaser, 2002). Due to the sensitive subject matter involved in interviewing reporters and inmates, special measures will have to be taken to ensure anonymity and privacy (Hesse-Biber  Leavy, 2004). No promises can be expressed or implied in regards to secrecy. An honest statement of intent and purpose on my part must be voiced prior to any questioning. An assurance that no names will be used in the research is feasible. My name will be changed for research purposes to ensure my anonymity. No face-to-face interviews will take place. These and any other precautions will be implemented prior to the interview process. Safety is a first priority. There are many liabilities when inquiring into the lives of corrupted people.

Data Analysis
Qualitative data analysis is the process of moving the data that has been collected into a form of explanation, understanding, and interpretation of the people and situations being investigated (Charmaz, 2006). Qualitative data analysis is based on an interpretative philosophy that provides a meaning to the data collected. The analysis of that data collected from the interviews will attempt to identify an overall view of how the level of corruption in Thailand has affected the social environment of the people and the general atmosphere of different areas within the country. Biographical information can also be obtained from the inmates and can be used to recognize a common theme among criminals that are incarcerated for similar crimes. Because Thailands culture is so diverse, with about twelve ethnic groupings (Ministry of Social Development and Human Security, 2008) the inmates in the prisons should be equally diverse. A large number of questionnaires would have to be sent due to the low literacy rates in Thailand (Chaiangkool, 2009). The quality of the feedback in this process could be a factor in analyzing the data (Silverman, 2001). Another factor that could affect the results is the mental health of the inmates (Denzin  Lincoln, 2000). On the other hand, this process is ideal because it would create data from all ethnic grouping that are part of the social structure of the country (Posita, 2009). Common themes among the different ethnic groups and other demographic factors will be coded for easy retrieval when needed. The data retrieved from inmate would also provide information about both sides of corruption (Flick, 2009). Some of the inmates would be victims and others would be offenders.

Analysis of the data collected through archived historical research will be used to determine any existence of patterns in corrupt activity throughout history. The results of this analysis will help us to answer the research question, How has corruption affected the cultural development of the people of Thailand Historical data will show us how Thailand became so corrupt. Knowing the reasons behind the events that have lead the Thai people to where they are today, will enable them to develop catalyst based reform efforts.

Summary of Research Focus
The research for this paper will focus on the history of corruption in Thailand, in order to better understand the circumstances that brought them to their current predicament. The research will show how the current state of the countrys social structure is in a rapid decline. This rapid decline will only add to the level of corruption that is already present. The people of Thailand are in desperate need of help in stopping corruption (Alongkorn, P., 2002). The analysis of the data collected from this research will help the Thai people to cut corruption off at the roots. This research will not develop an exact plan of action, but instead, will help the people Thailand to know the origins and reasons behind the corruption. This knowledge will enable the people of Thailand to devise plans of action that could stop corruption at its source.

The willingness of reporters to do anonymous but recorded phone interviews and the extent to which inmates are willing to participate.
The literacy of the inmates.
The status of mental health of the inmates.

In Conclusion
This paper has shown that the chosen methodologies are appropriate for obtaining the needed data that will answer the research question. The emphasis of this research is on the documented history of the problem and how it has been instrumental in the social decline since the 16th century.

Approach to crime prevention through preventive patrol

Kansas City experiment is an experiment that was done by Kansas City police department. It was based on the hypothesis that gun seizures and gun crimes are inversely related. They assumed that a decrease in illegal fire arms could lead to a decrease in the number of gun related crimes in the city. The officers involved worked overtime and concentrated exclusively on gun detection through patrols and they were not required to respond to any service calls. The strategy targeted illegal gun owners and violent criminals carrying guns.

The approach used by the police officers in the Kansas City experiment was different from what they used earlier in their traditional patrols. It was different because of the kind of patrol they conducted during the experiment. The patrols were directed patrol (they were specifically directed towards detecting illegal guns) unlike the traditional ones which were general patrols. General patrols responded to calls for police service, calls on violence, poverty or disorder crimes and general offence reports within the area.

They directed extra patrol attention on gun crimes by concentrating solely on gun detection through pro active patrols. They seized guns through frisking individuals that they arrested and through making plain view sightings of fire arms during the usual traffic breach or security stops. Traffic stops were the most effective of the methods they used in detecting the illegal guns where by they could find one gun in every 28 stops that they made.

Because of the patrols that were conducted, gun crimes such as drive-by shootings and homicides reduced significantly during the period when the experiment was being conducted. Drive-by shootings reduced from 7 crimes to 1 crime. The overall decline in gun crimes was recorded to be 49 percent where by it dropped from 169 crimes to 86 crimes. Criminal homicide cases dropped from 30 crimes to 10 crimes which was a 67 percent decline (Sherman  Rogan, 1995).

According to the comparison that was done between Kansas city and a control area, it was found that directed patrol were cost effective in removing fire arms from the streets in hotspot areas than the traditional patrols. Unlike the other officers, the officers participating in the experiment were exempted from answering calls for service and they were also required to work for extra hours compared to other normal patrol officers. They were also involved in directed patrols which were aimed at reducing the number of illegal guns in the hands of civilians unlike the normal patrol officers who respond to all types of calls (Bayley ,1994).

This approach can be implemented in a police department on a permanent basis because of the impact it had on the crime rate where by it helped reduce the level of crimes. Through increased seizure of illegal fire arms in the hands of civilians, gun related crimes can be reduced. The approach also proved that police officers can be productive when given a chance to focus in a particular area of crime such as gun related crimes without obligation to answer to other calls for service (Bratton  Knobler, 1998).

Although this approach can be effective, there are some of the challenges that its likely to face, this includes challenges such as lack of funds to finance the patrols and also the extra hours that are required for patrols. Challenges such as lack of finances can be taken care of by the program being institutionalized within the city budget or funding can be sort from other areas such as Federal government. The problem of having to work for long hours can be solved by employing more police officers who could reduce the number of hours that each police officer will need to work in a week (Uchida  Craig., 1993).

The tactics used in Kansas can be used to reduce crime in todays environment. Increased patrols in hotspot areas can help reduce on the number of crimes that are committed. Directed patrols can reduce the number of illegal guns in the hands of individuals which could help reduce gun related crimes. Some of the strategies used during that time are also used today (Gale  Dennis, 1996).  Highway patrols and also regular road blocks have helped reduce the crime rate in todays environment. These approaches have been successful in their implementation. This is because of the reduction of crimes that are recorded in our environment such as a decrease in highway robbery, car jacking, homicide and other crimes (Sparrow, Moore  Kennedy1990).

Some police departments still engage in some of the activities that led to the 1960 riots where by there was discrimination of people based on the ethnic background. (Gilje Paul, 1996.) People were shot at by police and some of these instances were due to poorly trained police recruits but the main causes were economic problems that people were facing at the time and social factors such as police abuse, lack of affordable housing, economic inequality, black militancy and rapid demographic change (Gale  Dennis, 1996).

Some modern police departments may contain trained police officers but with no value for human life therefore they end up shooting at people without prior considerations of consequences. There are differences between the strategies that were used by the Kansas police department and the strategies that were used by the police in the 1960 riots. The Kansas police were trained on how to handle potential victims unlike the other ones who they say not all were trained. The Kansas police were not targeting individuals based on their ethnicity but instead they were targeting individuals who had guns (Gaines, Larry, Victor, Vaughn  Joseph, 1999).

According to (Sparrow, Moore Kennedy1990.)Police strategies have changed since 1960s because of the introduction of new technology that has helped them deal with various crimes in a simpler and easy way. In the 1960s, emergency calls and dispatching of police patrols was done from operation rooms. Stations were linked by a teleprinter system which could be used to circulate information to other places whenever there was an emergency. But with the introduction of radio calls, it has become easier to circulate information when an emergency arises.

In 1976, there was the introduction of the Wanganui computer which could store the vehicle registration numbers, criminal records and other information that could be needed by police. It also included a Computer Assistant Dispatch (CAD) that could keep records of incoming calls and monitor police patrols. In 1996, after the closure of Wanganui computer, a new-state of art system was introduced. It brought about radio, telephone, mapping and dispatch capabilities into a new Communication and Resource Deployment (CARD) system. After the introduction of CARD system, a lot of changes have come into place which includes introduction of computerized mapping, call management and radio systems, recording of transaction done giving precise performance data and the communication centers that have been improved and are able to handle multiple calls at the same time (Uchida  Craig 1993).

Although a lot of things have changed in the way police operate, police patrols have remained the backbone of police operations (Sherman, 1995). To reduce the potential of urban riots reoccurring, police have come up with the following strategies

They have changed their operation in inner cities by offering proper protection to city residents and have eliminated their abrasive practices.

They have also created ways in which they can be able to attend to public grievances.

Policies have been put in place to ensure police officers are properly skilled to avoid actions that may bring about tension.

They have improved their relationship with the community by ensuring proper understanding between them and the community. They have also encouraged the community to develop support for law enforcement (Clarke, 1997).


The speaker in the video was Dr. Richard Saferstein,. He is the former Chief Forensic Scientist in the New Jersey State Polive Laboratory. He was the best person to ask about such things since he knows a lot when it comes to this. He defined forensic toxicology as the study of the human body for the presence of drugs and poisons. Organic samples such as blood and urine are used to determine what foreign drugs are present in the body. In the US, all states emply a legal blood alcohol limit of 0.08. This serves as the basis for the state to prove in terms of what determines to get a conviction for drinking and driving.  When asked how long is alcohol detectable in a persons body, he said that it depends of how much alcohol a person drinks. A human being normally eliminates alcohol at a rate of 0.015 per hour.  So when a person reaches a level of 0.08 percent, its going to take  more than 5 hours to eliminate the 0.08 percent blood alcohol present in the body.

People who are thought to be under the influence of alcohol while driving are asked to stopped and be interviewed. The police officer will first look the general demeanor of the driver. When in doubt, the driver is asked to do a breath test by a breath testing device. The person simply blows into it and a reading appears. If that reading exceeds the limit of 0.08, which is in this case in the US, the person will be brought back to the police station for further investigation. In the police station, he might also be tested by blood test in which a blood sample is taken from him and tested for alcohol content. Intoxicated drivers who are under 21 face harsher penalties under zero tolerance laws of the US. .A persons hair can also be tested for drug content. When a person takes a drug, a portion of it is attached in the root structure of human hair, and will remain embedded as it grows. In CSI, the common poisons which they look for are carbon monoxide, cyanide and thallium. These are the most common non-drug poisons.

Part IV Bad Criminal Justice Policy and How to Fix This Mess

The Ultimate Sanction  Death as Justice
In the United States, the capital punishment is either death by electrocution or lethal injection. The death penalty is the legal infliction of death for people who commit capital crimes. This method of punishment was practiced since the colonial period. Nevertheless, the perspective and attitude towards the death penalty had gradually reduced over time. In the past, executions are made publicly. Today, the executions are not publicly shown. Moreover, the number of people that receives death penalty is also greatly reduced. This is greatly influenced by the increasing number of humanitarian laws and the increasing respect for human rights.

More than 23,000 people had been executed since the 1600s. It is during the 1940s to the 1950s that the execution had been the highest. In 1972, capital punishment was outlawed, as a result of the Furman v. Georgia case (Robinson, 329). The ruling indicated that death penalty violates the 8th and the 14th Amendments. As a result, 629 death sentences were voided. Moreover, it was argued that the death penalty was applied arbitrarily. Thus, in Woodson v. North Carolina, the mandatory death sentences were also outlawed in 1976 because of the valuation of human life. Nonetheless, in the same year, Greg v. Georgia caused the reinstitution of capital punishment. The argument was in reference to the fact that the decision of capital punishment is based on guided discretion statutes. Since it is a guided decision, then the sentences could not be arbitrary. In 1987 McCleskey v. Kemp, it was argued that the study made by Dr. Baldus showed that death penalty is discriminatory (Robinson, 315). This is in relation with the racial disparity found in the preference of the prosecutors and the juries to impose death when the victim is White and the offender is not White. Nonetheless, the ruling rejected that the importance of statistical evidence as grounds to make the death penalty unconstitutional.

However, despite being constitutionally practiced, the death penalty facts revealed that on the average there are 19, 752 killings per year in the whole Untied States. In connection, there is an annual average of 241 people sentenced to death from 1977 to 2006. Nonetheless, among those that were sentenced, the average number of execution is only 37 or 0.815. Therefore, the rarity of death penalty implies that it is highly ineffective (Robinson, 313). Moreover, death penalty is much more expensive than life imprisonment (Robinson, 313).

It is also reported that since 1999 the number of executions are on a gradual decrease. In the same manner, the number of death sentences is also declining since 2001. Among the states that practice death penalty, Texas is the only one that executes at least 10 inmates per year. Nevertheless, this amount is still insufficient if compared with the occurrence of murders. Since 1976 to 2002, the annual average of killings was 1,915, while the average execution is only 12 per year.

In terms of public opinion, 69 of the white population are in favor of the death punishments while only 35 of blacks are in favor. Males are more in favor than females. Furthermore, younger people tend to disagree to death penalty than older ones.

The goals of capital punishment are retribution, incapacitation and deterrence. Retribution is about giving justice. Nevertheless, Mathew Robinson asserted that the process of death punishment takes too long and it occurs too rare. This implies that death punishment, as a form of capital punishment does not provide retribution. With respect to deterrence or the creation of fear to prevent possible crimes, data reveals that the states with death sentences are more likely to have high murder rates. Thus, people are not deterred from committing capital crimes. This is largely because executions are unknown to the public. If one does not know about the executions, then there is no way that the executions could deter peoples action. Lastly, incapacitation is taking away the capability of a person to commit future crimes. Obviously, people who are executed could never commit future crimes. Nevertheless, since executions rarely happen, the ability of death penalty to incapacitate is also rare.
Kohl Harrington produced a documentary entitled A Broken System. It reflects how the capital punishment system works. A particular death row inmate named Juan Melendez stated that the judges and the police had racially discriminated against him. Moreover, Melendez was released after the case was transferred because the evidence proved his innocence. Another story presented in the documentary was about a mother named Gayle who had forgiven her daughters murderer. The last story was about Babbitt who told how his brother Manny, a mentally ill person, murdered someone. The authorities said they would help Manny but at the end, Manny was executed. Thus, the documentary showed how the capital punishment system is defective or broken. The documentary also point out that it costs 2.3 million to executed while the alternative of life imprisonment without pardon is available and would could less.

The War on Drugs  Focusing on the Wrong Drugs
One of the means to fight crimes in the United States is to fight its source. The War on Drugs is about the reduction of illegal drug use, crime, and harm. It also sought to reduce, if not totally eliminate, the supply of drugs domestically and from foreign sources (Robinson, 363). These goals are being address through crop eradication, interdiction including border control, and street-level drug enforcement such as drug busts operations (Robinson, 264). Moreover, there are government actions towards the treatment of drug abusers and educating the public regarding the effects of drugs through educational systems and community action. Finally, the drug war also includes asset forfeiture or the seizure of cash and property produced and used in making and marketing illicit drugs (Robinson, 364). Reports from the ONDCP or the Office of National Drug Control Policy in 2009 showed that there is a significant decrease on the use of LSD among 12th graders and below. Nonetheless, the use of narcotics is steadily increasing. Moreover, among the adult population, drug use remained unchanged since the foundation of the ONDCP. Robinson showed that in 2005, 12.5 of all arrest made in the US are drug arrest (p.365). About 82 are due to the possession of drugs. The arrest involving marijuana accounts for 88 of the drugs possession arrest. Overall, 20 of all State prisoners are drug offenders while they comprise 54 or all Federal prisoners (Robinson, 365).

The war on drugs is being waged against illegal forms of drug use and activities that permit it (Robinson, 370. Drugs affect the brain and could therefore, affect the persons behavior. This is the reason why drugs are being regulated. Most of the drugs could cause negative effects when excessively use. In fact, drug overdose could even be fatal. Nevertheless, some goods such as stimulants, hallucinogens, narcotics, and depressant could help ease the pain and the mind of patients. Therefore, these types of medications are usually being abuse especially to escape reality. In the past, various cultures use psychoactive drugs in rituals and spiritual purposes (Robinson, 372). Nonetheless, this could severely affect the persons interaction with others.

To assess whether the war on drugs is effective, it is better to verify whether it has been meeting its goal. As stated above, the use of illegal drugs did not significantly changed among the adult population while the younger population had shifted from LSD, Meth, and ecstasy or drugs that have no medical uses to the use of narcotics, sedatives, marijuana and cocaine or substances that has some medical use. Therefore, the drug war merely shifted the trend in the type of drugs being use.
Since the reason for illegalizing drugs is to reduce crime and harm associated with drug use, it is important to look into the trend of crime. According to the Bureau of Justice, from 1973 to 2009 the rate of property crimes are consistently decreasing. Moreover, the bureau also highlighted that from 1994 to 2009 violent crimes had significantly increase.

Nonetheless, the decrease in crime could be attributed to economic improvements, demographic shifts, expansion of criminal justice and stabilization of crack cocaine market instead of the effectiveness of the drug war. Furthermore, since 1979 the deaths attributed to drug use are steadily increasing (Robinson, 378). Considering that the costs of drug spending rapidly increases each year and the use of drugs remains stable, then the war on drugs is simply ineffective. The gap between the people that needs treatment and the people that received treatment is also increasing. In addition, the value of drugs in the market is dropping, which indicates an increasing availability or supply. This reveals that the ONDCP fails to disrupt the drug market. This failure leads to a continued increase in the costs of criminal justice. Thus, instead of mitigating crime, Robinson argued that drugs lead to secondary crimes such as theft, prostitutionto support drug habits while drug sellers get involved in gangs, drive-by shootings and murders (391). In the international realm, Gray argued that drug war creates money laundering, funds revolutionary groups, and provides money for training terrorists (Robinsons, 391). As a conclusion, Robinsons recommend that the use of drugs should be legalize and decriminalize (397).

War on Crime, Equality, Innocent Bias Against the Poor, Color and Women.
The government policies on the war on crime, specifically the war on drugs, lead to incarceration. Since the crimes that are generally perceived as serious are street crimes, the police and the criminal justice system in general is inclined to focus their attention to people who would commit such crimes. This attracts media attention and coverage, which further shaped how the society treats and perceives crimes. The rich white male has the lowest risk of getting involved with the criminal justice system, whereas the poor black male has the highest risk (420). Robinson pointed out that social class only predicts the types of crime people are likely to commit (413). This is in relation to how poor tend to acquire wealth through theft whereas the middle class and wealthy individualssteal through means such as embezzlement and fraud (413). Thus, it could be reflected that the current war on crimes that focus on street crimes is tantamount to a war on the poor.

In Walker, Spohn, and Delone (2000, as cited by Robinson, 421), they presented four types of discrimination systematic, institutional, contextual, and individual. Among these, the institutionalized form of discrimination includes racial and ethnic disparities that are reflected on how people are treated in employment, education, health and education. For instance, the Jesse Jackson example serves as evidence that the criminal justice system treat color as an indicator of criminal behavior (Robinson, 423).

The war on crime does very little to assist women (Robinson, 438). Data revealed that women are more likely to be victimized. Moreover, women are victimized in the home than out in the streets (Donziger, as cited by Robinson, 438). The Leadership Conference on Civil Rights and the Leadership Conference Education Fund claimed that the Racial disparity in the criminal justice system is the most profound civil rights crisis facing America (Robinson, 439). Minorities are being treated unequally and victimization are inclined towards the poor, the colored and the women. As an example, African Americans mostly undergo preventive detentionrather than granting bail (Robinson, 441).

Gradual Achievement of Peace through ICC

The International Criminal Court (ICC) is impressive by name, yet it does not have much work to do in terms of the number of cases going on at present, all of which involve criminals from African countries (All Cases).  The Court was established to help end impunity for the perpetrators of the most serious crimes of concern to the international community (About the Court).  Hence, Bahar Idriss Abu Garda was presented to the ICC because his country, Sudan, could not try him for his attacks against a peacekeeping mission (Darfur, Sudan).  Likewise, Thomas Lubanga Dyilo of Congo could not be tried by his own country for getting children to participate in an international armed conflict (Democratic Republic of the Congo).
Dyilos criminal case has been going on at the ICC since the year 2006.  He was detained that year, and his formal trial began almost three years later (Democratic Republic of the Congo).  The ICC does not appear very efficient, as shown by Dyilos slowly proceeding case.  Does the ICC plan to make peace easier to achieve thus  There is no clear answer to this question, as crime rates across major cities and numerous countries of the world go on increasing at alarming rates.  Who is to say that everyday criminals in major cities of the world are not involved in serious crimes as they sexually harass, abuse, steal, cheat and beat people (ICC at a Glance)
Of course, the ICC was not created to try petty criminals.  The Court has a clear definition for criminals that it was established to try (ICC at a Glance).  But, the speed at which the Court tries such criminals shows that the ICC is perhaps not even sure of its mission.  Hence, it is correct to state that the Court may gradually make it easy to achieve peace.  As peace is a vast concept in international terms, perhaps the ICC should take up additional responsibilities for the international community as it decides cases bit by bit.  One responsibility would be to step in to reduce crime rates across the world.  After all, the ICC has sufficient resources to do more.

Death Penalty

Death penalty is a social justice issue and has remained one for over 4000 years. Today, some countries oppose it while others use it to deter criminal activities in the society. Whether it is a deterrent or not will be studied by the paper. This paper examines death penalty as a social justice issue. Moreover, it applies Immanuel Kants theory of ethics to explain capital punishment in the light of value judgment. It also gives a review of studies relevant to death penalty and Kants theory respectively. Finally, the paper hypothesizes that death penalty is not an effective deterrent and presents arguments for this.

Death Penalty
Death Penalty, or Capital Punishment, is the process in which a person is executed through judicial orders as punishment for a crime. Over the years, this issue has evolved to become an extremely controversial subject with people having very strong opinions on the topic. There are some pros and cons regarding the issue.

It is defined as a death penalty is the sentence of execution for murder and some other capital crimes (serious crimes, especially murder, which are punishable by death), by the US Legal Website. (US Legal)

The justifications presented by those people who are for the policy of capital punishment say that the criminals deserve it as the crimes they commit are even more heinous. According to them, death penalty helps keep society clean and prevents many felons from getting involved in dangerous criminal activities which may result in them getting a death penalty. (Montaldo).

On the other hand, the arguments against the death penalty are that no matter how harsh the punishment it will not bring back the victim. Also, the murderer is usually unaware or is not thinking about the consequences of his actions when he commits the crime. Lastly, serving somebody with the death penalty menas that the criminal will not improve and does not deserve a second chance.

Existing State of Public Policy regarding Death Penalty
In the United States the Death Penalty had been practiced from as early as 1608 (Montaldo). There was only a small time period during which this policy was put on hold, starting from 1967 till 1976. From then on till December 2008, a total of 1,136 executions have taken place (Gill).

As of 2004, China, Iran, Vietnam and United States are responsible for 97 of the total exectutions in the world (Gill). However, European Union is against death penalty and has chalked out strict policy guidelines against it.

The general American population supports capital punishment. However, according to a survey, the figures have dropped down from a peak of 80 percent in 1994, to 60 percent today.

Literature Review of Death Penalty
Historical perspective of the phenomenon
Some sort of death penalty or execution has always been practiced by almost all societies in the past. The death penalty had been used for punishment of crime, as well as for political gains. Different societies have different reasons to serve a criminal with a death penalty.  For example, most places have the policy implemented for murder, treason, military justice and so on. Some religions, such as Islam, order the death penalty for sexual acts such as rape and adultery.

Kathy Gill, in her article Pros and Cons of the Death Penalty discusses the history of the phenomenon in America. In America, capital punishments date back as early as the 18th century BC. The first execution took place when Captain George Kendall was accused of being a secret spy for Spain and was executed. By 1612, it was practiced very widely, people were being executed for minor crimes such as stealing, killing chickens, and even trading with Indians.  (Gill).

It was not until the middle of the 20th century when the public sentiment rose and people started to recognize the ethical issues arising from the policy and they developed a dislike for it. According to Gallup, in 1966, the support for capital punishment had dropped down to 42 percent. In 1968, the people observed a hint of injustice in the U.S. v. Jackson and the Witherspoon v. Illinois cases and this caused them to think about the policy from other angles. (Gill)

The change came in 1972 when the Supreme Court annulled the death penalty ruling in 40 states and 629 criminals who were awaiting death penalty were commuted. The justification for this anullment was that the death sentence ruling was very cruel for modern society and was in violation with the Eighth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. (Gill)

Then again in in 1976, the court ruled that capital punishment was, indeed, constitutional, and new penalty laws in Florida, Georgia and Texas were introduced. Thus, in 1977, the ten-year break on the policy ended and Gary Gilmore was executed in Utah by a firing squad.

Many studies have been carried out on this issue. These studies have focused on many areas such as if the death penalty is actually a deterrent, and some studies actually do prove that it is, others state that racial bias is present in death penalty cases.

The studies on the financial facts of death penalty include Report of the California Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice, Report to Washington State Bar Association regarding cost and many others. A study showed that California has 670 death rows which costs it costs 63.3 million annually. Moreover, in Maryland it costs 37 million for one execution. A study in Kansas showed that death penalty cases are 70 more expensive than non-capital penalty cases. (Death Penalty Information Center, 2010)

A comprehensive study indicates that the anti-death penalty movement is a way of removing truth from the society. He focuses on issues such as the risk of executing the innocent, the effects of deterrence in regard to death penalty, racial bias and death penalty sentences, the cost of paroling in life imprisonment versus the death of cost penalty, the death penalty procedures and death penalty ad the Christianity (Sharp, 1997).

Kants Categorical Imperative
Historical Perspective
The categorical imperative is Immanuel Kants most renowned work in moral philosophy. He was not pleased with the moral philosophy of his time. Kant being a utilitarian thought that the act of murder was wrong because it was not beneficial for the maximum number of people.

The arguments presented by Kant were that moral actions cannot be persuaded by hypothetical moral systems. The hypothetical moral systems cannot be used to pass moral judgments because there is a great deal of subjective considerations that are involved. Therefore, Kant introduced his own moral system incorporating in the categorical imperative.

Explanation of Kants theory
Kants theory revolves around Categorical Imperative. The first part of the theory suggests that one should fulfill his duty for the sake of duty itself instead of just acting in agreement with it. (Keele, 2008) This means that consequences are not directly related to morality. Even if a good act is harmful for other people, it should be done. Its the intentions that are more important than the consequences.
The categorical imperative is the process through which an individual determines his or her duty. It states Act only on that maxim whereby though canst at the same time will it should become universal law (Keele, 2008), where a maxim is defined as the principle that governs the moral element of the action. This means that when a person is trying to figure out if he should or should not do something, he or she must imagine a world where that action is practiced as universal law. If he or she is able to picture such a world and would want to be a part of it, then it is moral to act on that principle.

Kant gives three factors which can be used to judge the morality in any situation, these are act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it would become a universal law, act in such a way that you always treat humanity, act as though you were, through your maxims, a law making member of a kingdom of ends. (McPhee, I. 2008)

Hypothesis  Argument
The hypothesis is that Death Penalty is not a deterrent for society.
Death Penalty is believed to serve as a deterrent for the criminals for indulging into criminal activities. It is human nature to refrain from doing something that has negative effects tied to it. That is how human beings have been conditioned. Thus, when a criminal sees death penalty at the other end of the crime, he is likely to refrain from doing it. But is that really how it works
There has been no study that has proven that death penalty has been more effective than other punishments. If the argument presented by the people who support the policy is that executing the murderer will eliminate such criminal activities, then the same objective can be done through imprisonment for life. As long as the criminal is not a part of the society, he will not be able to commit crimes.

Another point to consider is that if it was such a good deterrent then years of implementation would have resulted in a crime free world, but that is not the case. We still have crimes and murders taking place, probably at higher numbers than before. However, studies show that America is still one of the leading countries for criminal activities.

From the criminals point of view, then it is easy to see why the criminal, even with the harshest punishment as a consequence, commits the crime. Most of the criminals who commit crimes are blinded by passion and emotions. These emotions over shadow their cognition and get them to commit the crimes. Some murderers are mentally impaired or have a psychological problem. They actually perceive the act of murder to be as a positive thing which, according to categorical imperative theory, is not immoral.

 It could even be said, keeping categorical imperative in mind, that some murders are actually beneficial for the society, for example freedom fighters. One nation could label them as freedom fighters while another nation would refer to them as terrorists. For the nation that considers them as freedom fighters they are national heroes and would definitely not want capital punishment to be imposed on them for the killings that they do. On the other hand, the nation that considers them as terrorists perceives their killings as an immoral act and would consider capital punishment to be implemented for them.

Capital Punishment policy can also have an opposite effect on society. If a criminal is aware of the consequences of his actions, just to avoid the death penalty he might even kill those who witnessed the action or those associated with the event.

Conclusion and Discussion of Implications
Death penalty is not reaping the benefits that its supporters say it will. It is not helping in diminishing criminal acts from society. Thus, the idea, therefore, is not to increase the severity of the punishment, but to carry out a detailed analysis of the crime and find out the real motivation of the criminal behind the act as discussed by Kants categorical imperative.

Increasing the severity of the punishment will only cause the criminal to commit more crimes in order to hide the original one. As we have all heard of the saying, a thousand lies to support one lie. The judiciary should carefully examine the case and use categorical imperative to punish the criminal morally.

The punisher should come down to the level of the criminal. The punisher should wear the criminals shoes when assessing the situation and ask himself if he would have done the same thing in the given situation.

The death penalty may act as a creator of criminals, especially in a situation when an innocent has been evicted. This is one of the most difficult and important implications because there is no way of being a hundred per cent sure that the person evicted is not innocent.